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    Institut für Landtechnik

    der Technischen Universität München

    REPAIR COSTS OF TRACTORS AND COMPARiSON OF MECHANIZATION

    STRATEGIES UNDER TANZANIAN CONDITIONS

    Sylvester Michael Mpanduji

    Vollständiger Abdruck der von der Fakultät für Landwirtschaft und Gartenbau der

    Technischen Universität München zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines

    Doktors der Agrarwissenschaften

    genehmigten Dissertation,

    Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prot. Dr, H, Auernhammer

    Prüfer der Dissertation:

    1, Univ-Prot. Dr.

    nr.

    h.c. AE Keszthely

    J,

    Schön

    2, Untv rof  » p, Wagner

    Die Dissertation wurde am 28,06,2000 bei der Technischen Universität München

    eingereicht und durch die Fakultät für Landwirtschaft und Gartenbau am 18,07,2000

    angenommen

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    Die vorl iegende Arbeit wurde gedruckt Unterstützung

    Deutschen Akademischen Austauschdienstes

    Copyright 2000 by Landtechnik Weihenstephan

    ISSN 0931 6264

    Alle Rechte auch die der Übersetzung und des Nachdrucks sowie jede Art der

    photomechanischen Wiedergabe auch auszugsweise bleiben vorbehalten.

    Selbstverlag im Eigenvertrieb:

    Institut

    Landtechnik Weihenstephan

    Vöttinger Straße 36

    85356 Freising

    Deutschland

    Druck und Einband Hieronymus Buchreproduktions GmbH München

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      KNOWLEDGEMENTS

    This work was carried out under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. AE Keszthely)

    H. Schön, Professor at the Institute of Agricultural Engineering of the Technical

    University of Munich. His close supervision, guidance and constructive suggestion

    are highly appreciated. My special thanks to Prof. P.   gner for his valuable

    comments and suggestion. I would like also to express my sincere acknowledgement

    to Dr. G. Wendl for his scientific intellectual support, encouragement and tips in

    presentation of scientific results,

    am even thankfu for the positive atmosphere arid the nice at the Institute of

    Agriculture Engineering. Special appreciation to Dipt.-lnq.

     

    Müller, Dr. M.

    Klindtworth and Dipl.-Ing K. Klindtworth for their close assistance they extended to

    me whenever I faced same problems.

    Sincere thank is also due to H. O. Dihenga of the Sokoine of

    Agriculture for his valuable suggestions and encouragement during data collection in

    Tanzania. I am also indebted to all managers of the large scale farms in Tanzania

    and farmers who provided the bulky of information used in this

    Grateful acknowledgement is due to the Germany Academic Exchange Service

     Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst

    for granting the finaneial support and to

    the Soko/ne University of Agriculture for the study leave.

    Lastly, the author extends his deepest love and heartful appreciation to his spouse,

    Martha for her continuous inspiration and close co-operation throughout the study

    Freisinq, August 2000

    Sylvester Michael Mpanduji

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    VI

    Table of contents

    3 6 3

    3.6.4

    3 6 5

    3 66

    3 6 7

    3.6.8

    costs .

    Health costs ..

    Shelter costs .

    Labaur costs ..

    Insurance costs .

    Compensation costs .

    50

    52

    53

    54

    54

    54

    4

    MATERIAL

    METHons   .. 55

    4. i

    Determination of tractor costs Tanzanis .

    55

    4. t

    4.1.1

    4.1.1.2

    4. t z

    4.1.2.1

    4.

    i

    .2.2

    4 3

    4.1.3.1

    4. i .3.2

    4 4

    area .

    Large scale farms ..

    Small-to-medium scale farmers ..

    Data collection .

    Primary data .

    Secondary data ..

    Data processing .

    costs .

    lJd l \ ;LIIClIIUII of traetor annual ownership costs ..

    Determination of tractor optimum replaeement time ..

    55

    57

    61

    62

    62

    65

    68

    69

    74

    76

    4.2

    costs

     

    draft animals ..

