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TECHNOLOGY OF ECO-FRIENDLY TEXTILE PROCESSING- A ROUTE TO SUSTAINABILTY KEYNOTE PRESENTED BY Asif Muhammad Sami BSc. Textile Engg, MBA, CText (ATI), Fellow- IEB, Textile Consultant CEO- EuroAsiatic Resources, Chairman - S S Vision Ltd & Textile Consultant - Perseus Ltd. Cell: 01819213971, email: Slide 2 ABSTRACTS: Textile Project like eco-friendly or green project must be designed for sustainable green factory building concept also textile raw materials, dyes & chemicals, textile processes all should be based on 3R (reduce-recycle- reuse) concept. The processing of textiles should be cost effective and environment-friendly. Innovative and efficient strategies to achieve these goals are needed. This paper reports various problems in different stages of processing textile materials and their green solutions the alternatives by which the problems can be avoided through innovative techniques and various measures of textile cleaner production(CP) which ensures textile processing eco-friendly, cost effective and sustainable business. Slide 3 ECO FRIENDLY / GREEN TEXTILES CONCEPT ECO FRIENDLY / GREEN TEXTILES CONCEPT The project factory building should be designed on go green concept. Textile raw materials are processed in eco-friendly manner and certified by GOTS etc. Dyes and chemicals should be OKEOTEX certified standard. Textile processing right from Raw fiber, Yarn manufacturing, Weaving/knitting, wet processing, finishing processes all should be maintained using eco- friendly technology. Textile waste water should be treated considering basis of 3R (reduce- recycled & re-use ) concept. Slide 4 ECO- FRIENDLY TEXTILES PROCESSING CONCEPT Textile Cleaner Production (CP) like Water saving, energy savings using all possible methods. Re-use of textile waste, recycled & re-use of waste water, recovering and re-using salt, re-use of waste heat energy. Carbon emission control Environmental sustainability care for the environment- Influence the supply chain to use sustainable processes/method. Operate business in environmental friendly way. Work to conserve water, energy and reduce / recycle waste. Sustainable design approach explore the use sustainable materials and products. Slide 5 NEED FOR ECO- FRIENDLY & RECYCLABLE + RE-USABLE TEXTILES: Concerns related to textile industries are- Textiles production and processing- chemical intensive applications Associated social and environmental concerns GROWING CONCERNS- Increasing industrial pollution Industrial waste disposal problems Economic and social health of the farmers and industrial workers. Unawareness about socially responsible business structures are required. Slide 6 ENERGY SAVING GREEN FACTORY BUILDING SHED: Using insulation of building walls, floor & ceiling. Replace old windows which are bad thermal insulators. Make the building shell as air tight as possible. Install heat exchange for proper ventilation. Roof of sunny side should use collects solar energy. Heavily frequented door should have automatically closing system. Light from shaded side yields natural light but not heat. New building using geothermal energy exchange. Use of insulation of all steam pipe and wire duct. Using rain water for garden irrigation, technical use or as toilet flash water. Slide 7 WHY WE ALL NEED TO BE CONCERN ABOUT ECO- FRIENDLY (GREEN) PROCESSING IN TEXTILES: Textiles /Garment industry is contributing to the global warming & pollution from the stages like - Cultivation of the fibres Yarn manufacture Fabric manufacture wet processing Manufacturing of the garment Transportation to customers Usage and disposal Slide 8 STAGE 1: RAW MATERIALS (FIBER) CONTRIBUTORS TO CARBON FOOTPRINT Cotton cultivation requires large amount of pesticides, fertilizers and water. Approximately 257 gallons of water is required for only one t- shirt. ECO-FRIENDLY OR GREEN SOLUTIONS: ORGANIC COTTON is GREEN fabric. It is grown - where synthetic chemical pesticides, fertilizers and genetically modified organisms are avoided. Organic fertilizers such as Neem or Garlic extract are used. Slide 9 ECO-FRIENDLY OR GREEN SOLUTIONS Substitute cotton for other natural eco- friendly materials like hemp, wool, organic cotton, soy silk, bamboo fabrics,jute, corn fibre etc having without any harmful effects of chemicals or toxics. Synthetic fabrics such as polyesters are - Easy care and more durable alternative to natural fabrics. - These are more energy intensive in production, but these fibers need to be washed at lower temperatures thus saving a lot of energy throughout their life cycle. Slide 10 ECO-FRIENDLY OR GREEN SOLUTIONS Cellulose based fibres like viscose can be used. There are now developments of new fibres of natural origin like Tencel (Lyocell) made from wood. EXAMPLES OF SOME ECO-FRIENDLY FIBERS : Organic Cotton, Organic wool, Organic Silk, Organic Jute etc Manmade fibers like corn/Soya bean, Pineapple, Banana leaf, Lyocell Recycled fibers like Recycled Cotton, Recycled