of 20 /20
OLR(1981)28(8) 585 Benzo(a)pyrene levels in pristine Mackenzie River Delta and Beaufort Sea sediments did not correlate with human impact areas, indicating a 'natural' rather than an anthropogenic source for the hydro- carbons. British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, 601 West 10th Ave., Vancouver, B.C., Canada V5Z IL3. (izs) 81:4270 Tomlinson, D.L., J.G. Wilson, C.R. Harris and D.W. Jeffrey, 1980. Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgoldnder Meeresunters., 33(1/4):566-575. Levels reported here have been used to suggest a baseline concentration for heavy metals in estuaries. The concept of a baseline is fundamental to the formation of a 'Biological Quality Index' and 'Pollution Load Index;' a formula for such an index is suggested and tested at a preliminary level against published data. School of Botany, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. 81:4271 Vollbrecht, Kurt, 1980. Suspended matter and heavy metal content of the Elhe Estuary. A contribution to the problem of the self purification ability of the estuary regions of rivers. Dt. hydrogr. Z., 33(3):91-109. (In German, English abstract.) Because there can be particulate exchange between the bottom and suspended matter during the tidal cycle, heavy metals sorbed to such matter may enter the sediments even if active sedimentation on larger time scales cannot be confirmed. The concentration of heavy metals bound or sorbed to suspended matter is investigated. Two findings: 'binding pro- cesses are going very rapidly' and the metal ion absorbing capacity of the Elbe Estuary is very large. C240. Corrosion 81:4272 Rajagopalan, K.S., M. Raghavan, N.S. Rengas- wamy, T.M. Balasubramanian and V.S. Mura- lidharan, 1981. Corrosion studies on certain copper based alloys in synthetic seawater con- taining traces of ammonia. Mater. Perform., 20(1): 19-27. Laboratory observations under various flow con- ditions revealed that the addition of >1 ppm ammonia increases the corrosion of both Admiralty brass and aluminum brass. The corrosion rate of 90/10 cupronickel was slightly increased while the behavior of 70/30 cupronickel was unchanged. With appropriate constraints these results may be ex- trapolated to field conditions. Central Electro- chemical Res. Inst., Karaikudi, India. (fss) D. SUBMARINE GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS DIO. Apparatus and methods 81:4273 Brunner, F.K., R. Coleman and B. Hirsch, 1981. A comparison of computation methods for crustal strains from geodetic measurements. Tectono- physics, 71(1/4):281-298. Dept. of Geodesy, Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, N.S.W. 2033, Australia. 81:4274 Datt, Ram, 1981. Seismic velocity structure using array data. Phys. Earth planet. Interiors, 24(1): 33-52. The P-wave velocity structure for the Warramunga area north of Australia is determined from 200 array-recorded events and detailed regional travel- time curves. An LVZ is proposed between 210 and 330 km, along with seven steep gradient zones between 330 and 1065 km. Seismology Sect., ~.A.R.C., Bombay 400 085, India. (bas) 81:4275 Graebner, Robert, Cam Wason and Hans Meinar- dus, 1981. Three-dimensional methods in seismic exploration. Science, 211(4482):535-540. A thumbnail sketch of the seismic reflection method --the physical principles, its history and interpre-

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Page 1: Submarine geology and geophysics

OLR(1981)28(8) 585

Benzo(a)pyrene levels in pristine Mackenzie River Delta and Beaufort Sea sediments did not correlate with human impact areas, indicating a 'natural ' rather than an anthropogenic source for the hydro- carbons. British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, 601 West 10th Ave., Vancouver, B.C., Canada V5Z IL3. (izs)

81:4270 Tomlinson, D.L., J.G. Wilson, C.R. Harris and D.W.

Jeffrey, 1980. Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgoldnder Meeresunters., 33(1/4):566-575.

Levels reported here have been used to suggest a baseline concentration for heavy metals in estuaries. The concept of a baseline is fundamental to the formation of a 'Biological Quality Index' and 'Pollution Load Index;' a formula for such an index is suggested and tested at a preliminary level against published data. School of Botany, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.

81:4271 Vollbrecht, Kurt, 1980. Suspended matter and heavy

metal content of the Elhe Estuary. A contribution to the problem of the self purification ability of the estuary regions of rivers. Dt. hydrogr. Z., 33(3):91-109. (In German, English abstract.)

Because there can be particulate exchange between the bottom and suspended matter during the tidal cycle, heavy metals sorbed to such matter may enter the sediments even if active sedimentation on larger time scales cannot be confirmed. The concentration of heavy metals bound or sorbed to suspended matter is investigated. Two findings: 'binding pro- cesses are going very rapidly' and the metal ion absorbing capacity of the Elbe Estuary is very large.

C240. Corrosion

81:4272 Rajagopalan, K.S., M. Raghavan, N.S. Rengas-

wamy, T.M. Balasubramanian and V.S. Mura- lidharan, 1981. Corrosion studies on certain copper based alloys in synthetic seawater con- taining traces of ammonia. Mater. Perform., 20(1): 19-27.

Laboratory observations under various flow con- ditions revealed that the addition of >1 ppm ammonia increases the corrosion of both Admiralty brass and aluminum brass. The corrosion rate of 90/10 cupronickel was slightly increased while the behavior of 70/30 cupronickel was unchanged. With appropriate constraints these results may be ex- trapolated to field conditions. Central Electro- chemical Res. Inst., Karaikudi, India. (fss)


DIO. Apparatus and methods

81:4273 Brunner, F.K., R. Coleman and B. Hirsch, 1981. A

comparison of computation methods for crustal strains from geodetic measurements. Tectono- physics, 71(1/4):281-298. Dept. of Geodesy, Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, N.S.W. 2033, Australia.

81:4274 Datt, Ram, 1981. Seismic velocity structure using

array data. Phys. Earth planet. Interiors, 24(1): 33-52.

The P-wave velocity structure for the Warramunga area north of Australia is determined from 200 array-recorded events and detailed regional travel- time curves. An LVZ is proposed between 210 and 330 km, along with seven steep gradient zones between 330 and 1065 km. Seismology Sect., ~.A.R.C., Bombay 400 085, India. (bas)

81:4275 Graebner, Robert, Cam Wason and Hans Meinar-

dus, 1981. Three-dimensional methods in seismic exploration. Science, 211(4482):535-540.

A thumbnail sketch of the seismic reflection method - - the physical principles, its history and interpre-

Page 2: Submarine geology and geophysics

586 D. Submarine Geology and Geophysics OLR (1981) 28 (8)

tation of field data--is presented. The value of the three-dimensional technique, which requires dense sampling of the subsurface, for detecting and correctly delineating small geologic structures justi- fies its use for oil exploration, despite the expense involved. Science Services Division, Texas Instru- ments Inc., Dallas, Tex. 75265, USA. (hbf)

D40. Area studies, surveys, bathymetry

81:4276 Bryant, Edward, 1980. Bathymetric changes in three

estuaries [Botany, Broken, Brisk bays] of the central New South Wales coast. A ust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res., 31(5):553-571. Dept. of Geog- raphy, Univ. of Wollongong, P.O. Box 1144, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia.

81:4277 Hanada, Masaaki, Masaaki Igarashi and Akinobu

Sato, 1980. Submarine topography of Suruga Bay [Japan]. J. Sch. mar. Sci. Technol., Tokai Univ., 13:17-28. (In Japanese, English abstract.)

Detailed bathymetry of Suruga Bay shows stepped shelf edges of measured depths inconsistent with the previously accepted 130 m; the complex topography includes basin, slope, trough, submarine canyon and trench features. Includes a bathymetric map and topographic sections. (slr)

D50. Subsurface structure

81:4278 Anderson, R.C. and D.J. Taylor, 1981. Very high

amplitude seismic anomaly in Georges Bank Trough, Atlantic continental margin. Am. Ass. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 65(1):133-144.

Atlantic continental margin profiles (since 1972) reveal a very high-amplitude unique reflection anomaly on line 12 (~4175 m depth), possibly caused by hydrocarbon accumulation in a porous carbonate reservoir rock. Two-dimensional model- ling investigations show that models of a porous carbonate containing gas and a salt lens are capable of producing similar anomalies while an igneous intrusive rock model is not. Taylor: U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colo. 80225, USA. (ahm)

81:4279 Ferguson, S.R., M.P. Hochstein and A.C. Kibble-

white, 1980. Seismic refraction studies in the

northern Hanraki Gull New Zealand. N.Z. Jl Geol. Geophys., 23(1):17-25.

A 50 km reversed profile run between Cape Rodney and the Moko Hinau Islands penetrated to about 5 km and was recorded by both a towed hydrophone array and fixed ocean floor hydrophones. A seismic section for continental margin sediments and base- ment is proposed and correlated with the tectonic environment. Oceanography Dept., Univ. of Liver- pool, U.K. (bus)

81:4280 Iunov, A.Iu. and A.B. Troitskii, 1980. Correlation of

the reference seismic horizon A and the velocity characteristic of the sedimentary complex within the continental margin of North-West Africa. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 255(1):162-165. (In Russian.)

