THE EFFECTS OF DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE BASED Table 2.1 Comparison of Deductive Method and Inductive

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  • THE EFFECTS OF DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE

    BASED COURSEWARE ON LEARNING

    PERFORMANCE AND ENGAGEMENT AMONG

    STUDENTS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF

    SELF-REGULATED LEARNING

    SUBASHINI A/P LETCHUMANAN

    UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA

    2015

  • THE EFFECTS OF DEDUCTIVE AND

    INDUCTIVE BASED COURSEWARE ON

    LEARNING PERFORMANCE AND

    ENGAGEMENT AMONG STUDENTS WITH

    DIFFERENT LEVELS OF

    SELF-REGULATED LEARNING

    by

    SUBASHINI A/P LETCHUMANAN

    Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirement

    for the degree of

    Doctor of Philosophy

    July 2015

  • ii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    I would not have been able to finish my thesis without the unfailing love of

    god, guidance of my lecturers and support from my husband and daughter. First and

    foremost I offer my sincerest gratitude to my supervisor, Associate Professor Dr

    Irfan Naufal Umar, who has supported me throughout my thesis with his patience,

    knowledge and guidance to pursue high standards in research. Without his

    encouragement and effort, this thesis would not have been completed or written. I

    sincerely express my thanks to my co-supervisor Associate Professor Dr Mona

    Masood who gave me timely suggestions to improve my thesis. I also extend my

    sincere thanks to the Director of Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia

    (CITM) at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Professor Dr Merza Abbas, retired Professor

    Toh Seong Chong and all lecturers at CITM for their comments and advice.

    My gratitude goes to the lecturers at School of Education, Universiti Sains

    Malaysia for their assistance. I would like to thank the faculty and administrative

    staff of CITM at Universiti Sains Malaysia who have provided facilities, technical

    support and assistance. I would also like to thank the principals, teachers and

    students of the secondary schools which served as the research sites. Thank you to

    my mother, family and friends for the continuous support.

    A very special thank you to my husband, Arivanandhan Venugopal and

    daughter, Varshah Arivanandhan for their sacrifice, understanding, moral support

    and encouragement throughout my pursuit for academic improvement. I wish to

    dedicate this research to my late father Letchumanan Kaliperma, my husband and

    daughter whom I love with all my heart.

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE

    Acknowledgements ………………………………………………………….. ii

    Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………. iii

    List of Tables ……………………………………………………………… xi

    List of Figures ……………………………………………………………….. xiii

    List of Abbreviations ……………………………………………………… xvi

    List of Appendices …………………………………………………………... xvii

    List of Publications ………………………………………………………….. xviii

    Abstrak ……………………………………………………………………… xix

    Abstract ……………………………………………………………………… xxi

    1.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………. 1

    1.2 Research Background ……………………………………………….. 4

    1.3 Problem Statement ………………………………………………….. 14

    1.4 Research Objectives ………………………………………………… 16

    1.5 Research Questions …………………………………………………. 17

    1.6 Research Hypotheses ……………………………………………….. 18

    1.7 Theoretical Framework ……………………………………………... 20

    1.8 Research Framework ………………………………………………... 24

    1.9 Research Significance ………………………………………………. 25

    1.10 Research Limitations ………………………………………………... 28

    1.11 Operational Definitions ……………………………………………... 29

    1.12 Summary ……………………………………………………………. 32

    CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION

  • iv

    2.1 Overview …………………………………………………………… 34

    2.2 Mathematics Education in Malaysia………………………………… 34

    2.3 Mathematics and Multimedia ………………………………………. 36

    2.4 Problems in Teaching and Learning Mathematics …………………. 39

    2.5 Learning Difficulties in the Topic of Straight Line ………………... 41

    2.6 Instructional Strategies …………………………………………….. 43

    2.6.1 Deductive Method …………………………………………… 43

    2.6.1.1 Ausubel’s Deductive Model ………………………... 45

    2.6.1.2 Model for the Deductive Method of Teaching ……… 46

    2.6.1.3 Deductive Method in a Multimedia Environment …... 48

    2.6.2 Inductive Method …………………………………………….. 49

    2.6.2.1 Bruner’s Inductive Model …………………………... 51

    2.6.2.2 Model for the Inductive Method of Teaching ………. 53

    2.6.2.3 Inductive Method in a Multimedia Environment …… 54

    2.6.3 A Comparison of Deductive Method and Inductive Method… 55

    2.7 Student Centered Learning …………………………………………. 56

    2.8 Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning ………………………… 58

    2.8.1 Assumptions of Theory ……………………………………… 59

    2.8.2 Design Principles based on Cognitive Theory of Multimedia

    Learning ……………………………………………………... 60

    2.9 Cognitive Load Theory ……………………………………………... 65

    2.10 Transfer of Learning ………………………………………………... 70

    2.10.1 Near Transfer ……………………………………………….. 72

    CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW

  • v

    2.10.2 Far Transfer ………………………………………………… 72

    2.10.3 Problems in Transfer of Learning …………………………... 73

    2.11 Learning Engagement ………………………………………………. 74

    2.11.1 Types of Learning Engagement …………………………….. 75

    2.11.2 Learning Engagement in Mathematics ……………………... 76

    2.11.3 Learning Engagement in a Multimedia Environment ………. 78

    2.12 Self-Regulated Learning ……………………………………………. 79

    2.12.1 Phases of Self-Regulated Learning …………………………. 80

    2.12.2 Self-Regulated Learning in a Multimedia Environment …... 83

    2.12.3 Self-Regulated Learning in Mathematics …………………... 84

    2.13 Summary ……………………………………………………………. 85

    3.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………. 86

    3.2 Population and Sampling …………………………………………… 87

    3.3 Research Design …………………………………………………….. 88

    3.4 Experimental Conditions ……………………………………………. 90

    3.5 Variables ……………………………………………………………. 91

    3.6 Instructional Materials ……………………………………………… 93

    3.7 Research Instruments ……………………………………………….. 93

    3.7.1 Pretest-Posttest ……………………………………………….. 94

    3.7.2 Learning Engagement Scale (LES) …………………………... 96

    3.7.3 Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) …. 98

    3.8 Research Procedures ………………………………………………... 101

    CHAPTER 3 - METHODOLOGY

  • vi

    3.8.1 Procedure of the Design and Development of the IMCSL …..... 101

    3.9 Pilot Study …………………………………………………………... 101

    3.10 Validity and Reliability of Research Instruments …………………... 104

    3.10.1 Validity and Reliability of Pretest and Posttest ……………... 105

    3.10.2 Validity and Reliability of the Learning Engagement Scale

    (LES) ………………………………………………………... 108

    3.10.3 Validity and Reliability of Motivated Strategies for Learning

    Questionnaire (MSLQ) ……………………………………... 109

    3.10.4 Validation of the Content in the Interactive Multimedia

    Courseware(IMCSL)..………………………………………... 109

    3.11 Procedure of Data Collection ……………………………………….. 110

    3.12 Internal and External