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  • System Administration Guide,Volume 1

    Sun Microsystems, Inc.901 San Antonio RoadPalo Alto, CA 94303-4900U.S.A.

    Part Number 805-722810February 2000

  • Copyright 2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 901 San Antonio Road, Palo Alto, California 94303-4900 U.S.A. All rights reserved.This product or document is protected by copyright and distributed under licenses restricting its use, copying, distribution, anddecompilation. No part of this product or document may be reproduced in any form by any means without prior written authorization ofSun and its licensors, if any. Third-party software, including font technology, is copyrighted and licensed from Sun suppliers.Parts of the product may be derived from Berkeley BSD systems, licensed from the University of California. UNIX is a registeredtrademark in the U.S. and other countries, exclusively licensed through X/Open Company, Ltd.Sun, Sun Microsystems, the Sun logo, docs.sun.com, AnswerBook, AnswerBook2, SunOS, Solstice, Solstice AdminSuite, Solstice DiskSuite,Solaris Solve, Java, JavaStation, DeskSet, OpenWindows, NFS and Solaris are trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of SunMicrosystems, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries. All SPARC trademarks are used under license and are trademarks or registeredtrademarks of SPARC International, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries. Products bearing SPARC trademarks are based upon anarchitecture developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. DLT is claimed as a trademark of Quantum Corporation in the United States and othercountries.The OPEN LOOK and SunTM Graphical User Interface was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. for its users and licensees. Sunacknowledges the pioneering efforts of Xerox in researching and developing the concept of visual or graphical user interfaces for thecomputer industry. Sun holds a non-exclusive license from Xerox to the Xerox Graphical User Interface, which license also covers Sunslicensees who implement OPEN LOOK GUIs and otherwise comply with Suns written license agreements.

    RESTRICTED RIGHTS: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions of FAR 52.22714(g)(2)(6/87) andFAR 52.22719(6/87), or DFAR 252.2277015(b)(6/95) and DFAR 227.72023(a).DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED AS IS AND ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED CONDITIONS, REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES,INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ORNON-INFRINGEMENT, ARE DISCLAIMED, EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THAT SUCH DISCLAIMERS ARE HELD TO BE LEGALLYINVALID.

    Copyright 2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 901 San Antonio Road, Palo Alto, Californie 94303-4900 Etats-Unis. Tous droits rservs.

    Ce produit ou document est protg par un copyright et distribu avec des licences qui en restreignent lutilisation, la copie, ladistribution, et la dcompilation. Aucune partie de ce produit ou document ne peut tre reproduite sous aucune forme, par quelquemoyen que ce soit, sans lautorisation pralable et crite de Sun et de ses bailleurs de licence, sil y en a. Le logiciel dtenu par des tiers, etqui comprend la technologie relative aux polices de caractres, est protg par un copyright et licenci par des fournisseurs de Sun.Des parties de ce produit pourront tre drives du systme Berkeley BSD licencis par lUniversit de Californie. UNIX est une marquedpose aux Etats-Unis et dans dautres pays et licencie exclusivement par X/Open Company, Ltd.Sun, Sun Microsystems, le logo Sun, docs.sun.com, AnswerBook, AnswerBook2, SunOS, Solstice, Solstice AdminSuite, Solstice DiskSuite,Solaris Solve, Java, JavaStation, DeskSet, OpenWindows, NFS et Solaris sont des marques de fabrique ou des marques dposes, oumarques de service, de Sun Microsystems, Inc. aux Etats-Unis et dans dautres pays. Toutes les marques SPARC sont utilises sous licenceet sont des marques de fabrique ou des marques dposes de SPARC International, Inc. aux Etats-Unis et dans dautres pays. Les produitsportant les marques SPARC sont bass sur une architecture dveloppe par Sun Microsystems, Inc.Quantum Corporation riclame DLTcomme sa marque de fabrique aux Etats-Unis et dans dautres pays.Linterface dutilisation graphique OPEN LOOK et SunTM a t dveloppe par Sun Microsystems, Inc. pour ses utilisateurs et licencis.Sun reconnat les efforts de pionniers de Xerox pour la recherche et le dveloppement du concept des interfaces dutilisation visuelle ougraphique pour lindustrie de linformatique. Sun dtient une licence non exclusive de Xerox sur linterface dutilisation graphique Xerox,cette licence couvrant galement les licencis de Sun qui mettent en place linterface dutilisation graphique OPEN LOOK et qui en outrese conforment aux licences crites de Sun.CETTE PUBLICATION EST FOURNIE EN LETAT ET AUCUNE GARANTIE, EXPRESSE OU IMPLICITE, NEST ACCORDEE, YCOMPRIS DES GARANTIES CONCERNANT LA VALEUR MARCHANDE, LAPTITUDE DE LA PUBLICATION A REPONDRE A UNEUTILISATION PARTICULIERE, OU LE FAIT QUELLE NE SOIT PAS CONTREFAISANTE DE PRODUIT DE TIERS. CE DENI DEGARANTIE NE SAPPLIQUERAIT PAS, DANS LA MESURE OU IL SERAIT TENU JURIDIQUEMENT NUL ET NON AVENU.