81:42,81 Mukhopadhyay, Manoj and R.A. Gibb, 1981. Grav-

ity anomalies and deep structure of eastern Hudson Bay. Tectonophysics, 72(1/2):43-60.

Marine and land gravity data for eastern Hudson Bay and five profiles of the Cape Smith and Belcher foldbelts suggest that the boundary between Supe- rior and the thicker and denser Churchill crust is a collisional suture zone. A positive-negative paired anomaly is found to extend from the Cape Smith foldbelt to the Belcher Islands; paleomagnetic data from the islands support a two-plate collision interpretation. Dept. of Energy, Mines and Re- sources, Ottawa, Ont. K1A 0Y3, Canada. (bas)

81:4282 Riad, S., E. Refai and M. Ghalib, 1981. Bouguer

anomalies and crustal structure in the eastern Mediterranean. Tectonophysics, 71 (1/4):253-266.

Bouguer anomalies averaged over a 10" grid are used to determine crustal structure and thickness; two new formulae relating average gravity and elevation with crustal thickness are deduced. The resulting Moho surface map suggests two crustal types, and indicates several features of the subduc- tion and collision zones under Cyprus. Geology Dept., Faculty of Science, Kuwait Univ., Kuwait. (bus)

81:4283 Roberts, D.G., D.G. Masson and P.R. Miles, 1981.

Age and structure of the southern Rockall Trough: new evidence. Earth planet. Sci. Letts, 52(1): 115-128.

New seismic and magnetic data indicate the pres- ence of a post-Albian/pre-Maastrichtian spreading

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OLR (1981) 28 (8J D. Submarine Geology and Geophysics 587

axis in the mouth of the Rockall Trough. Recon- struction and magnetic anomaly models provide an oceanic crust width in the trough of ~120 kin. WNW-ESE spreading about a N-S axis is indicated by fracture zone trends. Inst. of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley, Godalming, Surrey GU8 5UB, U.K. (hbf)

81:4284 Schlee, J.S., 1981. Seismic stratigraphy of Baltimore

Canyon Trough. Am. Ass. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 65(1):26-53.

Seismic reflection analysis is used to delineate 8 depositional sequences and infer their depositional environments; this acoustically derived information is then compared with some existing drill-hole data. Basin subsidence, deposition rates and unconformi- ties are among the features described; presence of a carbonate platform edging the trough during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous is confirmed. Includes seismic profiles, stratigraphic sections, and isopach maps. U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, USA. (slr)

D60. Geomorphology (fans, canyons, etc.)

81:4285 Khrischev, Kh. et al., 1980. Submarine valleys on the

western Black Sea Basin slope. Geologica balc., 10(3): 109-120. Geological Inst., Bulgarian Acad- emy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.

D70. Coasts, beaches, marshes

81:4286 Bartholdy, Jes]~er, 1980. Sediments and dynamics in

the Varde A Estuary [western Denmark]. Geograf. Tidsskr., 80:64-71. Geographical Inst., Univ. of Copenhagen, Haraldsgade 68, DK-2100 Copen- hagen 9, Denmark.

81:4287 Bowman, Dan, 1981. Efficiency of eigenfunctions for

discriminant analysis of subaerial non-tidal beach profiles. Mar. Geol., 39(3/4):243-258.

Fortnightly profiles taken over the course of a year along the southern Mediterranean coast of Israel indicate that the first eigenfunction had little value for beach classification, but the second agreed well with scour-and-fill calculations and morphology. Dept. of Geography, Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheva, Israel. (fcs)

81:4288 Dabrio, C.J. and M.D. Polo, 1981. Flow regime and

bedforms in a ridge and runnel system, S.E. Spain. Sedim. Geol., 28(2):97-110. Dept. de Estratigrafia, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Granada, Spain.

81:4289 Ferentinos, George and Michael Collins, 1980.

Effects of shoreline irregularities on a rectilinear tidal current and their significance in sedimen- tation processes. J. sedim. Petrology, 50(4): 1081- 1094.

Tidal current patterns and sedimentary environ- ments associated with embayments and coastal irregularities in the northern Bristol Channel (U.K.) are examined, described and then compared with those along similar segments of the British coast. The interaction of offshore rectilinear tidal currents with coastal irregularities produces flow separation down- stream; resulting tidally-induced eddies form flat mud deposits (maintained entirely by the eddies) or sand ridges (whose relief, once formed, brings Smith's and Huthnance's mechanisms into play as well). Dept. of Oceanography, Univ. College of Swansea, Swansea, South Wales, U.K. (hbf)

81:4290 Garofalo, Donald, 1980. The influence of wetland

vegetation on tidal stream channel migration and morphology. Estuaries, 3(4):258-270.

A comparison (via wetland aerial photography) showed the average migration rate of freshwater channels to be .32 m/yr (sinuosity index !.46); average migration rate for saline channels was .21 m/yr (s.i. 1.95). Differences in vegetation and consequent soil retention capacities are apparently responsible. Both environments approximate a bal- anced, low-energy system under normal conditions; channel migration is thought to be primarily a storm phenomenon. Earth Satellite Corp., 7222 47th St., Washington, D.C. 20015, USA. (hbf)

81:4291 Schwing, F.B. and BjOrn Kjerfve, 1980. Longitudinal

characterization of a tidal marsh creek separating two hydrographically distinct estuaries. Estuaries, 3(4):236-241.

Jones Creek, South Carolina, connects 2 distinct estuarine systems. Hydrographic measurements in- dicate the existence of a Jones Creek nodal point, an effective barrier limiting flow exchange between the end regions of the creek. Morphologic and vege- tation observations and water quality ratings suggest

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588 D. Submarine Geology and Geophysics OLR ( 1981 ) 28 (8)

that this is a permanent feature. Dept. of Geology, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. 29208, USA.

DIIO. Erosion

81:4292 Mayer, Larry, 1981. Erosional troughs in deep-sea

carbonates and their relationship to basement structure. Mar. Geol., 39(1/2):59-80.

Erosional troughs, located above basement highs and in areas of rapid carbonate accumulation, are analyzed using deep-tow data from an area in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Formation requires a 'proper combination of basement steepness, sedi- mentation rate, accumulation thickness, and sedi- ment erodability.' Mechanisms for trough origin are discussed. Univ. of Rhode Island, School of Ocean- ography, Narragansett, R.I., USA. (bas)

DI20. Sedimentary processes (deposition, diagenesis, etc.)

81:4293 Arakel, A.V., 1980. Genesis and diagenesis of

Holocene evaporitic sediments in Hutt and l_~eman lagoons, Western Australia. J. sedim. Petrology, 50(4): i 305-1326.

A hydrodynamical and geochemical investigation of marine, alluvial and evaporite sediments, deposited during the last 18,000 years in these two Perth Basin lagoons, provides the basis for a sedimentological model of shallow coastal evaporite basins. Four stages--open marine embayment, marine lagoon, evaporite pond, and pond-playa--are recognized and described. Includes many micrographs and an appendix: Classification scheme for gypsum rock types. Uranerz Australia Pty. Ltd., P.O. Box 201, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008. (hbf)

81:4294 Bampi, F. and A. Morro, 1981. Mixture approach to

a model for sediment transport. Phys. Fluids, 24(2) :209-213.

Wave-caused sediment transport is modelled assum- ing the sediments behave as a dilute suspension and accounting for viscosity and heat conduction of the inert fluids using hidden variables. This results in a hyperbolic system of equations and 'allows for exceptional transverse waves.' Inst. of Mathematics, Univ. of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy. (bas)

81:4295 Berner, R.A. and Susumu Honjo, 1981. Pelagic

sedimentation of arugonite: its geochemical sig- nificance. Science, 211(4485):940-942.

X-ray diffraction and chemical analyses of trapped sediments from the South Atlantic Rio Grande Rise indicate that the aragonite flux constitutes a mini- mum of 12% of the worldwide calcium carbonate flux. Dissolution of aragonite and high-Mg calcite in deeper water may be important in the neutralization of excess anthropogenic CO 2. Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Yale Univ., New Haven, Conn. 06520, USA. (hbf)

81:4296 Gibbs, R.J., 1981. Sites of river-derived sedimenta-

tion in the ocean. Geology, geol. Soc. Am., 9(2):77-80.

With the present higher sea level, continental shelves and estuaries trap most fluvial sediments short of their respective submarine fans; sea level will probably change before most river systems fill the intervening area and once again deposit on the fans (shortest estimated time is several thousand years for the Ganges-Brahmaputra; others are on the order of 1 m.y.). College of Marine Studies, Univ. of Delaware, Newark, Del. 19711, USA. (dine)

81:4297 Hoskin, C.M., 1980. Flux of barnacle plate fragments

and fecal pellets measured by sediment traps. J. sedim. Petrology, 50(4):1213-1217. Harbor Branch Foundation, Inc., RR 1, Box 196, Fort Pierce, Fla. 33450, USA.

