Text of The Biblical Theology of Missions Part One. What is Biblical Theology? St. Thomas Aquinas Karl Barth
The Biblical Theology of Missions Part One
What is Biblical Theology? St. Thomas Aquinas Karl Barth
The History of Biblical Theology For Centuries, Catholic theology was defined by the philosophies of St. Augustine (4 th Century) and St. Thomas Aquinas (13 th Century) With the Reformation (16 th Century), Scripture was re-established as the norma normans of Christian Theology. Post-Reformation scholars, however, recognized that Luther and Calvin had taken a dogmatic agenda to Scripture rather than letting it speak for itself
The term Biblical Theology was first used in the 1787 by Johannes Gabler. After the Reformation, Protestants looked to the Bible for prooftexts. Gabler called for more exegetical attention to the historical contexts of the Bible.
J.C.K. von Hofman (1841) First to propose that the unifying theme for understanding the Bible was salvation history or Heilsgeschichte. Hofmann defined salvation history in terms of its ultimate goal: Jesus is the end, and also the middle, of history; his appearance in the flesh is the beginning of the end. For Hofmann, salvation history was a peculiar history, the understanding of whose witness took place subjectively, according to the testimonium spiritus sancti internum (inner testimony of the Holy Spirit). Thus its facticity was, to this extent, not subject to historical criticism; it unified at one and the same time individual pious experiences with the historical perspective. This understanding of salvation history had two facets: (1) as the history of Gods dealings with certain people throughout history, a history in which Christ was both the origin and the center; and (2) as the personal saving history of all people.
The Biblical Theology Movement A great step forward in Biblical Theology was the movement that sprang forth after the rise of Neo-Orthodox theologians like Karl Barth.
Aims of the BT Movement (according to Brevard Childs) rediscovery of the theological dimension unity of the whole Bible revelation of God in history, distinctiveness of the biblical mentality (Hebrew thought in contrast to Greek thought the contrast of the Bible to its environment
Biblical Theology Today 1. the Bible is a theological book and cannot be properly interpreted without reference to its theology. 2. The subject-matter of biblical theology is the Bible as a whole. Every individual text and theme should be understood in the context of the whole. 3. Since its purpose is to establish the theology contained in and expressed by the Bible, it employs biblical exegesis which, by means of textual, literary and historical criticism, establishes the intention of specific texts. 4. Biblical theology is the intermediary between exegesis and dogmatics.
Missions and the Creation
Genesis 1 There was a beginning. Creation is not accomplished in a timeless, mythological realm, but rather, it is hardwired into time and even HISTORY, followed by days and nights and weeks. 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
Creation: The First Salvific Act Gustavo Gutirrez The Bible does not deal with creation in order to satisfy philosophic [or scientific] concerns regarding the origin of the world. Its point of view is quite another... The creation of the world initiates history, the human struggle, and the salvific adventure of Yahweh. Faith in creation does away with its mythical and supernatural character. It is the work of a God who saves and acts in history. A Theology of Liberation (1971), p. 154)
GOD created the world without interference. Babylonian and Canaanite cosmologies (creation myths) tell of creation out of conflict. Marduk and Tiamat Baal and Rahab Tiamat and Marduk
Creation as an act of salvation from Chaos. Jurgen Moltmann and God-forsaken space From Disorder to Order, therefore a PLAN. The Presence of the Holy Spirit. Beginnings of the revelation of Trinitarian Community. 1:26 let us create 2 Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.
The Power of Gods Word Nothing can resist the power of the word, not even nothing. The Invincibility of the purposes of God. 3 And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.
The Creation is good, and demonstrates Gods good will toward his creatures. Common Grace has been poured out for all. 4 God saw that the light was good, and he separated the light from the darkness.
Reproduction according to kind. 11 Then God said, "Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds." And it was so. 12 The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good.
The inferiority of the stars and planets to God and man. 14 And God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth." And it was so. 16 God made two great lights the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars. 17 God set them in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth, 18 to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good.
The inferiority of the sea monsters. God has no competition in all the created order. 20 And God said, "Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the expanse of the sky." 21 So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living and moving thing with which the water teems, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.
imago dei. All of humanity bears the image of God and is the object of his love and desire to save. Gods desire for human partnership in his mission in the world. 26 Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.
Prose to Poetry Humanity as the Climax of Creation and the revelation of its purpose Men and women as complements in the display of Gods image and fellowship nature. 2:18ff. 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them.
The first blessing: sexuality and reproduction. Gods desire to have many sons and daughters through our partnership. The blessing of God as necessary for human fulfillmenta concept fully developed later. 28 God blessed them and said to them, "Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the ground.
The Dominion Mandate and the inexorable spread of Gods Kingdom in the World. After the Fall, the dominion mandate will include not only the tending of the earth (2:15) but also the restoration of humanity as subjects of Gods Kingdom. The First Command of God. Obedience to God is the first duty of humanity. Later the Great Commission will make the spiritual task of the Dominion mandate crystal clear, and our duty to obey it is clear.
Genesis 2 Gods Sabbath Rest. The object of work is to enjoy its fruits, and God establishes here the value of rest as more than just the replenishment of spent forces. Not just rest at the end, but satisfaction in the process. Every Sabbath is a prolepsis of heaven. 1Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array. 2 By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. 3 And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done.
Humans are spiritual beings, different from the animals. 7 the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath (spirit) of life, and the man became a living being.
Gods desire for transparent fellowship with us and among us. 25 The man and his wife were both naked, and they felt no shame.
Creation and Missions God created the world with a plan to bless humanity. Every human being bears the imago dei and is included in the missio dei. God desires to bring both men and women into partnership for the fulfillment of the missio dei. Our first duty is to obey the mandates of God, including the Dominion Mandate and the Great Commission. Gods purposes are inexorable and no enemy can destroy them. Rest and satisfaction are part of the mission.
The Fall of Humanity Gen 2:25-3:1 25 The man and his wife