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  • Contents

    About This Book 27

    1. Managing Users and Groups Topics 33

    2. Managing User Accounts and Groups (Overview) 35

    Whats New in Managing Users and Groups? 35

    What Are User Accounts and Groups? 36

    Guidelines for Managing User Accounts 37

    Name Services 37

    User (Login) Names 37

    User ID Numbers 38

    Passwords 40

    Password Aging 41

    Home Directories 42

    Users Work Environment 42

    Guidelines for Managing Groups 43

    Tools for Managing User Accounts and Groups 44

    What You Can Do With Admintool 47

    Modify User Accounts 47

    Delete User Accounts 48

    Add Customized User Initialization Files 48

    3

  • Administer Passwords 48

    Disable User Accounts 48

    Where User Account and Group Information Is Stored 49

    Fields in the passwd File 49

    Fields in the shadow File 52

    Fields in the group File 53

    Customizing a Users Work Environment 56

    Using Site Initialization Files 57

    Avoid Local System References 58

    Shell Features 58

    Shell Environment 59

    The PATH Variable 63

    Locale Variables 64

    Default File Permissions (umask) 65

    Examples of User and Site Initialization Files 66

    ExampleSite Initialization File 67

    3. Setting Up and Maintaining User Accounts and Groups (Tasks) 69

    Becoming Superuser (root) 70

    H How to Become Superuser (root) 70

    Setting Up User Accounts Task Map 71

    User Information Data Sheet 71

    H How to Customize User Initialization Files 72

    H How to Start Admintool 74

    H How to Add a Group 75

    H How to Add a New User Account 76

    H How to Share a Users Home Directory 77

    H How to Mount a Users Home Directory 79

    Maintaining User Accounts Task Map 80

    4 System Administration Guide, Volume 1 February 2000

  • H How to Modify a Group 81

    H How to Delete a Group 82

    H How to Modify a User Account 82

    H How to Disable a User Account 84

    H How to Change a Users Password 85

    H How to Change Password Aging for a User Account 86

    H How to Delete a User Account 88

    Solaris User Registration 89

    Accessing Solaris SolveSM 89

    Troubleshooting Solaris User Registration Problems 90

    H How to Restart Solaris User Registration 91

    H How to Disable User Registration 91

    4. Managing Server and Client Support Topics 93

    5. Managing Server and Client Support (Overview) 95

    What Are Servers and Clients? 95

    What Does Support Mean? 96

    Overview of System Types 96

    Servers 97

    Standalone Systems 98

    JavaStation Client 98

    6. Shutting Down and Booting a System Topics 99

    7. Shutting Down and Booting a System (Overview) 101

    Whats New in Shutting Down and Booting a System? 101

    Booting a System Over the Network With DHCP 102

    IA: Booting From CD-ROM Without the Solaris Boot Diskette 102

    Where to Find Shutting Down and Booting Tasks 102

    Shutting Down and Booting Terminology 103

    Guidelines for Shutting Down a System 103

    Contents 5

  • Guidelines for Booting a System 104

    Performing a Reconfiguration Boot 104

    When to Shut Down a System 105

    When to Boot a System 106

    8. Run Levels and Boot Files (Tasks) 109

    Run Levels 109

    H How to Determine a Systems Run Level 110

    The /etc/inittab File 111

    ExampleDefault inittab File 112

    What Happens When the System Is Brought to Run Level 3 113

    Run Control Scripts 115

    Using a Run Control Script to Stop or Start Services 116

    H How to Use a Run Control Script to Stop or Start a Service 116

    Adding a Run Control Script 117

    H How to Add a Run Control Script 117

    Disabling a Run Control Script 118

    H How to Disable a Run Control Script 118

    Run Control Script Summaries 119

    9. Shutting Down a System (Tasks) 123

    When to Shut Down the System 123

    How to Shut Down a System 124

    When to Turn Off Power to Devices 125

    Notifying Users of System Down Time 125

    H How to Determine Who Is Logged in to a System 126

    H How to Shut Down a Server 126

    H How to Shut Down a Standalone System 130

    H How to Turn Off Power to All Devices 132

    10. SPARC: Booting a System (Tasks) 133

    6 System Administration Guide, Volume 1 February 2000

  • SPARC: Using the Boot PROM 134

    H SPARC: How to Switch to the ok Prompt 134

    H SPARC: How to Find the PROM Release for a System 134

    H SPARC: How to Change the Default Boot Device 134

    H SPARC: How to Reset the System 137

    SPARC: Booting a System 137

    H SPARC: How to Boot a System to Run Level 3 (Multiuser State) 138

    H SPARC: H

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