81:4298 Krom, M.D. and R.A. Berner, 1981. The diagenesis

of phosphorus in a nearshore marine sediment. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 45(2):207-216.

New data on P in anoxic, fine-grained Long Island Sound sediments are provided. Chemical analyses, laboratory experiments, published data and math- ematical modelling are combined to show that: (i) most P O 4 in the bioturbated zone (~10 cm) is released during ferric oxyhydroxide reduction; (2) below 10 cm organic matter decomposition, coupled to bacterial SO 4 reduction and NH 3 formation, is the major PO 4 source; and (3) flux of dissolved PO4 out of the sediment to overlying water results from PO4 liberation in the upper 1 cm of sediment. Prediction of organic P profiles from dissolved PO 4 below the bioturbated zone is discussed. Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Yale Univ., New Haven, Conn. 06520, USA. (bwt)

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OLR (1981) 28 (8) D. Submarine Geology and Geophysics 589

81:4299 McCave, J.N., P.F. Lonsdale, C.D. Hollister and

W.D. Gardner, 1980. Sediment transport over the Hatton and Gardar contourite drifts. J. sedim. Petrology, 50(4): 1049-1062.

The muddy contourites of Gardar Drift and the sandier contourites of Hatton Drift, located in the northeastern Atlantic Iceland Basin, were examined along two transects using numerous profiles and sonar and camera images. Gardar contourites are deposited from a 300-m thick nepheloid layer containing fine-grained sediments transported by Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water. In contrast the sandier Hatton deposits, while including mud de- rived from a locally-generated nepheloid layer, are of winnowed foraminiferal, turbidite and scour sands moved by a strong boundary current. Includes bottom photos. School of Environ. Sciences, Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich, U.K. (hbf)

81:4300 Naylor, M.A., 1980. The origin of Inverse grading in

muddy debris flow deposits--a review. J. sedim. Petrology, 50(4): 1111-1116.

Inverse grading involves an upward increase in either clast size, percentage or both. The strength loss (sensitivity) that clay suffers on deformation can explain inverse grading; other processes which may contribute are reduced buoyancy due to dilation strength/fabric anisotropy, variable clast fall-out rate, inherited stratification (e.g., mud d~collement in slumps) and sediment assimilation during flow. Coarse lag deposits should occur upslope of inverse- ly graded deposits. Koninklijke Shell Exploratie en Produktie Lab., Volmerlaan 6, Rijswijk ZH, Nether- lands.

D130. Sediments (rocks, formations, type, composit ion, etc.)

81:4301 Balkhanov, V.V. and A.V. Razvalyayev, 1981. The

origin of the manganese deposits of the western shore of the Red Sea (in association with rifting). Int. Geol. Rev., 23(2):162-166. (Russian origi- nal. ) Scientific-Research Institute of Foreign Geology, USSR.

81:4302 Berryman, J.G., 1981. Elastic wave propagation in

fluid-saturated porous media. J. acoust. Soc. A m., 69(2):416-424.

Two types of porous media (fully- and partially- consolidated granular constituents) are considered in the derivation of coefficients in the strain energy

functional of Biot's theory. Good agreement is found with experimental data; both fast and slow com- pressional wave speeds agree to within 3% with theoretical predictions. Bell Labs.,Whippany, N.J. 07981, USA. (mcs)

81:4303 Brown, P.J., Robert Ehrlich and D.J. Coiquhoun,

1980. Origin of patterns of quartz sand types on the southeastern United States continental shelf and implications on contemporary shelf sedimen- tationmFourier grain shape analysis. J. sedim. Petrology, 50(4): 1095-1100.

Quartz sands formed areally discrete zones with different shape characteristics from Charleston Harbor, South Carolina to Cape Fear, North Carolina. The nature and location of these sand zones can be used to gain insights into the past and present hydrodynamic history of the margin (Pleisto- cene-Holocene). The presence and preservation of coast-perpendicular sand bands emphasize the relict character of the fine sand on the shelf and the inability of bottom currents to produce significant shore-parallel net transport. Mobil Oil Exploration and Production Southeast, Inc., New Orleans, La. 70113, USA.

81:4304 Crevello, P.D. and Wolfgang Schlager, 1980. Car-

bonate debris sheets and turbidites, Exuma Sound, Bahamas. J. sedim. Petrology, 50(4): 1121-1147.

Stratigraphy of a modern carbonate basin between carbonate platforms shows three clastic layers: two lobe-shaped turbidites that have travelled 10--15 km each and have volumes of about 107 m3; and a broad debris flow, capped by a turbidite, which covers the basin floor, has no point source, appears to have travelled 100 km, and has a volume in excess of 10 t7 m 3. Biostratigraphic data suggest debris flow depo- sition 80,000 to 120,000 yr B.P. Includes core x-radiographs, seismic reflection profiles and micro- graphs. Marathon Oil Co., P.O. Box 269, Littleton, Colo. 80160, USA. (dine)

81:4305 Flood, R.D., 1981. Longitudinal triangular ripples in

the Blake-Bahama Basin. Mar. Geol., 39(1/2): M 13-M20.

The 15-cm high by 75-cm wide by 2-10 m long ripples vary in orientation over several kilometers, are of coarse sandy muds and are created by bottom current flow. Near the field extremities they appear to be buried, suggesting that the ripple field is not now active. These ripples are perhaps commonly

Page 6: Submarine geology and geophysics

590 D. Submarine Geology and Geophysics OLR (1981) 28 18)

developed in areas episodically swept by strong currents. Includes bottom photos. Lamont-Doherty Geol. Observ. of Columbia Univ,, Palisades, N.Y. 10964, USA.

81:4306 Hovland, Martin, 1981. Characteristics of pockmarks

in the Norwegian Trench. Mar. Geol., 39(1/2): 103-117.

Pockmarks, 2-300 m diameter, are found in soft, silty clays and are often underlain by 'fountains' or disturbances suggestive of vertical migration of gas or liquid (e.g., oil) through fissures or vents. Investigations of a 3-km wide strip across the Norwegian Trench using deep-towed, high-resolu- tion, single-channel side-scan sonar and subbottom profiles 'tempt' the suggestion that the pockmarks may be caused by seepage from deep-lying oil or gas reservoirs. Engineering Dept., Statoil, N.4001 Stavanger, Norway. (bas)

81:4307 Jorgensen, N.O., 1981. Authigenic K-feldspar in

recent submarine gypsum concretions from Den- mark. Mar. Geol., 39(I/2):M21-M25. Inst. for historisk Geol. og Palaeont., Kobenshavns Univ. DK-1350, Copenhagen K, Denmark.

81:4308 Kidd, R.B. and Q.J. Huggett, 1981. Rock debris on

abyssal plains in the northeast Atlantic: a com- parison of epibenthic sledge hauls and photo- graphic surveys. Oceanologica Acta, 4(1):99-104.

Quantitative estimates from photographic surveys show a discrepancy with those from sledge hauls. Ice-rafted debris on present-day abyssal plains appears confined to areas north of 40°N. Clinker material dumped during the steamship era is of greater extent on abyssal plains than any debris deposited by geologic agents. Includes 10 bottom photos. Inst. of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley, Surrey GU8 5UB, UK.

81:4309 Lewis, K.B., A.T. Utanga, P.J. Hill and S.G. Kingan,

1980. The origin of channel-fill sands and gravels on an algal-dominated reef terrace, Rarotonga, Cook Islands. S. Pacif. mar. geol. Notes, U.N., Suva, 2(1): 1-23. Includes sonograph mosaics and aerial photos. NZOI, Wellington North, New Zealand.

81:4310 Orwig, T.L., 1981. Channeled turbidites in the eastern

Central Pacific Basin. Mar. Geol., 39(1/2):33-57.

Detailed surveys reveal thick layers of pelagic nannofossil-foraminiferal ooze on the flanks of Line Islands Ridge and in the Central Basin Rise. Interbedded calcareous turbidites and radiolarian ooze derived from these areas fill the Kingman Basin. Since the Eocene, calcareous turbidites originating on the upper Central Basin Rise have flowed through 3 graben-formed valleys being deposited in structurally controlled channels in the abyssal plains to the southwest. Includes seismic profiles and fold-out bathymetric sediment distri- bution, structural contour and lithofacies maps. Exxon Bldg., 800 Bell, 2255 Office P, Houston, Tex. 77002, USA, (hbf)

81:4311 Robb, J.M., J.C. Hampson Jr. and D.C. Twichell,

1981. Geomorphology and sediment stability of a segment of the U.S. continental slope off New Jersey. Science, 211(4485):935-937.

Data reveal a complex relief surface underlain by a thin layer of Holocene sediments capping a seaward thinning wedge of Pleistocene silts and clays above a Pliocene or early Pleistocene unconformity. There is little evidence for active slumping, although such action may have been important during the Pleisto- cene extension of canyons and valleys. U.S.G.S., Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, USA. (hbf)

81:4312 Siddiquie, H.N., D. Gopala Rao, K.H. Vora and

R.S. Topgi, 1981. Acoustic masking in sediments due to gases on the western continental shelf of India. Mar. Geol., 39(1/2):M27-M37.

