The Flipped Classroom: An Opportunity To Engage ??The Flipped Classroom: An Opportunity To Engage Millennial Students Through Active Learning Strategies AMY ROEHL SHWETA LINGA REDDY GAYLA JETT SHANNON
The Flipped Classroom:An OpportunityTo Engage MillennialStudents Through ActiveLearning StrategiesAMY ROEHLSHWETA LINGA REDDYGAYLA JETT SHANNON"Flipping" the classroom employs easy-to-use,readily accessihle technology in order to free classtime from lecture. This allows for an expandedrange of learning activities during class time. Usingclass time for active learning versus lecture providesopportunities for greater teacher-to-student mentor-ing, peer-to-peer collaboration and cross-disciplinaryengagement. This review of literature addressesthe challenges of engaging today's students in lec-ture-based classrooms and presents an argumentfor application of the "flipped classroom" model hyeducators in the disciplines of family and consumersciences.A sense of urgency to adapt to Millenniallearning preferences is heightened as educatorsincreasingly struggle to capture the attention oftoday's students. Unlike previous generations,Millennials reared on rapidly evolving technologiesdemonstrate decreased tolerance for lecture-styledissemination of course information (Prensky,2001). Incorporation of active learning strategiesAmy Roehl (o.students include 24/7 information connectedness,a preference for environments that support multi-tasking, and gravitation toward group activity andappreciation of the social aspects of learning. Thisgeneration is distinguished by their access to tech-nological and collaborative experiences.Millennial students drive change in learningenvironments around the world. The technology,with which digital natives matured, has inducedtoday's students to "think and process informationfundamentally differently from their predecessors"(Prensky, 2001, p. 1). Although educators bemoanthis generations' inability to focus. Millennial expertMarc Prensky (2010) pointed out that "it is not ourstudents' attention capabilities that have changed,but rather their tolerance and needs" (p. 2). Thischaracteristic actually validates the urgency to adoptalternative methods of instruction, and many teach-ers are incorporating active learning strategies as abetter way to engage these students.Educators must shift from a teaching-centered paradigm toward a learner-centered paradigm.Active LearningFor decades, educators and educational researchershave questioned the effectiveness of teaching meth-ods that are entirely lecture-based (Barr & Tagg,1995). Despite innovations in technology enablingalternative techniques for pedagogy, lecture formatscontinue to be the primary method for teachingadult learners (Bligh, 2000). Educators and research-chers have come to recognize the "complexities ofteaching and learning for understanding as opposedto just knowledge retention" (Ritchhart, Church, &Morrison, 2011, p. 7). If the goal of teaching is toengender understanding, educators must movefrom rote memorization of knowledge and facts,known as "surface learning," toward "deep learn-ing," where understanding is developed through"active and constructive processes" (Ritchhart et al.,2011, p. 7). To achieve this objective, educatorsmust shift from a teaching-centered paradigmtoward a learner-centered paradigm.Chickering and Gamson (1987) suggestedseven principles as ideal best practices in activelearning. Active learning is an umbrella term forpedagogies focusing on student activity and stu-dent engagement in the learning process (Prince,2004). Teaching methods promoting active learn-ing are those "instructional activities involving stu-dents in doing things and thinking about whatthey are doing" (Bonwell & Eison, 1991, p. 1).Activities should be designed to emphasize impor-tant learning outcomes requiring thoughtful partic-ipation on the part of the student (Prince, 2004).Four broad categories of instructionalapproaches for use in an active learning classroomhave been identified: (a) individual activities, (b)paired activities, (c) informal small groups, and (d)cooperative student projects (Zayapragassarazan &Kumar, 2012). These methods encompass manyactivities such as conceptual mapping, brainstorm-ing, collaborative writing, case-based instruction,cooperative learning, role-playing, simulation, proj-ect-based learning, and peer teaching (Zayapragas-sarazan & Kumar, 2012). Active learning methodsrequire students to utilize higher-order thinkingskuls such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation(Bonwell & Eison, 1991). This more hohsticapproach to instruction engages students withvaried learning styles and appeals to the typicalMillennial learner who thrives in an environmentof variety and change (Prensky, 2010);The Flipped ClassroomActive learning pedagogies continue to evolve,and new methods of delivering course material arebeing developed. Assimilating active learning canbe as simple as integrating in-class activities along-side traditional lecture. Yet educators in elemen-tary through post-secondary education are findinginnovative ways to restructure the classroom (Strayer,2007) in order to focus attention on the learner(Bergmann & Sams, 2012). Instructors adoptingthe flipped classroom model assign the class lec-ture or instructional content as homework. Inpreparation for class, students are required toview the lecture. According to Tucker (2012), stu-dents utilize the time in class to work throughproblems, advance concepts, and engage in col-laborative learning.V O L . 