Tactile Stimulation and Consumer Response
Tactile behavior is a basic communication form as well as an expression of inter-personal involvement. This articie presents three studies offering evidence for thepositive role of casual interpersonal touch on consumer behavior. iVIore specifically,it provides initial support for the view that tactile stimulation in various consumerbehavior situations enhances the positive feeling for and evaluation of both theexternal stimuli and the touching source. Further, customers touched by a requestertend to comply more than customers in no-touch conditions. Implications for con-sumer behavior theory and research are discussed.
T he scene was a university library. It could just aseasily have been the local supermarket, bank, orrestaurant. What happened took half a second, and itwas not noticed by the recipients. Remarkably, how-ever, it influenced the recipients' evaluation of the li-brary. Fisher, Rytting and Heslin (1976) investigatedthe effects of a brief "accidental" touch in a nonintimatecontext. They had male and female clerks return librarycards to some students by placing their hands directlyover the students' palms, making physical contact; otherstudents were not touched. Outside the library, studentswere given an instrument to measure their evaluationof the library. Students who were touched, especiallythe women, evaluated the library significantly more fa-vorably than those who were not touched.
The study of touch as a nonverbal communicationis emerging as an important topic in the social sciences(see Hall and Veccia  and Heslin and Alper for a review). Some investigators suggest that half ormore of the variability of response in interpersonalcommunication can be attributed to nonverbal factorssuch as touch (Mehrabian 1981). Surprisingly, researchon the role of touch on consumer behavior and its im-plication for consumer research is extremely rare.
This article describes an initial exploration of thissubject in consumer research by first presenting sometheoretical considerations linking touch to consumerbehavior. Second, the article extends a recent pilot ex-periment and introduces two studies designed to ex-amine the influence of perfunctory touch in commonconsumer situations, on consumers' evaluations of thesituation, on their attitude toward the toucher, and ontheir response to a request made by a touching source.
Jacob Hornik is on the Marketing Faculty at the Leon RecanatiGraduate School of Business Administration, Tel Aviv University,Tel Aviv, Israel and a visiting professor of marketing at the GraduateSchool of Business, University of Chicago. The author would like tothank the three JCR reviewers and Kent Monroe for their valuablesuggestions throughout the review process.
Third, by drawing on the research results, theoreticaland practical implications for consumer behavior com-munication and research are made. Finally, further in-vestigations into the role of touch on consumer behaviorand new avenues for consumer research are suggested.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKThe available information on the meaning of touch
is scarce and ambiguous. The following discussion rep-resents early ground-breaking efforts. "The inherentambiguity of the message of touch limits the precisionwith which it can be described, and to date, no com-prehensive theory of tactile communication exists"(Major 1981, p. 16). Based on a recent rigorous ex-amination of the literature on touch and behavior. Rose(1990, p. 315) claims that "although touch clearly hasimportant functions it is not clear that it plays any sortof one unique role in interpersonal communication."The ambiguity of touch in interpersonal behavior hasalso been recognized by Argyle (1988) and Johnson andEdwards (1991).
Traditionally, touch has been seen as synonymouswith affection and warmth. Montagu (1971) suggestedthat touch and love are indivisible; Mehrabian (1981)equated touch with friendship and warmth; Heslin andAlper (1983) associated touch with involvement andgaining attention, while Jones and Yarbrough (1985)made an empirical attempt to study the meaning oftouch as reported by recipients. Their results reveal 12distinct and, they claim, relatively unambiguous mean-ings such as appreciation, soliciting support, gainingattention, greeting, affection, compliance, sexual inter-est, aggression, departure, announcing a response,friendship, and hybrid meanings.
Most of the literature on touch is based on the as-sumption that the individual reaction to touch is formedin childhood. Reite (1990), for example, suggested thatthe association of touch with stress reduction at an earlyage may result in a positive reaction to being touched
1992 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc. Vol. 19 December 1992All rights reserved. 0093-5301/93/1903-0011$2.00
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for most individuals, assuming that the touch and bodyareas involved are appropriate for the setting.