India's continental shelf, from Bombay to Cochin, has been surveyed (tracks spaced at 20 km perpen- dicular to the coast) by echosounding, side-scan sonar, 5kHz seismics, and magnetics, and has been sampled with grabs, snappers, dredging and coring. Acoustically transparent clays blanket the inner and middle shelf to 50-60 m depth. Analyses suggest that gases in these sediments are biogenic in origin and that outer shelf gases are petrogenic. Includes seismic profiles, clay isopachs and lithologic logs. National Inst. of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India. (bas)

81:4313 Simone, Lucia, 1980/81. Ooids: a review. Earth-Sci.

Rev., 16(4):319-355.

Growth and transformation, and environmental conditions for the development of ooids (carbonate grains externally resembling fish eggs with concen- tric and/or radial internal structure) found in the geologic record from the Precambrian through the

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OLR (1981) 28 (8) D. Submarine Geology and Geophysics 591

Recent, are reviewed. Includes numerous photos and micrographs and ca. 100 references. Geology and Geophysics Inst., Naples Univ., Italy. (dme)

metal solubility. Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 55455, USA. (izs)

D140. Submarine hydrology (springs, hydro thermal deposits, etc.)

81:4314 Bonnot-Courtois, Chantal, 1981. Rare-earth elements

distribution in hydrothermal deposits from the FAMOUS and Galapagns areas--comparison with metalliferous sediments. Mar. Geol., 39(1/2):1-14. (In French, English abstract.)

Hydrothermal deposits recovered, composed mainly of clay material, have very poor REE concentrations ( ( 1 0 ppm). The shale-normalized patterns show significant enrichment in heavy rare earths and a negative Ce anomaly generally lower than the seawater Ce anomaly. The geochemistry is in contrast with that of metalliferous sediments which are more enriched in trace elements, especially in REE. Lab. de Geochimie des Roches Sedimentaires, Univ. de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, France.

81:4315 Grill, E.V., R.L. Chase, R.D. MacDonald and J.W.

Murray, 1981. A hydrothermai deposit from Explorer Ridge in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Earth planet. Sci. Letts, 52(1):142-150.

Nontronite and ferromanganese oxide crusts, similar to FAMOUS and Galapagos hydrothermal deposits, were dredged from the northern end of the spreading Explorer Ridge off western Canada. Chemical analysis suggests a complex depositional history involving numerous, intermittent ejections of hydro- thermal fluids and rapid mixing with seawater. Dept. of Oceanography, Univ. of British Columbia, Van- couver, B.C. V6T 1W5, Canada. (hbf)

81:4316 Seyfried, W.E. Jr. and J.L. Bischoff, 1981. Exper-

imental seawater-basalt interaction at 300°C, 500 bars, chemical exchange, secondary mineral for- mation and implications for the transport of heavy metals. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 45(2):135- 147.

After several months' reaction, seawater chemistry was significantly modified, basalt glass was com- pletely replaced, and diabase was partially replaced; resulting alteration assemblages agreed reasonably with solution-mineral equilibria predictions. Low heavy-metal solubilities were observed discounting chloride complexing as a major enhancer of heavy-

D170. Historical geology, stratigraphy

81:4317 Bradshaw, J.D. (comment) and D.G. Howell (reply),

1981. Forum. Mesozoic accretion of exotic terranes along the New Zealand segment of Gondwanaland. Geology, geol. Soc. Am., 9(3): 100-103.

81:4318 Carmichael, D.P., 1980. A record of environmental

change during recent millennia in the Hackensack tidal marsh, New Jersey. Bull. Torrey bot. Club, 107(4):514-524.

Correlations of pollen, spore, seed, and Foraminifera stratigraphy with radiocarbon dates for a 3.8 m sediment section (representing a 2600 yr record) agree with the post-glacial rise in sea level indicated by studies of other U.S. northeastern coastal marshes. Dept. of Biology, New York Univ., New York, N.Y. 10003, USA. (mjj)

81:4319 Dalziel, I.W.D. et al., 1981. The geological signif-

icance of some Triassic microfossils from the South Orkney Islands, Scotia Ridge. Geol. Mag., ! 18(1): 15-25.

Recovery of Late Triassic Radiolaria enables the first reliable dating of at least part of the basement complex of the South Orkney Islands; results are consistent with a Late Triassic or Early Jurassic accretion of a subduction complex including these islands to the Pacific margin of Gondwanaland. Lamont Doherty Geological Observ., Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y. 10027, USA. (mjj)

81:4320 Dean, W.E., J.V. Gardner and Pavel (~epek, 1981.

Tertiary carbonate-dissolution cycles on the Sierra Leone Rise, eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Geol., 39(1/2):81-101.

The DSDP Site 366 continuous sedimentary record (relatively free from terrigenous detritus) provides an ideal low-latitude, Cenozoic reference section. Anal- ysis suggests that CaCO 3 dissolution was the main cause of observed cyclic variations in CaCO3-clay content; this variability is attributed to shoaling of the CCD (lysocline) and climatically induced changes in the depth of Antarctic Bottom Water.

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Cyclic periodicities are similar to those observed in Pleistocene sediments of the eastern equatorial Atlantic. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colo. 80225, USA. (hbf)

81:4321 Dott, R.H. Jr., 1979. Paleolatitude and paleoclimate.

Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. Arts Letts, 67:4-13.

Paleoclimatic data for North America are reviewed with special emphasis on paleowind indicators and stratigraphic intervals of the Early Paleozoic. Paleo- latitudes suggested by geomagnetic data are qualita- tively supported by reef distribution and species diversity patterns, indicating an equatorial position for Paleozoic North America. Difficulties remain, however, in the reconciliation of the 'hardly dis- putable' Eocambrian glaciation with the paleo- magnetic evidence. Dept. of Geology and Geo- physics, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc., USA. (hbf)

81:4322 Elliott, G.F., 1980/81. The Tethyan dispersal of some

chlorophyte algae subsequent to the Palaeozoic. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 32(3/4):341-358.

The fossil distribution of living representatives of Dasycladales and Caulerpales species from shallow marine waters of tropical and subtropical latitudes can be explained by Tethyan shelf-sea migrations; if a similar proportion of non-calcified (and therefore normally non-fossilized) species existed in the past, the abrupt appearances and disappearances leading to an incomplete record are quite explicable. Dept. of Paleontology, British Museum, London, U.K. (hbf)

81:4323 Harmon, R.S., L.S. Land, R.M. Mitterer, Peter

Garrett, H.P. Schwarcz and G.J. Larson, 1981. Bermuda sea level during the last interglacial. Nature, Lond., 289(5797):481-483.

A highly detailed reworking (absolute 23°Th/234U dating) of Bermuda's geochronology ~135,000- 75,000 yrBP indicates that sea level exceeded its present level only once during that period; during the Devonshire transgression, an absolute high of +4 to +6 m is established for 125 kyr--possibly glacial surge (Aharon et al., 1980), but 'serious doubt' is cast on Hollin's (1980) postulation of a catastrophic surge to + 16 m at ~95 kyr. For the rest of the interglacial, sea level was below approximately -15 m. Isotope Geology Unit, Scottish Univ. Res. and Reactor Centre, East Kilbride G75 0QU, U.K. (sir)

81:4324 Hart, M.B., 1980. The recognition of mid-Cretaceons

sea-level changes by means of Foraminifera. Cret. Res., 1(4):289-297.

Water depth curves (Hart and Bailey, 1979) based on micropaleontological data from SE England have been converted to sequential events in the mid- Cretaceous (Albian-Santonian). Cenomanian and Turonian sea-level variations influenced areal and stratigraphic distributions of Foraminifera and Ostracoda and have 'world wide stratigraphic sig- nificance'. School of Environ. Sciences, Plymouth Polytechnic, Drake's Circus, Plymouth PIA 8AA, Devon, England. (ahm)

81:4325 Kelley, J.T. (comment), D.J.P. Swift, Randy Moir

and G.L. Freeland (reply), 1981. Forum. Quater- nary rivers on the New Jersey shelf: relation of seafloor to buried valleys. Geology, geol. Soc. Am., 9(3):98-99.

81:4326 Kowsmann, R.O., M.A. Vicalvi and M.P. de A.

Costa, 1979. Quaternary sedimentation on the Brazilian continental shelf between Calm Frio and the ltabapoana River. Notic. geomorf., 19(37/38):41-58. (In Portuguese, English ab- stract.) CPgM, Dept. de Geologia, Av. Pasteur 404, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

81:4327 Matsumoto, T., 1980. Inter-regional correlation of

transgressions and regressions in the Cretaceous period. Cret. Res., 1(4):359-373.

