TBI awareness

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    TraumaticBrain

    I njury

    Saurabh Bhalla

    M.O.T,

    Department Of Occupational Therapy

    I.S.I.C Institute of Rehabilitation

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    I njury What all this presentation all about. At end of this presentation focused

    audience will

    Know about brain and its functions.

    Know what is Traumatic Brain Injury or whatwe call T.B.I.

    Be able to acknowledge the causative factors.

    Be able to understand what happens when TBI

    occurs Be able to understand the treatment strategies

    Learn the preventive strategies for T.B.I.

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    Human Brain

    The brain is the mostimportant organ in the body.

    The brain is inside your skull.The skull is made of bone. Itprotects the brain from mildblows to the head.

    The part of the central nervoussystem enclosed in the

    cranium, consisting of a soft,convoluted mass of gray andwhite matter and serving tocontrol and coordinate themental and physical actions.

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    The brain has the consistencyof gelatin. It floats inside theskull in a special fluid calledcerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Thisfluid acts as a shock absorber,

    protecting the brain fromblows to the skull.

    The brain is protected by theskull and is covered by 3 layersof tissue. The thickest and outermost

    layer is known as the "dura."These membranes protect thebrain and keep thecerebrospinal fluid fromleaking to the outside.

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    The brain has two main parts, called the left and the right hemispheres. Each

    hemisphere has specialized areas for movement, thinking, sensations, and feelings

    If you injure your brain, different functions can be affected.

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    Functions of Brain

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    What is it?

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a formof acquired brain injury, occurs when asudden trauma causes damage to thebrain.

    TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe.A mild traumatic brain injury maycause confusion and headache, andmost people recover from it. A severetraumatic brain injury can causedisability or death.

    A severe traumatic brain injury mayhappen even if the head does notcome in contact with a hard object.

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    What Causes T.B.I

    ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT

    Falls

    Violence Sports

    Firearms

    Recreation

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    More on T.B.I

    TBI is most common amongmale teens and young adultsages 15 to 24, and amongelderly people of both sexes75 years and older.

    In young people, the majorcause is motor vehicleaccidents. For those 75 andolder, falls cause the majorityof TBIs.

    Babies can get severe brain

    injury if they are violentlyshaken either because of childabuse or playing rough.Shaken baby syndrome is atraumatic brain injury.

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    What are the possible effects of T.B.I

    In accidents where thehead is suddenly andviolently shaken, the brainmay move and may evenhit the skull. Even if the

    brain does not hit the skull,the sudden movement ofthe brain can cause injury.

    This is known as shearinginjury. It is as if the brain

    tissue tears from the inside. This may cause bruising

    and swelling known ascontusions.

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    Effects of T.B.I

    Brain swelling starts at the time of the injury

    If an object goes through the skull and enters the dura,this may lead to a bacterial infection known asmeningitis

    The blood vessels of the brain can get hurt easily duringa head injury.

    Bleeding, swelling, and pressure inside the brain can alsocause less blood to flow to the brain.

    A sudden and violent trauma to the head can causeinjury and shearing to the axons. This type of injury isknown as diffuse axonal injury or DAI

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    Are there Types of T.B.I

    T.B.I

    On basis ofFracture

    Open Close

    On basis ofTime atwhich they happen

    Primary Secondary

    On basis of

    Severity

    Mild Moderate Severe

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    What can I expect with T.B.I

    A TBI can be mild or very severe depending on the extent of the brain

    injury.

    Severe traumatic brain injuries can result in:

    Coma is a category of severe TBI where the patient is in a state of unconsciousness from

    which he or she cannot be awakened. That may last days, weeks, or months.

    In a person with a moderate TBI,

    the person loses consciousness from a few minutes to a few hours.

    The person may be confused from days to weeks.

    Changes in the persons ability to move or to think lasts months and can be permanent.

    In a person with a mild TBI,

    The person may or may not lose consciousness.

    It lasts from a few seconds to minutes. The person is dazed and confused.

    A concussion may happen after a fall at home or during a tackle at a football game.

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    Some of the common symptoms after

    T.B.I Headache,

    Confusion,

    Lightheadedness,

    Dizziness,

    Blurred vision or tired eyes,

    Ringing in the ears, Bad taste in the mouth,

    Fatigue or lethargy,

    Sleep disturbances, and

    Behavioral or mood changes.

    Memory,

    Concentration,

    Attention, or

    Thinking.

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    What T.B.I may leave Behind

    Cognitive

    disabilities

    Personality changes

    Sensory problems

    Headaches

    Seizures Disability

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    When to seek an advice from Doc.

    Always get the victim checked by a doctor to be on the safe side. Seekemergency medical care if symptoms include: Convulsions

    Weakness or numbness in the hands or legs

    Slurred speech

    Repeated vomiting

    Signs of brain hematoma include Headache

    Fatigue

    sleep disturbances

    Weakness Nausea

    Vomiting

    irritability.

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    Investigations

    A Doctor may immediately opt for

    CT scan and/or

    MRI scan

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    Treatment

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