The behavioral response to touch will depend on thetouching situation or context as well as on the sex ofthe source and/or the recipient. Research has shownthat people are more likely to comply with requests fromtouching than from nontouching solicitors when thesolicited response is valid (Willis and Hamm 1980). Anexamination of the literature makes it apparent thattouch has different influences on men and women.Generally, women respond more positively than mento being touched (Stier and Hall 1984). However, it isnot clear from previous research whether a casual touchby a male or female stranger also has a stronger positiveinfluence on females and, if so, under what circum-stances.
Touch and Buyer Behavior
Shopping is a frequent personal behavior. However,many consumers view shopping as a diversion fromdaily routines, a means of self-gratification, a source ofsensory stimulation, and a way of socializing. It is wellestablished in the literature that shopping is a socialexperience outside the home that includes social en-counters with salespeople. Stone (1954) even arguedthat consumers form strong personal attachments tostore employees as a substitute for social contact. Assael(1987) shows that salespeople's prosocial behavior is animportant source of inspiration for consumers' in-storebehavior.
A salesperson's influence on the customer comesfrom many sources of communication, some verbal andmany others nonverbal. It is clear, however, that asalesperson's success will depend largely on his/hercredibility, friendship, and warmth as perceived by thecustomer. It is a familiar experience that words do notalways convey the truth. It is difficult to obtain internalevidence from the words themselves to indicate whetherthe salesperson is telling the truth or not. Nonverbalsignals, on the other hand, are regarded as less controlledand are commonly perceived by recipients to be moregenuine (Rose 1990). In fact, customers depend onnonverbal cues for evidence of truth telling.
Although the mechanisms that underscore the rela-tionship between touch and recipients' responses re-main unclear, the few explanations available in the lit-erature guide the conceptualizations of the role of touchon buyers' behavior presented here. Our approach isbased on the theory of relational communication (Parks1977) and the nonverbal communication models withinthe theory. Relational communication analysis beginswith the idea that nonverbal communication containsboth an appeal or relational component and an inter-personal bond component. The theory stems from thefundamental observation that nonverbal communica-tion, such as touch, during a request encounter will re-sult in more social influence as a result of an increase
in attentional arousal and perceived interpersonal in-timacy.
Drawing from the theory of relational communica-tion and the empirical literature on the role of touchin interpersonal communication, three general (and in-terrelated) effects on consumer behavior are suggested.First, in the right context, nonreciprocal touch shouldmake consumers feel more positive about the situationsurrounding the touching events. The mechanisms un-derlying this link were advanced by some investigators(e.g., Patterson, Powell, and Lenihan 1986) who showedthat touch enhances one's general positive feelings andmood and increases attentional arousal, which subse-quently influences one's evaluation of the externalstimuli surrounding the touch situation. Therefore, inthe shopping context in which customers seek socialsupport and affection, proper touch will produce overallpositive feelings toward the store.
Second, touch can affect the way the toucher is per-ceived by recipients. Individuals associated with thehuman potential movement (encounter groups, etc.)have long maintained that touching leads to a personliking the toucher. Limited research suggests that touchplays an important role in shaping the image of thetoucher and in enhancing interpersonal involvement.It has been shown, for example, that counselors whotouch clients are more positively perceived than thosewho do not. They are also judged to be more emphatic(Pattison 1973). Others have suggested that touchinganother person during a social encounter may increasethe recipient's feelings of social attachment, intimacy,and, therefore, liking (Mehrabian 1981). More recently,Patterson et al. (1986) have argued that people tend toattribute a multitude of positive characteristics to thetoucher and are willing to exercise certain positive be-haviors toward that person. The above conceptualiza-tion can be used to underscore the role of touch oncustomers' perceptions of the touching server. Tactilestimulations will produce a feeling of social attachmentand personal involvement while also facilitating cus-tomers' perceptions of salespeop