Major Cretaceous transgressions and regressions as recorded on the relatively stable continental plat- forms are reviewed and diagrammed. Two or three major cycles are recognized on each platform, indicating extensive transgressions and global tec- tonic activity; major worldwide regression is re- corded at the close of the Cretaceous. The minor transgression-regression cycles which can be dis- tinguished on each platform were not always synchronous. Dept. of Geology, Kyushu Univ. 33, Fukuoka 812, Japan. (hbf)

81:4328 MOrner, N.-A., 1980. Relative sea-level, tectono-

eustasy, geoidal-eustasy and geodynamics during the Cretaceous. Cret. Res., 1(4):329-340.

Geoidal-eustasy (changes in ocean level distribution) is judged to have dominated sea level changes during the Hauterivian, Barremian, Turonian, Santonian, and Maastrichtian; these cycles appear to have been of relatively short duration. Tectono-eustasy

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(changes in oceanic basin volume) is thought to have dominated during the Albian, Cenomanian, Cam- panian, and at the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. Local crustal movements were also operative and modified both regional and global Cretaceous sea level changes. Geol. Inst., Stockholm Univ., Box 6801, S-ll3 86 Stockholm, Sweden. (hbf)

81:4329 Northam, M.A., D.J. Curry, R.S. Scalan and P.L.

Parker, 1981. Stable carbon isotope ratio varia- tions of organic matter in Orca Basin [Gulf of Mexico] sediments. Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 45(2):257-260.

Organic carbon content of the basin cores is consistently 2-3 times greater than that of the control core from outside the basin, and the Pleistocene- Hotocene boundary occurs at a greater sediment depth. A small sampling interval detected an unexplained fine structure in the ~13C profile not previously observed. Univ. of Texas, Marine Science Inst., Port Aransas, Tex. 78373, USA.

81:4330 Rampino, M.R. and J.E. Sanders, 1980. Holocene

transgression in south-central Long Island, New York. J. sedim. Petrology, 50(4): 1063-1079.

Various coring and seismic techniques have revealed a lens-shaped Holocene transgressive sequence preserved in backbarrier areas on Long Island, allowing relative sea level rise chronology over the past 8000 years by radiocarbon dating. NASA, Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, N.Y., N.Y. 10025, USA. (dme)

81:4331 Rampino, M.R. and J.E. Sanders, 1981. Episodic

growth of Holocene tidal marshes in the north- eastern United States: a possible indicator of eustatic sea-level fluctuations. Geology, geol. Soc. Am., 9(2):63-67.

It is proposed that the apparently episodic nature of tidal marsh growth during the Holocene submer- gence (growth periods indicated by peat layers) correlates with times of reduced submergence. Limited radiocarbon dating of peat layers indicates a possible eustatic/climatic cyclicity on the order of 1000 yr. NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, New York, N.Y. 10025, USA. (sir)

81:4332 Reyment, R.A., 1980. Biogeography of the Saharan

Cretaceous and Paleocene epicontinental trans- gressions. Cret. Res., 1(4):299-327.

The paleobiogeography of the Saharan epiconti- nental sea is outlined from the Late Cenomanian to the mid-Paleocene. Ostracod associations from Nigeria, Mali and Libya 'overwhelmingly' point to a South Atlantic-Tethyan connection in the Paleocene. Includes species lists, stratigraphic tables, photos, and ca. 90 references. Paleontologiska Inst., Uppsala Univ., Box 558, S 751 22, Uppsala, Sweden. (izs)

81:4333 Semeniuk, V., 1980. Quaternary stratigraphy of the

tidal flats, King Sound, Western Australia. Jl R. Soc. west. Ansi., 63(3):64-78.21 Glenmere Road, Warwick, Western Australia 6024.

81:4334 Siesser, W.G. and R.V. Dingle, 1981. Tertiary

sea-level movements around southern Africa. J. Geol., 89(1):83-96.

A 'surprising degree' of regional Tertiary sea level correspondence with global cycles is established showing four major transgressive/regressive se- quences: (l) Late Paleocene-Early Eocene rise, Mid-Eocene fall; (2) Late Eocene rise, Oligocene- Early Miocene fall; (3) Mid-Late Miocene rise, latest Miocene or earliest Pliocene fall; and (4) Early Pliocene rise, Late Pliocene fall. Sea level at times was apparently up to ~350 m above the present level. Dept. of Geology, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, Tenn., USA. (slr)

81:4335 Thiede, JOrn, 1981. Reworking in Upper Mesozoic

and Cenozoic central Pacific deep-sea sediments. Nature, Lond., 289(5799):667-670.

Observations on intruded, displaced microfossils --foraminifers, coccoliths, diatoms and radiolarians --contained in cores from 35 DSDP sites in the central Pacific suggest that for the past 40 Myr there have been intermittent pulses of mechanical rework- ing of sediments by bottom currents. Five peaks of intensive reworking, and hence of erosion and transport of sediments, are distinguished; by con- trast, there is almost a complete lack of reworked Mesozoic material suggesting that sluggish deep-sea current conditions prevailed then. Interestingly, the data indicate that at the end of the Mesozoic, the deep current regime changed ~ 5 Myr before the catastrophic land and surface water extinction events occurred. Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Oslo, P.O. Box 1047, Blindern, Oslo 3, Norway. (sir)

81:4336 Wehmiller, J.F. (comment), K.A. Kvenvolden, D.J.

Blunt and H.E. Clifton (reply), 1981. [Discussion of 'Amino acid racemization in Quaternary shell

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deposits at Wiilapa Bay, Washington.'l Geochim. cosmochim. Acta, 45(2):261-267.

D180. Paleontology (see also E-BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY)

81:4337 Healy-Williams, Nancy and D.F. Williams, 1981.

Fourier analysis of test shape of planktonic Foraminifera. Nature, Lond., 289(5797):485-487.

Closed-form Fourier series analysis can completely and accurately describe the components comprising the shape of microfossils. Applied to Globorotalia truncatufinoides (southern Indian Ocean), this bio- metric analysis reveals that the planktonic foram's conical shape is correlated with water temperature (highly conical in the tropics; more compressed and biconvex in cooler waters), thus providing a useful paleoceanographic index. Dept. of Geology, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. 29208, USA. (mjj)

81:4338 Montanari, Loris, 1980. Elements for taxonomic-

stratigraphic synthesis on Italian Eulepidines (Foraminifera Lepidocyclinidae). Natura, Milano, 71(1/2):35-57. (In Italian, English summary.) Includes many micrographs. 1st. di Paleont. Dell'Universita, Strada Nuova 65, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

81:4339 Scott, G.H., 1980. The value of outline processing in

the biometry and systematics of fossils. Palaeonto- logy, 23(4):757-768.

Outlines of objects contain much significant infor- mation which cannot be completely utilized by visual recognition alone. Biometry provides quan- titative data to supplement qualitative visual per- ception. Analysis of Globorotalia puncticulata (Fora- minifera) is given as an example. N.Z. Geol. Survey, P.O. Box 30368, Lower Hutt, New Zealand. (mjj)

81:4340 Thunell, R.C., 1981. Cenozoic palaeotemperature

changes and planktonic foraminiferal speciation. Nature, Lond., 289(5799):670-672.

Species diversity of planktonic Foraminifera was calculated for each of the 43 time zones of the Cenozoic (past 65 Myr), based on Caribbean marine and terrestrial records. Changes in diversity corre- lated closely with the continually changing palaeo- climate. Dept. of Geology, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. 29208, USA. (mjj)

81:4341 Vincent, Edith, J.S. Killingley and W.H. Berger,

1981. Stable isotope composition of benthic Foraminifera from the equatorial Pacific. Nature, Lond., 289(5799):639-643.

When ranked according to deviation from isotopic equilibrium, deep-sea benthic Foraminifera exhibit no correlation between the rankings for O and C. Both rank sequences are stable from east to west in the equatorial Pacific (fertility-independent) and from Glacial to post-Glacial (time-independent). Records for the past 15,000 yr suggest marked circulation changes. Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif. 92093, USA.

81:4342 Wannier, Mario, 1980. [Structure of the Sidero-

litinae, Foraminifera of the Upper Cretaceous.] Eclog. geol. Helv., 73(3):1009-1029. (In French, English abstract.) Includes drawings, photos and micrographs. Geologisches Inst., Bernoulli- strasse 32, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

81:4343 Wetzel, Andreas and Friedrich Werner, 1980/81.

Morphology and ecological significance of Zoo- phycos in deep-sea sediments off NW Africa. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 32(3/4):185-212.

Zoophyeos burrows, sediment-filled and represented in cross-section by a characteristic series of ares, were found in cores collected off the northwest African continental slope at water depths ~2000 m. Previously observed in Ordovician-Upper Tertiary sediments, the tubes are assumed to be the work of sipunculids. The Zoophycos burrows are widely distributed, well preserved, easily identified and, where numerous, can be used for correlation over long distances. Geologisch-Palaontologisches Inst. der Univ. Kiel, 2300 Kiel, F.R.G. (hbf)

D200. Gravity, geodesy, magnetism 81:4344

Chovitz, B.H., 1981. Modern geodetic Earth refer- ence models. Eos, 62(7):65-67.

