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Ta,skFol-ee on Speech Pathology Audiology inPliisons The American Speech and Hearing Association is the national, non­ profit, scientific and professional association for speech and

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    Ta,skFol-ee on Speech Pathology and Audiology Serlriee eeds inPliisons

    AMERICAN SPEECH AND HEARING ASSOCIATION 9030 Old Georgetown Road • Washington, D. C. 20014

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    We are deeply grateful to each member of the Task Force for providing information that previously had not been assembled on a special population with eommunic.ative disorders and for their dedication to an important pro- ject that offers new direc.tions of pursuit for the profession.

    Special appreciation is e~tended to Eugene Walle who assisted in ini- thtl planning for the Task Force, coordinated Task Force meetings and corre- spondence, and prepared maior portions of the Task Force final report. In addition to general contributions, Curt Hamre prepared the section on a model for providing services in prisons; James Reading prepared the section on inci.dence of speech and hearing disorders in prison populations; Eugene Wiggins provided materials for the section on rationale; Henry Pressey'pro- vided materials on reading disability; and John Bess, information on noise- induced hearing impairment in prison industry.

    The administration and staff of Patuxent Institution, Jessup, Haryland, courteously provided facilities and local arrangements for the June 5, 1973, meeting of the Task Force and consultants.

    This project was directed and its final report prepared by Sylvia Weaver Jones, ASHA Director of Recruitment, under the supervision of William C. Healey, Association Secretary for School Affairs.

    The Task Force was funded, in part, by a grant from Rehabilitation Service Administration, Social and Rehabilitation Ser'Jices, Department of H~alth, Education and Welfare. Appreciation is extended to the Rehabili- tation Services Administration and, especially, Jamil Toubbeh, Ph.D., Project Officer, who also recognized the need for this document.

    Kenneth O. Johnson, Ph.D. Executive Secretary



    Acknowledgements 1

    Introduction - - - - 3

    General Information on Prisons 5

    SpeElch Pathology/Audiology Services Currently Available in Prisons ------------- 8

    Incidence of Speech and Hearing Disorders in Prison Populations - - - - - - _. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9

    Rationale for Providing Speech Pathology/Audiology Services in Prisons - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13

    Model for Providing Speech Pathology/Audiology Services in Prisons -

    Preparation for Work in Prisons

    Summary of Task Force Meeting with Corrections Representatives - - - - - -

    Priorities and Recommendatio~s

    Bibliography -

    Appendix - -







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    Eugene Walle, M.A. Associate Professor Speech Pathology and Audiology Catholic University Washington, D. C. 20017

    James Reading, H.A. Speech Pathologist Speecll and Hearing Clinic Patuxent Institution Jessup. Haryland 20794

    Curt Hamre, Ph.D. Associate Professor Speech Pathology Northern Hichigan University Harquette, Hichigan 49855

    James E. Hack, M.A. SpEech Pathology and Audiology Services Lebanon Correctional Institution Lebanon, Ohio 45036

    Eugene Wiggins, 1'1 • .\. Director Speech and Hearing ClinLc Vederal City College Washington, D. C. 20001

    Henry Pressey Associate Researcher Urban Systems Laboratory, ~-40 Office of the Director Massachusetts Institute of Tecllno10gy Cambridge, Hassachusetts 02139

    John C. Bess, Ph.D. Veterans Hospital 1670 Clairmont Road Decatur, Georgia 30033

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    The American Speech and Hearing Association is the national, non- profit, scientific and professional association for speech and language patholo;5ists, audiologists, and speech and hearing scientists concerned with communication behavior and disorders. It is the accrediting agent for college and university programs offering master's degrees in speech patho- logy and audiology and for programs offering clinical services in speech pathology and audiology to the public. Only members who meet specific requirements in academic preparation and supervised clinical experience and who pass a comprehensive national examination may obtain the Certi- ficate of Clinical Competence, which permits the holder to provide inde- pendent clinical services and supervise student trainees and clinicians who do not hold certification. The Assoc1.ation ' s 16,000 members at'e employed in speech and hearing centers, public and private clinics, school systems, colleges and universities, hospitals, private practice, govern- ment, and industry.

    Speech pathologists evaluate the speech and language of childn.~n and adul ts, de termine whe thar communica tion problems I:xi s t, and dec ide 'f;lha t type of remediation is appropriate. Typical adult clinic cases may inc.lude stuttering, voice disorders, articulation problems associated with cleft palate and other facial anomalies, and language disorders possibly associ- ated with some strokes and other types of brain injury. The audiologist is concerned with the study

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    5. Listing priorities in providing services;

    6. Identifying key peoplf. or offices in Congress and Federal agencies, foundations, and professional organizations to whom these concerns should be addressed;

    7. Preparing a summary report of the task force proceedings that might b(: used for dissemination to association members and to professional groups of prison officials, penal institution rehabilitation per- sonnel, and criminologists to encourage interest in providing speech pathology and audiology services in penal institutions.

    The Task Force met January 15-16, 1973 to dref t a preliminary report ::md to plan a vlOrkshop ~vith lwy personnel from groups l~oncerned wi th corrcc tions. That tvorkshop 'Vl8.S held June I., 197.3 and folJo~v .... ~d by u Task Force m",~eting to prupare its final report.

    Ti duplic; arkno'\

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    The Criminal Population in the United States and Territories - 16 years and above in age*

    State or Territory

    Alabama Alaska Arizona Arka.nsas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Flo':ida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire Ne\v Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio O~~lahoma



    3,635 376

    2,734 1,425

    39,356 3,130 2,873

    627 3,408

    14,144 6,457

    644 617

    7,743 5,153 1,972 2,218 2,373 5,804

    740 6,795 5,262

    12,973 2,551 5,446

    508 905

    2,243 438

    9,861 1,196

    29,412 3,703

    258 12,422

    3,621 2,484


    120 169 154

    48 1,495

    92 147

    85 370 250

    147 129 166

    66 61

    264 82

    173 126 488 122 157

    72 llO 143

    40 605

    19 1,167

    755 30

    1,044 97


    *E. Walle, Task Force. Abstracted from the Directory of Correctional Insti- .~utions., American Correctional Association, 1972.


    State or Territory

    Pennsy 1 vania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia ~.]i s cons in ivyoming

    Canal Zone Guam Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Virgin Islands

    Federal Bureau of Prisons 6 penitentiaries 3 reformatories 3 institutions for

    juvenile offenders 9 correctional

    institutions 3 prison camps 2 detention centers 1 medical center

    10 community treatment centers

    Department of Army Department of Navy Air Porce

    - 7 -


    13,027 671

    4,305 486

    5,166 15,270

    671 331

    7,536 3,855 1,576 4,775


    88 200


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