By JOHN J.REESE, M.D.,
PROFESSOR OF MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE AND TOXICOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF
PENNSYLVANIA; VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE SOCIETY OF
PHILADELPHIA; PHYSICIAN TO ST. JOSEPH'S HOSPITAL; MEMBEROF THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF PHILADELPHIA;
CORRESPONDING MEMEER OF THE NEW
YORK MEDICO-LEGAL SOCIETY.
P. BLAKISTON, SON " CO.:IOI2 WALNUT STREET,
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1SS4. by
P. BLAKISTOX, SOX " CO..
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.
This Text-book has been written more particularlyto
meet the wants of students of Legal Medicine. The author
is aware that the field has alreadybeen occupied by able
and popular treatises on medical jurisprudence,well knownto the professionsof medicine and law ; but an experienceof over twenty years, as a publicteacher of this branch of
science,has convinced him that students in both these
professions,who desire to acquire a knowledge of medical
jurisprudence,are too often deterred from their purpose bybeing confronted by the ponderous works of recognized
masters, extending to three, and even six large octavovolumes.
To avoid the above objection,the author of the presentwork has endeavored to condense in a handy volume all
the essentials of the science,and to present the various
topicsin a simple and familiar style,giving greater promi-nence,of course, to those of the greatest practicalim-portance.
The subjectof Toxicology occupies,as was proper, aconsiderable space, and has been carefullyprepared; specialattention beingbestowed upon the most importantpoisons"such as Arsenic,Strychnine,Opium, Prussic Acid, etc.
The chapter on Insanity is as full as the size of the
volume would justify,and will be found, it is hoped, toiii
contain all the essential medico-legal points pertaining to
The author has not hesitated to avail himself freely of
the materials so abundantly presented in the elaborate and
classic works of Casper, Taylor, Beck, Wharton and Stille,
Tidy, Guy, Tardieu, and others ; always desiring to give
due credit to the authority quoted, and usually doing so at
and he would embrace this opportunity to
expresshis obligations to these authorities. He is sincerely
desirous to encourage an increasing interest in the students
of both medicine and law for that most important, but too-
much neglected, subject"
Forensic Medicine; and he would
indulge the hope that the present treatise, in its unpre-tentious
size and style, may aid in so doing.
Philadelphia, September, iSSj..
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Definition." Importance to Students of Medicine and Law. " Order of
Proceeding in a Medico-legal Case. " The Coroner's Inquest." The
Medical Experts. " DyingDeclarations.
Phenomena and Signs of Death.
Molecular and Somatic Death."
The Immediate Cause of
Death to be found in either the Heart, Lungs or Brain. " Post-mortem
Evidences of these."
The "Signs of Death." " Cessation of Respirationand Circulation.
" Changes in the Eyes. " Pallor of the Body..
Section II." Signs of Death continued. " Loss of Animal Heat.
Caloricity." Rigor Mortis. " Post-mortem Lividity, or Suggillation 32
Section III." Signs of Death continued. " Putrefaction. " External and
Internal Signs." Adipocere. " Mummification. " How long since the
Medico-legal Investigations. " The Post-mortem.
Responsibility involved. " Accuracy and Method necessary. " Examinationof the surroundings. " External examination of the Body. " Internal ex-amination.
Details of the Examination."
Measurements and Weights."Notes 56
Presumption of Death and of Survivorship.
Cases involving Presumption of Death and of Survivorship. " French Lawof Survivorship." Probabilities afforded by Age, Sex, and Mode of Death. 65
Section I." Important Medico-legal bearings." I. Identification of the
Living. " Personal Appearance. " Peculiar bodily marks. " RemarkableCases 69
VI TABLE OF CONTEXTS.
Section II. " II. Identification of the Dead. " Mutilated Remains. " Identi-fication
by means of the Skeleton, as to Age, Sex, and Stature. " Rules of
Proportion." Fractures, Deformities, and Callus. " Age of Bones. " Ex
amination of Hairs and Fibres 76
The Causes Producing Violent Death.
Section I." Death from Wounds. " Definition of a Wound. " Danger of. "
Examination of the Body. " Absence of external marks of violence. "
Wounds made before and after death. " Hemorrhage. " Ecchymoses. "
Classification. " Homicidal, Suicidal and Accidental Wounds.. .