This article traces the development of geodetic reference models (defined in both geometrical and physical terms) recognized by IAGqUGG. 'The re- markable improvements [in these models] occurring in recent times are not generally appreciated outside of the narrow geodetic community.' National Ocean Survey, NO~, Washington, D.C., USA. (fcs)

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81:4345 Green, R., J.S. Adkins, H.J. Harrington and M.

Untung, 1981. Bouguer gravity map of Indonesia. Tectonophysics, 71(1/4):267-280. Dept. of Geo- physics, Univ. of New England, Armidale, N.S.W. 2351, Australia.

81:4346 Leibov, M.B. and E.G. Mirlin, 1978. Modelling the

formation of magnetic layers in the axes of mid-oceanic ridges. Phys. sofid Earth (a trans- lation of Fiz. Zemfi), 14(7):499-504.

Extending the Vine-Matthews hypothesis and con- sidering the 'discontinuous introduction of volcanic material' during seafloor spreading, a kinematic model of magnetic layer formation is proposed disregarding 'tectonic fragmentation' of magnetic layers as well as the 'alteration and oxidation of titanomagnetites in pillow lavas.' Reversed polarity in basalts from Layer 2 is explained by lava flow overlap coupled with 'displacement of the center of injection.' M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., USSR. (izs)

81:4347 Lelgemann, D., J. Szameitat and P. Wilson, 1981. On

the design and error characteristics of a fun- damental global geodetic network. Tectono- physics, 71(1/4):1-12.

Laser ranging to satellites and the Moon, Very Long Baseline Interferometry to intergalactic radio sources, and other observations (i.e., gravity) would monitor motion of 10 to 15 stations in the modelled global terrestrial reference system. In the model 'emphasis is placed on the distinction between the kinematic and dynamic representation of the mutual motion of station and reflector points.' Inst. fur Angew. Geod., Weinbergstrasse 9, 6230 Frankfurt am Main-Sindlingen, F.R.G. (bus)

81:4348 Merrill, R.T., 1981. Toward a better theory of thermal

remanent magnetization. J. geophys. Res., 86(B2):937-949.

Although paleomagnetics have been widely used with good results, the underlying TRM theory is not well understood, especially as it applies to non- uniformly magnetized small grains. Several problems and discrepancies with experimental results are discussed, in particular the overestimation of the size and role of the demagnetized field, for which a better explanation is offered. Observed stabilities appear to require a 'cooperative response of domain walls.' Pseudo single domain versus multidomain behavior

is discussed. Dept. of Oceanography, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 98195, USA. (bas)

81:4349 Nakiboglu, S.M. and K. Lambeck, 1981. Deglaeia-

tion related features of the Earth's gravity field. Tectonophysics, 72(3/4):289-303.

The Earth is modelled as a viscoelastic Maxwell body; surface load potential is compared with observed potential and related to resulting gravity and geoid changes. The computed mass redistribu- tion contribution resulting from Late Pleistocene deglaciation exceeds the contribution to the ob- served potential resulting from the Earth's isosta- tically compensated topography. Dept. of Surveying, Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia 4067, Qld., Australia. (hbf)

81:4350 Prilepin, M.T., 1981. The present state and prospects

of development of high-precision geodetic meth- ods for studying recent crustal movements. Tec- tonophysics, 71(1/4):13-25. Moscow Institute of Engineers of Geodesy, Aerophotosurvey and Cartography, Moscow, USSR.

81:4351 Tscherning, C.C., 1981. Comparison of some methods

for the detailed representation of the Earth's gravity field. Revs Geophys. Space Phys., 19(1): 213-221. Geodaetisk Inst., DK-2920 Charlotten- lund, Denmark.

D210. Heat flow

81:4352 Sochel'nikov, V.V. and V.G. Zolotarev, 1978. On a

method of quantitative interpretation of a heat flux anomaly in rift zones (using the Baykal anomaly as an example). Phys. solid Earth (a translation of Fiz. Zemli), 14(12):911-912.

By assuming that additional heat sources (not a conductivity contrast) cause the heat flux anomaly, and then approximating a 2-D geometry of the sources distributed along an infinitely thin flat strip, the lithospheric thickness, shape and depth to the upper edge of the anomalous body may be com- puted. Resulting theoretical curves compare favora- bly with the actual heat flux curve. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, P.P. Shirshov Oceanology Institute, USSR. (bas)

81:4353 Sochel'nikov, V.V. and V.G. Zolotarev, 1978. Nature

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596 D. Submarine Geology and Geophysics OLR (1981 ) 28 (8)

of marine geothermal anomalies. Phys. solid Earth (a translation of Fiz. Zemli), 14(7):515-518.

Marine geothermal measurement methodology is addressed with suggestions for separating conductive and convective heat transfer contributions. P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology, Southern Branch, Academy of Sciences, USSR. (slr)

D240. Local or regional tectonics

81:4354 Acharya, H.K., 1981. Analysis of seismlcity of central

Luzon by pattern recognition. Phys. Earth planet. Interiors, 24(1):53-65.

Pattern recognition methods are applied to mag- nitude 5.5 or greater shallow earthquakes to forecast restricted seismicity zones, establish relations of geologic features with the subduction zone earth- quakes, and to determine the relative worth of pattern recognition studies versus more traditional means. Stone & Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, Mass. 02110, USA. (bas)

81:4355 Baranov, B.V. and L.I. Lobkovskii, 1980. Fine-focus

seismicity in the rear of the Kuril-Island Arc and its connection with the Zavaritsky-Benioff Zone. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 255(1):67-70. (In Russian.)

81:4356 Batiza, Rodey and C.G. Chase, 1981. Miocene

spreading centre south of Isla Guadalupe. Nature, Lond., 289(5800):787-789.

A reinterpretation of Taylor et al.'s (1971) aeromag- netic profiles evidences another Farallon Plate fragment (Guadalupe Plate) in the eastern Pacific, the other fragments being the Juan de Fuca, Rivera, Cocos, and Nazca plates. An ~12.5 mya eastward jump of the Pacific-Farallon Ridge, 'preceded by asymmetric spreading and perhaps pivotal subduc- tion,' is suggested responsible for the fragment's preservation. McDonnell Center for Space Sciences, Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo. 63130, USA. (izs)

81:4357 Bonatti, Enrico and Andy Chermak, 1981. Formerly

emerging crustal blocks in the equatorial Atlantic. Tectonophysics, 72(3/4): 165-180.

Seismic reflection profiles and drilling records near the Romanche Transform Zone suggest that the extent of anomalously high (2-3 km above levels predicted by thermal models) crust is greater than

previously thought and is capped by reef limestones. Related vertical motions are thought to be caused by 'tectonism typical of long offset transforms'. Effects on faunal migration, sedimentation and paleocircu- lation are discussed. Includes several seismic pro- files. Lamont-Doherty Geol. Observ. of Columbia Univ., Palisades, N.Y. 10964, USA. (bus)

81:4358 Cole, J.W. and K.B. Lewis, 1981. Evolution of the

Taupo-Hikurangi subduction system. Tectono- physics, 72(1/2): 1-21.

Morphology and development of the Taupo-Hiku- rangi system, interpreted to be a southerly extension of the Tonga-Kermadec Arc system, indicate evo- lution from an originally NW-trending, oblique subduction of oceanic Pacific Plate material under the rotating, accretionary Indian Plate continental crust along eastern North Island, New Zealand. Geology Dept., Victoria Univ. of Wellington, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand. (has)

81:4359 De Wit, M.J. and C.R. Stern, 1981. Variations in the

degree of crustal extension during formation of a back-are basin. Tectonophysics, 72(3/4):229-260.

Geologic field and geochemical data for southern Chile mafic remnants of a Cretaceous back-arc basin suggest the basin evolved by the interaction of two processes: mantle convection due to subduction and stress release across the plate boundary, also possibly subduction driven. Continental crust response to the convection (and, therefore, the emplacement mech- anism for the mafics) may be determined by the horizontal stress variation. It is proposed that similar lithologies to those observed may underlie passive (Atlantic) margins. Includes fold-out geologic maps and cross-sections. Bernard Price Inst. of Geophys- ical Res., Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. (bas)

81:4360 Green, K.E., R.P. Von Herzen and D.L. Williams,

198 I. The Galapagos Spreading Center at 86°W: a detailed geothermal field study. J. geophys. Res., 86(B2):979-986.

The areal pattern of heat flux on crust ~ 1 m.y. old is developed from 443 measurements on a 570 km: area. The flux is about one-third that predicted, with hydrothermal venting accounting for the remainder. The surface heat flux pattern is linear, trending parallel to the axis, and is principally controlled by hydrothermal circulation and the intrusion of new material. Exxon Production Res. Co., P.O. Box 2189, Houston, Tex. 77001, USA. (bus)

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81:4361 Herd, D.G., T.L. Youd, Hansjargen Meyer, J.L.

