Text-Book of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology 1000280424

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Text of Text-Book of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology 1000280424

  • TEXT-BOOK

    OF

    MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCEAND

    TOXICOLOGY.

    By JOHN J.REESE, M.D.,

    PROFESSOR OF MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE AND TOXICOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF

    PENNSYLVANIA; VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE SOCIETY OF

    PHILADELPHIA; PHYSICIAN TO ST. JOSEPH'S HOSPITAL; MEMBEROF THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF PHILADELPHIA;

    CORRESPONDING MEMEER OF THE NEW

    YORK MEDICO-LEGAL SOCIETY.

    PHILADELPHIA :

    P. BLAKISTON, SON " CO.:IOI2 WALNUT STREET,

    1884.

    317

  • Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1SS4. by

    P. BLAKISTOX, SOX " CO..

    in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.

    "lJ7

  • wloo

    PREFACE

    This Text-book has been written more particularlyto

    meet the wants of students of Legal Medicine. The author

    is aware that the field has alreadybeen occupied by able

    and popular treatises on medical jurisprudence,well knownto the professionsof medicine and law ; but an experienceof over twenty years, as a publicteacher of this branch of

    science,has convinced him that students in both these

    professions,who desire to acquire a knowledge of medical

    jurisprudence,are too often deterred from their purpose bybeing confronted by the ponderous works of recognized

    masters, extending to three, and even six large octavovolumes.

    To avoid the above objection,the author of the presentwork has endeavored to condense in a handy volume all

    the essentials of the science,and to present the various

    topicsin a simple and familiar style,giving greater promi-nence,of course, to those of the greatest practicalim-portance.

    The subjectof Toxicology occupies,as was proper, aconsiderable space, and has been carefullyprepared; specialattention beingbestowed upon the most importantpoisons"such as Arsenic,Strychnine,Opium, Prussic Acid, etc.

    The chapter on Insanity is as full as the size of the

    volume would justify,and will be found, it is hoped, toiii

  • iv PREFACE.

    contain all the essential medico-legal points pertaining to

    this subject.

    The author has not hesitated to avail himself freely of

    the materials so abundantly presented in the elaborate and

    classic works of Casper, Taylor, Beck, Wharton and Stille,

    Tidy, Guy, Tardieu, and others ; always desiring to give

    due credit to the authority quoted, and usually doing so at

    the time;

    and he would embrace this opportunity to

    expresshis obligations to these authorities. He is sincerely

    desirous to encourage an increasing interest in the students

    of both medicine and law for that most important, but too-

    much neglected, subject"

    Forensic Medicine; and he would

    indulge the hope that the present treatise, in its unpre-tentious

    size and style, may aid in so doing.

    Philadelphia, September, iSSj..

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    CHAPTER I.

    Introduction.PAGE

    Definition." Importance to Students of Medicine and Law. " Order of

    Proceeding in a Medico-legal Case. " The Coroner's Inquest." The

    Criminal Court."

    Medical Evidence."

    Medical Experts. " DyingDeclarations.

    ............ 9

    CHAPTER II.

    Phenomena and Signs of Death.

    Section I."

    Molecular and Somatic Death."

    The Immediate Cause of

    Death to be found in either the Heart, Lungs or Brain. " Post-mortem

    Evidences of these."

    The "Signs of Death." " Cessation of Respirationand Circulation.

    " Changes in the Eyes. " Pallor of the Body..

    .

    -25

    Section II." Signs of Death continued. " Loss of Animal Heat.

    "

    Post-mortem

    Caloricity." Rigor Mortis. " Post-mortem Lividity, or Suggillation 32

    Section III." Signs of Death continued. " Putrefaction. " External and

    Internal Signs." Adipocere. " Mummification. " How long since the

    Death? 41

    CHAPTER III.

    Medico-legal Investigations. " The Post-mortem.

    Responsibility involved. " Accuracy and Method necessary. " Examinationof the surroundings. " External examination of the Body. " Internal ex-amination.

    "

    Details of the Examination."

    Measurements and Weights."Notes 56

    CHAPTER IV.

    Presumption of Death and of Survivorship.

    Cases involving Presumption of Death and of Survivorship. " French Lawof Survivorship." Probabilities afforded by Age, Sex, and Mode of Death. 65

    CHAPTER V.

    Personal Identity.

    Section I." Important Medico-legal bearings." I. Identification of the

    Living. " Personal Appearance. " Peculiar bodily marks. " RemarkableCases 69

  • VI TABLE OF CONTEXTS.

    PAGE

    Section II. " II. Identification of the Dead. " Mutilated Remains. " Identi-fication

    by means of the Skeleton, as to Age, Sex, and Stature. " Rules of

    Proportion." Fractures, Deformities, and Callus. " Age of Bones. " Ex

    amination of Hairs and Fibres 76

    CHAPTER VI.

    The Causes Producing Violent Death.

    Section I." Death from Wounds. " Definition of a Wound. " Danger of. "

    Examination of the Body. " Absence of external marks of violence. "

    Wounds made before and after death. " Hemorrhage. " Ecchymoses. "

    Classification. " Homicidal, Suicidal and Accidental Wounds.. .