1 0 5 N O . 2 2 0 1 3 J F C S 4 5Lage et al. (2000) performed a study using theflipped classroom for an economics course. Theyfound easy-to use, readily accessible technology todevelop course materials for the flipped model.These instructors reported spending about 2 hoursper topic to create videotaped lectures and digitalslide presentations with voiceovers. Although con-tact hours remained the same, they found prepara-tion time was significantly reduced after the initialgroundwork was completed. They reported thatquestion and answer sessions at the beginning ofeach class took about 10 minutes of class time fol-lowed by students working and learning togetheron "an economic experiment or lab that corre-sponded to the topic being covered" (p. 4). Asanticipated by Blair (2012), the use of flippedclassrooms could result in less effort creating lec-ture presentations. This increase in available timemight be redirected to create in-class activities thatdeepen concepts and increase student's knowledgeretention.With internet access widely available on mostcollege and university campuses, students mayview web-based instruction on their own time, attheir own pace. This provides opportunities to uti-lize the classroom for the application of informa-tion addressed in the online lecture. Becausestudents have viewed the lecture prior to class,contact hours can be devoted to problem solving,skill development, and gaining a deeper under-standing of the subject matter (Bergmann & Sams,2012). The teacher is able to provide students witha wide range of learner-centered opportunities inclass for greater teacher-to-student.mentoring andpeer-to-peer collaboration, increasing the possibil-ity to engage Millennial students (Prensky, 2010)..Learning Using Non-Lecture Based StrategiesA flipped, or inverted, classroom model could beadapted easily to multiple disciplines such as tex-tile design, apparel design and construction, inte-rior design, and nutrition. Of particular relevanceare courses in which a lecture is primarily basedon disseminating information and learning occurswhen students apply these instructions to com-plete a task or an assignment. The flipped class-room model suggests the use of a variety oftechnologies in preparing and posting lessons forstudents' access prior to class. The implementa-tion of computer-aided instruction (CAI) can beused to assess the likelihood of success in aflipped classroom within different disciplines.A flipped, or inverted, classroom modelcould be adapted easily to multipledisciplines such as textile design,apparel design and construction,interior design, and nutrition.ISlocum and Beard (2005) provided a list oftopics for which CAI has been developed. Amongthe topics are textiles, flat pattern design con-cepts, concepts in clothing construction, andvisualizing three-dimensional designs from two-dimensional patterns. Slocum and Beard (2005)argued that the development of additional CAImodules could allow instructors to use limitedclass time to guide students through unique learn-ing paths appropriate to individual skill level orproject needs. Therefore, we can safely deducethat the flipped classroom could be beneficial fortopics where class lecture is predominantly uti-lized to provide instruction. For example, imple-menting the flipped classroom in clothing con-struction would allow students and instructors tofocus class time on skill development, problemsolving, and active learning of construction con-cepts while executing assignments.Similarly, Byrd-Bredbenner and Bauer (1991)conducted an experimental study to conipare the .effectiveness of the CAI modules with traditionallectures for a college nutrition course. Their find-ings indicated that students enjoyed using CAIand that nutrition knowledge was improved. Thebenefit of a mixed method technique (Carew,Chamberlain & Alster, 1997; Zubas, Heiss, &Pedersen, 2006) was evident in studies conductedin the discipline of nutrition; students who accessedlecture material posted online or completed self-paced online tutorials in addition to attendingthe traditional classroom lecture demonstratedimproved test scores in the respective nutritioncourses. All of the above findings support Wishart4 6 vol. 105 1 0 . 