    4.2.1

    4.2.2

    4.2.3

    5

    5.1

    5.2

    5.3

    53

    5.3.2

    5 3 3

    5.3.4

    5.4

    5.5

    5.6

    area .

    Animal data collection.. . ..

    Animal data

    RESUl

    TS AND DISCUSSION .

    Tractor operator skills .

    Tractor utilisation .

    Tractor repair costs ..

    Averaue

    annual repair costs

      m t lI I JU U I I of costs into assernbly groups..

    Repair cost functions .

    Comparative repair cost curves

    Annual costs of tractors ..

    Recommended tractor optimum replacement

      8 ..

    costs of dralt anirnals ....

    77

    79

    79

    82

    82

    84

    87

    95

    98

    99

    103

    110

    117

    5.7

    Comparison of annual costs of tractors and animals ....... 121

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    Table of contents

     

    I

    6

    6 2

    6.3

    8

    THE

    IMPLICATION OF

    T

    FINDINGS .

    Tractor operation and management data ..

    Applicability ot repair costs prsdictlon functions .

    Importance ot the annual cost tindinqs ..

    SUMM RY AND CONCLUSIONS ..

    REFERENCE .

     pPEN iX   .

      25

      25

      26

      27

    130

    137

      45

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    List of tables

    IX

    Table 19: The annual ownership costs of tractors in Germany

    998/99 105

    Table 20: Optimum recommended replacement age

    Im

    different tractor

    groups............................................................................................ 11

    Table 21: Result of draft animal costs Tshs in Shinyanga and Marogaro

    118

    Table 22: Annual costs of using a pair

    01

    draft animals oxen in Shinyanga

    and Morogoro 120

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    x

    Figure :

    List 01

    l isr

    OF FIGURES

    Map of Africa and Tanzania. ,.., .

    10

    Figure

    2:

    Import statistics of

    tractors

    in Tanzania for ihe

    970 - 84, ...... ,

    13

    Figure 3:

    Local

    of

    tractors in Tanzania for the year 983·89 . 14

    Figure 4:

    Tractor makes in Tanzaula

    up

    December

    1989 ,

    5

    Figure 5: Population of in Tanzania 1956 - 84 , , ..

    8

    Figure 6:

    7:

    Figure 8:

    The failure rate of components of the machine with time (bath-

    ~ ~

    ,

      ., ,.

    ,., ,

    ,

     

    .

    Systemarie diaqrarn for defining maintenance and repair

    Definition the rainflow

     'y,; t;j  

    22

    23

    24

    9:

    Depreciation values different depreciation methods ..

    30

    Figure

    10:

    Comparison of salvage values different methods (2WD

    tractors) , , ,., , , ,...

    33

    Figure 11: Comparison 01saivage values using di fferent

    methods

    (4WD

    tractors) ,...... .. , ,...................... 34

    Figure

    12:

    The representation of the optimum replacement period (rninirnum

    point) , , ,......... 46

    Figure 3: Tractor population by regions in Tanzania (1989).. 55

    Figure 14: Map of Tanzania for identilication of regions .... , ,.. ,... ,. ,.. ,

    56

    15: The average yearly inflation rates frorn 1986 . 1999

    Figure 6: Flow chart tor determinat ion of repair cost functions

    Figure 1 Trained and

    non trained

    tractor operators ..

    67

    73

    83

    Education intormation of tractor operators

    84

    Figure 19: Variation   average annual repair costs per tractor with ages of

    Massey Ferguson tractars

    88

    Figu1 820: Variation of annual repair

    costs

    Case

    lnternational tractors

    ...... ,

    tractor with ages

    90

    Figure

    21:

    Variation

    of

    average annual repair costs per tractor with ages

    ot

    Ford

    tractors 91

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    List of

    XI

    Figura 22: Variation of average annual costs per tractor with ages of

    Same tractors................................................................................... 92

    23: Variation of average annual repair costs per tractor with ages

    01

    4WD tractors.................................................................................... 93

    24: Variation of average annual repair costs per tractor with ages of

    2WD SMSF) tractors............. 94