Arango C., W.J. Person and Carlos Mendoza, 1981. The great Tumace, Colombia earthquake of 12 December 1979. Science, 211(4481):441-445.

The shallow-focus magnitude 8 earthquake (pre- dicted by Kelleher, 1972) occurred in a region where seismic activity had been absent for more than 70 years. Resultant thrust faulting, subsidence, uplift, ground shaking and liquefaction, and a tsunami are described. U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. 94025, USA. (dme)

81:4362 Horner, F. and W. Lowrie, 1981. Paleomagnetic

evidence from Mesozoic carbonate rocks for the rotation of Sardinia. J. Geophys. (Z. Geophys.), 49(1): 11-19. Inst. for Geophysik, ETH-H0ngger- berg, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.

81:4363 Kohn, B.P. and M. Eyal, 1981. History of uplift of the

crystalline basement of Sinai and its relation to opening of the Red Sea as revealed by fission track dating of apetites. Earth planet. Sci. Letts, 52(1):129-141.

A time table of geologic events associated with rifting and spreading phases of the Red Sea rift system is proposed on the basis of 30 Pre-Cambrian basement apatite samples. Dates do not reflect petrogenesis times, but do establish uplift rates and other temporal relations of rifting events. Dept. of Geology and Mineralogy, Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel. (bas)

81:4364 Molnar, Peter and Paul Tapponnier, 1981. A possible

dependence of tectonic strength on the age of the crust in Asia. Earth planet. Sci. Letts, 52(1): 107- 114.

A correlation between lithosphere age and geo- graphic distribution, intensity, and style of defor- mation in Asia implies that older lithosphere is colder and stronger. The heating and thus strength effects of the last orogenic activity are greater in younger regions, allowing for greater deformation. Deformation in many Asian locations is discussed. Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. (bas)

81:4365 Otofuji, Yo-Ichiro, Sadao Sasajima, Susumu Nishi-

mura, Takuo Yokoyama, Sapri Hadiwisastra and Fred Hehuwat, 1981. Paleomagnetic evi-

dence for the paleopusition of Samba Island, Indonesia. Earth planet. Sci. Letts, 52(1):93-100.

Paleomagnetic data collected during a 1979 expe- dition to Sumba, Sumbawa and Flores provide an independent line of evidence on the evolution of the Indonesian Archipelago. These data and the marine magnetic anomaly pattern indicate that pre-Jurassic Sumba was part of the Australian continent. Some- time during or after the Jurassic Sumba migrated northward and rotated clockwise. The three islands have maintained their present positions since the Miocene. Dept. of Geology and Mineralogy, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Univ., Kyoto 606, Japan. (hbf)

81:4366 Sedov, A.P., 1980. Estimation of the mean subduetion

rates of guyots in the North Pacific. Okeanologiia, 20(6):1054-1058. (In Russian, English abstract.)

Estimates of guyot subduction, based on the ages of their smoothed summits, indicate their vertical subduction results from the horizontal movements of their respective lithospheric plates. (slr)

81:4367 Tapscott, Christopher (comment), Kensaku Tamaki,

Masato Joshima and R.L. Larson (reply), 1981. [Discussion of] 'Remanent Early Cretaceous spreading center in the central Pacific Basin'. J. geophys. Res., 86(B2): 1100-1103.

81:4368 Tinkler, C., J.-J. Wagner, M. Delaloye and H.

Selquk, 1981. Tectonic history of the Hatay ophiolites (south Turkey) and their relation with the Dead Sea Rift. Tectonophysics, 72(1/2): 23-41.

Structural relations and two new geologic sections across the southwest portion of the Kizilda~ massif imply Maestrichtian emplacement of an already cooled, rigid slab onto the Arabian Platform. Post-emplacement ophiolite features are largely determined by Dead Sea Rift movements, which may have been active in the platform as transcurrent faulting even before emplacement. Dept. of Min- eralogy, Univ. of Geneva, CH-1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland. (bas)

81:4369 Torge, Wolfgang, 1981. Gravity and height variations

connected with the current rifting episode in northern Iceland. Tectonophysics, 71(1/4):227- 240.

A summary of secular gravity variations (to ___.01 mgal) 1965-1979 principally along the 5 × 100 km Krafla Volcano fissure zone is presented empha- sizing the period following 1975, when an active

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rifting episode began. A steep gradient observed south of Krafla was possibly a precursor to the rifting. Inst. fur Theoretische Geod., Univ. Han- nover, Hannover, FRG. (bas)

81:4370 Wier, Stuart, 1981. A change in seismicity near the

Mid-America Trench following the Oaxaea earth- quake [November 1978]. Phys. Earth planet. Interiors, 24(1):30-32.

Seismicity patterns along the Mid-America Trench are analyzed in terms of plate motions and stress changes. The five-month long increase in m b >/4.9 earthquakes may have signalled the 'unlocking' of a portion of the Cocos Plate. Seismicity suggests that Cocos Plate motion is episodic and that stress changes are transmitted within days or weeks through the plate, which moves as a rigid unit. Cooperative Inst. for Res. in Environ. Sci., Univ. of Colorado/NOAA, Boulder, Colo. 80309, USA. (bas)

D250. Plate and global tectonics 81:4371

Baer, A.J., 1981. Geotherms, evolution of the litho- sphere and plate tectonics. Tectonophysics, 72(3/4):203-227.

Modern 'average' geotherms are defined to calculate Precambrian geotherms--important to 'the ques- tions of crustal thickness and crustal rigidity in the Archean and of plate buoyancy.' Models of Pre- cambrian crustal evolution are examined. In one model, the Archean is marked by the creation and stabilization of plates, and the Proterozoic by cratonic stability. Subduction is thought not to be thermally possible before about 900 Ma ago. Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Ottawa, Ottawa K1N 6N5, Ont., Canada. (fcs)

81:4372 Boulin, Jean, 1981. Afghanistan structure, Greater

India concept and Eastern Tethys evolution. Tectonophysics, 72(3/4):261-287.

The Angarian or Gondwanian affinities of the area between central Asia and the Arabia-India block are examined in light of geological and paleontological data and global tectonics. The resultant interpre- tation supports the Greater India concept although position of the northern border of the area varies according to stage. From the Early Paleozoic to the Cenozoic successive cratonic blocks were added from the south through the evolving Tethys; the entire history of the eastern Tethys is recorded in Greatest India. Dept. de Geotectonique, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, 75230 Paris Cedex 05, France. (hbf)

81:4373 Frutos, J., 1981. Andean tectonics as a consequence of

sea-floor spreading. Tectonophysics, 72(i/2): T2 ! -T32.

The relationship of southeast Pacific sea-floor spreading (its evolution, rates, and directions) to 'Andean structural directions and plutonic episodi- city' as well as to the alternation of 'short compres- sive orogenic phases' with longer extension periods is discussed along with a consideration of the corre- spondence between Benioff zones and volcanism. Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Concepcion, Concep- cion, Chile. (ahm)

81:4374 MacDonald, W.D. (comment) and D.M. Jurdy

(reply), 1981. [Discussion of] 'Relative plate motions and the formation of marginal basins'. J. geophys. Res., 86(B2): 1097-1099.

81:4375 Melosh, H.J., 1980. Tectonic patterns on a tidally

distorted planet. Icarus, 43(3):334-337.

If the lithosphere of the Moon is cold enough that creep cannot relax it, then stresses will develop as the Moon's equilibrium shape changes in response to orbital evolution--in the case of the Moon, the collapse of a large tidal bulge. E. M. Anderson's (1951) theory of faulting is used to translate such stresses into a predicted pattern of surface faults, yet to be observed, but probably lying in the poorly mapped polar regions. Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences, SUNY, Stony Brook, N.Y. 11794, USA. (fcs)

81:4376 Nelson, E.P., I.W.D. Dalziel and A.G. Milnes, 1980.

Structural geology of the Cordillera Darwin ---coilisional-style orogenesis in the southernmost Chilean Andes. Eclog. geol. Heir., 73(3):727-751 + 1 fold-out plate.

Geological and structural maps were constructed for the Cordillera based on some inland traverses, mapping of most of the coastlines and a detailed coverage of the NE section. In the mid-Cretaceous the extensional environment of the passive conti- nental margin changed to an intensely compres- sional one. Structure and evolution of the Cordillera are compared with the central Aips and North American Cordillera. Includes a color geological map. Lamont-Doherty Geol. Observatory of Colum- bia Univ., Palisades, N.Y. 10964, USA. (has)

81:4377 Razvalyayev, A.V., 1979. Endogene environments

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OLR (1981) 28 (8) D. Submarine Geology and Geophysics 599

preceding rifting. Geotectonics (a translation of Geotektonika), 13(6):441-446.