    .92

    Section II. " Gunshot Wounds. " Differ from other wounds. " Deflection

    of the Ball. " Wounds made by Shot, Wadding and Powder. " Wounds of

    the Head, Xeck, Spine,Chest and Abdomen 107

    CHAPTER VII.

    Examination of Blood Stains.

    Importance of their identification. " Three methods of identifying." 1. TheChemical Tests.

    " 2. The Microscopic Test. " 3. The SpectroscopicTest."Blood Crystals 121

    CHAPTER VIII.

    Burns and Scalds.

    Definition."

    Classification." Symptoms. " Cause of Death. " Post-mortem

    appearances. " Burns made before and after death. " Accidental, Suicidal

    and Homicidal Burns." Spontaneous Combustion.

    . .. . .

    134

    CHAPTER IX.

    Death from Different Forms of Asphyxia.

    Section I. " Death from Suffocation." Accidental, Suicidal and Homicidal

    Suffocation."

    Post-mortem signs, 143Section II.

    "

    Death by Strangulation." Modes of Strangulation." External

    signs." Internal lesions. " Accidental, Suicidal and Homicidal Strangu-lation."

    Mark of the Cord,.........

    146

    Section III. " Death by Hanging. " Cause of Death. " Post-mortem appear-ances."

    Cord marks. " Generally suicidal,.

    . .. . .

    151

    Section IV. " Death by Drowning. " Mode of Death. " Time required."

    Signs of Death, external and internal. " Accidental, Suicidal and Homi-cidal

    Drowning,. . .

    . .. .

    . . .

    .156

    CHAPTER X.

    Death by Lightning.

    Medico-legalrelations. " Mode of Death. " Post-mortem signs, . . . 166

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS. Vll

    PAGE

    CHAPTER XI.

    Death from Heat and Cold.

    Diverse effects of Heat upon the body. " Postmortem appearances. "Effects of Cold.

    "Post mortem signs, 170

    CHAPTER XII.

    Death by Starvation.

    Accidental, Homicidal and Suicidal Starvation. " Pretended cases of volun-tary

    starvation. " Symptoms, and Post-mortem signs." Medico-legal rela-tions,

    175

    CHAPTER XIII.

    Death from Poisoning. " Toxicology.

    Section I."

    Definition of a Poison. " Effects. " Proofs of Absorption."

    Subsequent dispositionof the Poison. " Elimination. " Cause of Death. "Circumstances modifying their action. " Antagonism of Poisons,

    .

    .178Section II.

    "

    Evidences of Poisoning." 1. Evidences from Symptoms. " 2.From post-mortem lesions. " 3. Chemical Analysis." Post-mortem Imbi-bition

    of Poisons. " Rules in performing a toxicological analysis." 4.Physiologicalexperiments." 5. Circumstantial Evidence. " Medico-legalconclusions.

    " Classification,. . . . . . . .

    .186

    CHAPTER XIV.

    Poisoning by the Mineral Acids.

    Certain common symptoms. " Post-mortem appearances. " Treatment. "

    Chemical analysis." Toxicologicalexamination for the different Acids, 202

    CHAPTER XV.

    Poisoning by the Alkalies and their Salts.

    Section I." Potassa, Soda, and Ammonia. " Similarity of effects. " Symp-toms.

    "Fatal Dose.

    " Treatment." Post-mortem appearances. " Chemical

    analysis............. 215

    Section II." Poisoning by the Alkaline and Earthy Salts. " Nitrate of

    Potassium."

    Bitartrate of Potassium." Sulphate of Potassium. " Alum. "

    Chlorinated Potassium and Sodium."

    Salts of Barium.....

    220

    CHAPTER XVI.

    Irritants Possessing Remote Specific Properties.Section I.

    " Poisoning by Phosphorus." Symptoms. " Fatal Dose. " Treat-ment." Morbid appearances. " Diagnosis." Chemical analysis." Amor-phousPhosphorus.

    ........... 224Section II.

    " Poisoningby Iodine, Bromine, and Chlorine..

    . . 234

  • Vlll TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    PAGE

    CHAPTER XVII.

    Poisoning by Arsenic.

    Metallic Arsenic." Arsenious Acid.

    " Properties." Symptoms. " ChronicPoisoning." Fatal Dose. " Treatment. " Post-mortem signs." Chemical

    analysis." Toxicologicalexamination. " Other Preparationsof Arsenic..

    238

    CHAPTER XVIII.

    Poisoning by Antimony (Tartar Emetic).Propertiesof Tartar Emetic. " Symptoms. " Fatal Dose. " Post-mortem ap-pearances.

    "

    Slow Poisoning." Chemical analysis." Toxicologicalexami-nation- 262

    CHAPTER XIX.

    Poisoning by Mercury (Corrosive Sublimate).Corrosive Sublimate.

    " Properties." Symptoms. " Post-mortem appearances."

    Fatal Dose. " Antidotes. " Chemical analysis." Toxicologicalexamina-