Polyester Natural fiber like colored Raw Cotton Slide 11 ORGANIC COTTON A SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVES SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS Organic Cotton helps in pollution control, improving soil fertility. Organic cotton farming helps in preventing contamination of water, soil & air. Apart from using in all diversified products, organic cotton also suitable for baby products, apparels, hygiene and care products like cotton balls, ear buds, sanitary pads, medical textiles, cosmetics bags etc. Slide 12 RECYCLED COTTON; RECYCLED COTTON is nothing but made from recovered cotton that would otherwise be cast off during either spinning, weaving, knitting or garment cutting process. THE DISCARDED COTTON WASTE from above mentioned process are collected, shredded into small fibers and processed once again into yarns and fabrics in cost effective method. RECYCLED COTTON is also known as eco friendly choice in clothing fashion industry. COTTON WASTE RE-CYCLING PROCESS involves no chemical addition rather it helps in generating employment and better positive impact in the environment (clean production). Slide 13 RECYCLED POLYESTER (PET): Polyester is one the most non-biodegradable polymer which creates environmental problems. Wellman inc. Introduced in 1993 as the first polyester textile fiber made from post consumer pet packaging. Recycled pet is used in diversified products like backpacks and blankets, t-shirts, sportswear, soft luggage and socks etc. Eco friendly recycled pet is certified by OEKOTEX and SGS etc. Slide 14 STAGE 2: YARN FABRICATION AND FABRIC MANUFACTURE Contributors to carbon footprint There are many stages required to process cotton from fibre to fabrics the fibre are cleaned, carded (combed) spun into yarn, coated with starches or chemicals, woven or knitted into fabrics, Slide 15 CONTRIBUTORS TO CARBON FOOTPRINT & GREEN SOLUTION In sizing process, starch is used in sticky paste form to yarn to enhance its strength and its abrasion resistance. The starch paste consists of preservative in order to protect it from the stains get formed on the fabrics surface. Some preservatives like penta-chloro phenol that are toxic effect on human skin, should be avoided by utilizing a synthetic starch decreasing the health hazards. Use oil stain remover during the weaving operations before textile wet process so that oil stains do not get formed. Slide 16 PROCESS INVOLVED CONTRIBUTION TO POLLUTIONS FIBRE PREPARATION YARN SPINNING Fiber waste, Packaging waste, packaging waste, sized yarn, fiber waste, cleaning and processing waste Slide 17 PROCESS INVOLVED CONTRIBUTION TO POLLUTIONS SLASHING/SIZING WEAVING KNITTING Fiber lint, yarn waste, unused starch based sizes, water with high level of BOD, COD Packaging waste, yarn waste and fabric scraps, used oil. Waste yarn and fabric scraps packaging Slide 18 WASTE YARN AND FABRIC SCRAPS PACKAGING Textile processing industry requires huge volume of water, energy & various chemicals for Desizing, Scouring, Mercerization, dyeing, printing and finishing stage. Textile industry, backbone of fashion garments, is large variation in demand of type, pattern & color of fabric resulting into significant fluctuation in waste generation. Textile processing generates much waste steam, including liquid gaseous and solid wastes, some of which may be hazardous. Wet processing creates the highest volume of waste water. Textile finishing represents the most variable area in the production process. A wide and ever-growing range of finishes are now available that either improves the properties, handle or texture of the fabric. Slide 19 TEXTILE WET PROCESSING- VITAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE Some important environmental concerns related to textile wet processing; Intensive chemical based wet processing like scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing etc Heavy metals like iron, lead, copper etc consist in dyestuffs auxiliaries, binders etc. Residual dyestuffs, chemicals in water: due to poor dye fixation with fiber. PVC and Phathalets: used in Plastisol printing paste and colorant fixatives. Formaldehyde: found in dispersing agents, printing paste and colorant fixatives. Dye effluent-wastewater issue. Slide 20 CONTRIBUTORS TO CARBON FOOTPRINT The conventional preparation process of Desizing, Scouring and Bleaching with their related wash-off stages, produces heavy BOD in effluents. Chlorine used in bleaching creates halogenated organic substances, of which some are suspected to be carcinogenic e.G.., Chloroform thus is not preferred. Use of banned amines and toxic dyes, banned amines are the chemicals which are released from some of the azo dyes on reductive cleavage. These are suspected to be carcinogenic and being banned. Carriers ( disperse dyes) and solvents may be emitted during dyeing operations may lead to volatilization of aqueous Slide 21 CONTRIBUTORS TO CARBON FOOTPRINT hemical emulsions during heat setting