2 2 0 1 3 J F C Sand Bleases' (1999) claim that environments inwhich technology is used innovatively can lead toboth improved learning outcomes and teaching.Technology provides opportunities for teachers tomeet the needs of students with various learningstyles through the use of multiple media (Bryant&Hunton, 2000).Benefits of Using a Flipped Classroom ModelInstructors implementing a flipped classroom usevarious methods for preparing the online content.Strayer (2007) made useful observations and sug-gestions for instructors who consider using theflipped classroom model. When the focus of theflipped classroom is on.giving students the free-dom to interact with the content according to theirown learning style, the flip seems to be more suc-cessful. Due to the structural differences of theflipped classroom model, students becoine moreaware of their own learning process than do stu-dents in more traditional settings. Students willtherefore need more space to reflect on their learn-ing activities in order to make necessary connec-tions to course content. The teacher must plan fora component in the course structure allowing forreflection to take place. It is important for theteacher to be able to see and comment on specificaspects of student reflection. This feedback cyclewill be crucial in assessing student learning.allows instructors to improve communication andconnection with students possessing a broad rangeof abilities.When the focus of the flippedclassroom is on giving students thefreedom to interact with the contentaccording to their own learning style,the flip seems to be more successful.Flipping the classroom allows for a range ofteaching methodologies to be employed such asvideotaping the instructor while lecturing, creatingvideos with voiceover and screen-capture software,instructions accompanied by visual aids, utilizingvideos found online from sources such as YouTubeand TeacherTube, and integrating discipline-specificwebsites of videos available through professionalorganizations and companies (Roehl, 2013). ThisThe time gained by removing thelecture portion from class allows formore one-on-one personal engagementbetween the teacher and students.LWith a traditional lecture format, teachersmight not be aware of student progress until aftertesting (Chickering & Gamson, 1987). A flippedclassroom allows teachers greater insight into stu-dents' grasp of information and learning as a resultof increased student/teacher interaction. The timegained by removing the lecture portion from classallows for more one-on-one personal engagementbetween the teacher and students. Furthermore, aflipped classroom allows students who may be hes-itant to ask questions in the middle of a lecture toseek assistance from the teacher during their indi-vidual feedback sessions. Students also have theopportunity to "replay" the lectures several timesbefore formulating their questions.Additional benefits of the flipped classroommodel include the ability for the class to move for-ward despite both teacher and student absences.Flipped classroom pedagogy has the potential toaddress situations in which students miss lecturesdue to illness and for students who are engaged inuniversity-supported activities such as athletics. Itallows absent students to stay on track withoutlengthy interaction with the instructor. Similarly, itis beneficial for teachers as it allows students tomove forward with course material even when theteacher is absent. This feature enables the course toproceed as scheduled without unnecessary delays.Limitations of Using a Flipped Classroom ModelThe flipped classroom may not be applicable to allsubjects. For instance, Strayer (2007, 2012) per-formed a comparative study between a flippedclassroom and the traditional classroom for anintroductory statistics course. The findings of this study demonstrated that students participating inthe flipped classroom were less satisfied with theV O L . 1 0 5 N O . 2 2 0 1 3 J F C S 4 7teaching format than students in the traditionalclassroom were.'Students participating in theflipped classroom did not adjust swiftly to theirnew learning environment. Some students wereuncomfortable participating in group learningactivities because they preferred working alone.Others were accustomed to the old method ofdoing assignments on their own, in the setting oftheir choice. The radical change was not wellreceived. However, students in the flipped modelexperienced more innovation and cooperation intheir learning when compared to the traditionalclassroom students.Challenges with the flipped classroom modelinclude adapting traditional lectures to alternativemedia in order to post content online. Other chal-lenges teachers face include making changes to theonline lectures. The flexibility required to makeadjustments to course content may be dependenton the technology originally used to create the lec-ture. Complexity of making changes could varybetween re-recording an entire video lecture orcould be as simple as adding an additional slide toa PowerPoint presentation. As technology