Section II. " Gunshot Wounds. " Differ from other wounds. " Deflection
of the Ball. " Wounds made by Shot, Wadding and Powder. " Wounds of
the Head, Xeck, Spine,Chest and Abdomen 107
Examination of Blood Stains.
Importance of their identification. " Three methods of identifying." 1. TheChemical Tests.
" 2. The Microscopic Test. " 3. The SpectroscopicTest."Blood Crystals 121
Burns and Scalds.
Classification." Symptoms. " Cause of Death. " Post-mortem
appearances. " Burns made before and after death. " Accidental, Suicidal
and Homicidal Burns." Spontaneous Combustion.
. .. . .
Death from Different Forms of Asphyxia.
Section I. " Death from Suffocation." Accidental, Suicidal and Homicidal
Post-mortem signs, 143Section II.
Death by Strangulation." Modes of Strangulation." External
signs." Internal lesions. " Accidental, Suicidal and Homicidal Strangu-lation."
Mark of the Cord,.........
Section III. " Death by Hanging. " Cause of Death. " Post-mortem appear-ances."
Cord marks. " Generally suicidal,.
. .. . .
Section IV. " Death by Drowning. " Mode of Death. " Time required."
Signs of Death, external and internal. " Accidental, Suicidal and Homi-cidal
Drowning,. . .
. .. .
. . .
Death by Lightning.
Medico-legalrelations. " Mode of Death. " Post-mortem signs, . . . 166
TABLE OF CONTENTS. Vll
Death from Heat and Cold.
Diverse effects of Heat upon the body. " Postmortem appearances. "Effects of Cold.
"Post mortem signs, 170
Death by Starvation.
Accidental, Homicidal and Suicidal Starvation. " Pretended cases of volun-tary
starvation. " Symptoms, and Post-mortem signs." Medico-legal rela-tions,
Death from Poisoning. " Toxicology.
Definition of a Poison. " Effects. " Proofs of Absorption."
Subsequent dispositionof the Poison. " Elimination. " Cause of Death. "Circumstances modifying their action. " Antagonism of Poisons,
Evidences of Poisoning." 1. Evidences from Symptoms. " 2.From post-mortem lesions. " 3. Chemical Analysis." Post-mortem Imbi-bition
of Poisons. " Rules in performing a toxicological analysis." 4.Physiologicalexperiments." 5. Circumstantial Evidence. " Medico-legalconclusions.
" Classification,. . . . . . . .
Poisoning by the Mineral Acids.
Certain common symptoms. " Post-mortem appearances. " Treatment. "
Chemical analysis." Toxicologicalexamination for the different Acids, 202
Poisoning by the Alkalies and their Salts.
Section I." Potassa, Soda, and Ammonia. " Similarity of effects. " Symp-toms.
" Treatment." Post-mortem appearances. " Chemical
Section II." Poisoning by the Alkaline and Earthy Salts. " Nitrate of
Bitartrate of Potassium." Sulphate of Potassium. " Alum. "
Chlorinated Potassium and Sodium."
Salts of Barium.....
Irritants Possessing Remote Specific Properties.Section I.
" Poisoning by Phosphorus." Symptoms. " Fatal Dose. " Treat-ment." Morbid appearances. " Diagnosis." Chemical analysis." Amor-phousPhosphorus.
........... 224Section II.
" Poisoningby Iodine, Bromine, and Chlorine..
. . 234
Vlll TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Poisoning by Arsenic.
Metallic Arsenic." Arsenious Acid.
" Properties." Symptoms. " ChronicPoisoning." Fatal Dose. " Treatment. " Post-mortem signs." Chemical
analysis." Toxicologicalexamination. " Other Preparationsof Arsenic..
Poisoning by Antimony (Tartar Emetic).Propertiesof Tartar Emetic. " Symptoms. " Fatal Dose. " Post-mortem ap-pearances.
Slow Poisoning." Chemical analysis." Toxicologicalexami-nation- 262
Poisoning by Mercury (Corrosive Sublimate).Corrosive Sublimate.
" Properties." Symptoms. " Post-mortem appearances."
Fatal Dose. " Antidotes. " Chemical analysis." Toxicologicalexamina-