used forpresenting information gets smarter, faster, better,and cheaper, educators will be forced to learn andaccess more of these tools (Prensky, 2010).The flipped classrooms, as well as active learn-ing, require students to assume more responsibil-ity for their individual learning experience.Teachers must include clear expectations of self-direction and motivation within their syllabus orframework of the course. For this reason, verifica-tion, through application of information in a proj-ect-based scenario, may be one indication thatstudents have performed the task of viewing thelecture prior to entering the classroom. For exam-ple. Woodland Park High School chemistry teach-ers Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams used theflipped classroom model whereby they postedtheir lectures online. Bergmann said he checksstudents' notes during class. He requires each stu-dent to come to class with a question as verifica-tion of watching the lecture. However, as Bergmannpointed out, it takes a while for students to get accus-tomed to a new system of learning. He observed thebenefits of the new system when students wereasking better questions and thinking more deeplyabout the content as the year progressed (Tucker,2012).When discussing the use of the flipped class-room model, it is important to recognize the finan-cial limitations of public schools, teachers, andstudents who may have limited financial resources.The success of this model relies on the availabilityof computers and access to the internet outside ofthe classroom. Therefore, educators must be cau-tious in implementing this system if they are unclearas to whether all learners will be able to easily andconsistently access the online content.ConclusionThe introduction of any new strategy requires ashift in the minds of both educators and students.Teachers must be willing to experiment with alter-native strategies in the classroom. For those instruc-tors who are willing to apply these new methods, itis important that they periodically reflect on theirteaching effectiveness. At the same time, studentsmay require more than a semester to adapt to thenew method of instruction and to recognize itsvalue. Through active learning and technology-enabled flipped classroom strategies, students maydevelop higher order thinking skills and creativity.The effective application of vital competenciessuch as critical thinking, creativity, communica-tion, and collaboration (Blair, 2012) at one's work-place is more likely if these skills are acquired incollege. In addition, one's adaptability to newtechnologies is crucial for graduating students tosucceed in the workplace. This underlines theneed for the provision of technology-infusedlearning environments at educational institutions.Training must be provided for educators in theapplication of existing and emerging technologies.At a time when educational institutions faceincreasing demands to improve learning experi-ences and capture the attention of Millennial stu-dents, the flipped classroom strategy provides anopportunity to address both these concerns.These pathways toward more powerful learningoutcomes, retention of knowledge, and increaseddepth of knowledge suggest an optimistic futurefor education.4 8 V O L . 1 0 5 N O . 2 2 0 1 3 J F C SReferencesBarr, R. B., & Tagg, J, (1995). From teaching to learning: Anew paradigm for undergraduate education. Change,27(6), 12-25.Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reachevery student in every class every day. Eugene, OR: Inter-national Society for Technology in Education.Blair, N. (2012). 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(2012). The flipped classroom. Education Next,12(1), 82-83.Willingham, D. T. (2010). Why don't students like school: Acognitive scientist answers questions about how the mindworks and what it means for the classroom. San Francisco,CA: Jossey-Bass.Wilson, M., & Gerber, L. E. (2008). How generational theorycan improve teaching: Strategies for working with the'millennials.' Currents in Teaching and Learning, 1(1),29-44.Wishart, J., & Blease, D. (1999). Theories underlying per-ceived changes in teaching and learning after installing acomputer network in a secondary school. British Journalof Educational Technology, 30(1), 25-42.Zayapragassarazan, Z., & Kumar, S. (2012). Active learningmethods. NTTC Bulletin, 19(1), 3-5.Zubas, P., Heiss, C, & Pedersen, M. (2006). Comparing theeffectiveness of a supplemental online tutorial to tradi-tional instruction with nutritional science students. Jour-nal of Interactive Online Learning, 5(1), 75-81.V O L . 1 0 5 - N O . 2 - 2 0 1 3 J F C S 4 9Copyright of Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences is the property of AmericanAssociation of Family & Consumer Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed tomultiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission.However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.