The Red Sea Rift zone is investigated along with other continental rift areas to establish the relation between Cenozoic rifting and pre-rift conditions. The uniformity of 'mantle activation' suggests that rifting is 'inherited and predetermined,' occurring in mantle regions of greatest heat and thermal insta- bility. All-Union Inst. of Foreign Geology, Moscow, USSR. (bas)

81:4378 Scheidegger, A.E., 1981. The geotectonic stress field

and crustal movements. Tectonophysics, 71(1/4): 217-226.

The neotectonic stress field is proposed as the link between geodynamic and geodetic phenomena. The stress field determined by in-situ measurements and joint orientations correlates directly with crustal displacements determined from geodetic and geo- logic-geomorphological considerations in the Alps, Himalayas and North America; correlations hold for both the large tectonic scale and smaller 'mountain fracture' and slumping problems. Inst. of Geophys- ics, Technical Univ., Gusshaus St. 27-29, A-1040 Vienna, Austria. (bas)

81:4379 Schmidt, P.W. and B.J.J. Embleton, 1981. A geotec-

tonic paradox: has the Earth expanded? J. Geophys. (Z. Geophys.), 490):20-25.

Apparent polar wander paths for intervals in which such paths are established for more than one continent would seem to signal that Africa, Austra- lia, Greenland and North America occupied the same relative locations on the globe in the Early Proterozoic as they do today. It is proposed that between 1600 mya and 1000 mya the Earth's radius doubled, and that plate tectonics is strictly a Phanerozoic phenomenon. CSIRO, P.O. Box 136, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia. (fcs)

81:4380 Veevers, J.J., 1981. Morphotectonics of rifted con-

tinental margins in embryo (east Africa), youth (Africa-Arabia), and maturity (Australia). J. Geol., 89(1):57-82.

'Quantitative morphotectonic' analysis of the east African-Arabian rift system is projected to a mature state using subsidence data and then compared with the mature Australian margin. A number of similar major features can be seen, perhaps exemplifying one type of passive margin development. School of Earth Sciences, Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW, 2113, Australia. (bas)

81:4381 Xie, Qingdao and Dake Zhang, 1980. On tectonic

movement. Aeta oceanol, sin., 2(3):79-89. (In Chinese, English abstract.)

The Earth has a solid (base body) component and a fluid (water body) component, each with a secon- dary mass center separate from that of the whole Earth; and, it is argued, 'the basic cause [and direction] of tectonic movement originates from the force of resilience between the two secondary mass centers.' Second Inst. of Oceanog., National Bureau of Oceanography, People's Republic of China. (fcs)

D280. Volcanism, magmatism 81:4382

All~gre, C.J., Bernard Duprr, Bernard Lambret and Pierre Richard, 1981. The subcontinental versus suboceanic debate. I. Lead-neodymium-strontium isotopes in primary alkali basalts from a shield area: the Ahaggar volcanic suite. Earth planet. Sci. Letts, 52(1): 85-92.

New isotopic data from Tertiary alkali basalts from the west African shield are used in conjunction with previously determined data on xenolith in kimber- lite, ocean-island, and tholeiitic continental basalts to suggest they all could evolve from the same mantle source. A terrestrial mantle structure is inferred. Dept. des Sciences de la Terre, Univ. de Paris VI et VII, 4 Place Jussieu, 75230 Cedex 05, France. (bas)

81:4383 Bellon, Herv6 and Franqois Blanchard, 1981. Geo-

chronological (K-Ar) aspects of volcanic activity in Moorea Island, central Pacific. Tectonophysics, 72(l/2):T33-T43. Cell. de Recherche Geo- chronol., Lab. de Petrographie Volcan., Univ. de Paris Sud, Batiment 336, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France.

81:4384 Borsuk, A.M., A.A. Tsvetkov and M.M. Arakeliants,

1980. Magmatism of the Aleutian Island Arc according to the geochronological and geological data. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 255(6): 1443-1447. (In Russian.)

81:4385 Colantoni, P., F. Lucchini, P.L. Rossi, R. Sartori and

C. Savelli, 1981. The Palinuro Volcano and magmatism of the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean). Mar. Geol., 39(I/2):M1-M12.

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New geochemical, petrographic, radiometric, geo- logical and geophysical data on the seamount are analyzed to provide more information on the chemistry and age of the volcano and to relate it to the structure of the Tyrrhenian Sea to the south. Evidence suggests that talc-alkaline magmas from the southeastern Tyrrhenian are 'not confined' to an island arc system, but 'characterize volcanics em- placed in apparently quite different structural settings.' Ist. di Geol. Marina, 40127 Bologna, Italy. (bas)

81:4386 Harris, N.B.W. and I.G. Gass, 1981. Significance o!

contrasting magmatism in north-east Africa and Saudi Arabia. Nature, Lond., 289(5796):394-396.

Saudi Arabian lack of silica undersaturated intru- sives and absence of post-500 Myr perialkaline intrusions until the 30 Myr split separating the Arabian-Nubian shield into its Arabian and African components, in contrast to Egyptian and Sudan geology, indicate that the eastern shield experienced no magmatism between ~540 and 30 Myr. This supports structural significance of the Red Sea line from at least the end of the Cambrian; some explanations are proposed. Dept. of Earth Sciences, The Open Univ., Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, U.K. (sir)

81:4387 Hindle, W.H. and H. Colley, 1981. An oceanic

volcano in an island arc setting---Seatura Vol- cano, Fiji. Geol. Mag., 118(1):1-14.

Arc tholeiites and their derivatives, probably erupted along an alignment of the leaky transform system of the Fiji Fracture Zone, compose the pre-Pliocene rocks of Vanua Levu Island. In the Pliocene, Vanua Levu's caldera-type Seatura Volcano became active, erupting increasingly alkaline basalt-hawaiites. An extensional tectonic environment during this period may have allowed relatively deep undepleted mantle partial melt material to rise forming the parent magmas. Brimfield Hall, Brimfield Ludlow, Shrop- shire, U.K. (has)

81:4388 Lisitsyn, A.P., 1981. Volcanism of the oceans through

150 million years (types, history, and useful minerals). Report 1. Types and history of vol- canism of Pacific Ocean active margins. Int. Geol. Rev., 23(1):38-56. (Russian original.)

Oceanic volcanism as it is related to important geochemical and sedimentological processes, includ- ing creation and deposition of minerals on the sea floor, is discussed; previous investigations are

mentioned and new data and methods for ocean floor study are considered. USSR Acad. of Sciences, Inst. of Oceanology, USSR. (dme)

81:4389 Sutherland, F.L., 1981. Migration in relation to

possible tectonic and regional controls in eastern Australian volcanism. J. Volcanol. geotherm. Res., 9(2/3): 181-213.

A synthesis of isotopic age dates and stratigraphic data for the three basaltic lava provinces of eastern Australia suggests the volcanism may be explained by 'lithospheric plate migration over deep astheno- spheric magma sources.' Trails of regions where volcanism was active at the initiation of spreading are correlated with the provinces. Dept. of Miner- alogy and Petrology, Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW, Australia. (bas)

81:4390 Ui, Tadahide, 1981. Filled hollow pillows from the

core of IPOD-DSDP Leg 51. J. Volcanol. geotherm. Res., 9(2/3):269-275.

Four zones of filled hollows were recovered within a pillow flow from the sub-bottom of a cored section of porphyritic plagioclase tholeiite south of the Bermuda Rise. Mineralogy of the fill--margins, texture and composition--is described in detail. Dept. of Earth Sciences, Kobe Univ., Nada, Kobe 657, Japan. (hbf)

D290. Crust, mantle, core

81:4391 Aldiss, D.T., 1981. Plagiogranites from the ocean

crust and ophiolites. Nature, Lond., 289(5798): 577-578.

Accessory mineralogy, and alkali and trace element geochemistry differences between previously pub- lished data on ocean-crust and ophiolite plagio- granite samples imply that a larger range of degree of magmatic differentiation and/or magmatic com- positions is present in oceanic crust than in ophio- lites. It is proposed that ophiolites are representative of only a few types of oceanic crust. Overseas Div., Inst. of Geol. Sciences, Keyworth, Nottingham, NGI2 5GG, U.K. (bas)

81:4392 Beccaluva, L., G.B. Piccardo and G. Serri, 1979.

Petrology of northern Apennine ophiolites and comparison with other Tethyan ophiolites. Ofio- liti, 4(1):43-66. Ist. de Petrografia, Univ. di Parma, Italy.

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OLR (I 981 ) 28 (8) D. Submarine Geology and Geophysics 601

81:4393 Crampin, S. and S.C. Kirkwood, 1981. Velocity

variations in systems of anisotropic symmetry. J. Geophys. (Z. Geophys.), 49(1):35-42. Inst. of Geol. Sciences, Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9-3LA, Scotland.

81:4394 Damm, Volkmar and Siegmar Glaser, 1980. [Evolu-

tion of oceanic crust in the southern North Atlantic and central eastern Pacific based on seismic and heat flow measurements.] Gerl. Beitr. Geophys., 89(3/4):223-231. (In German, English abstract.)

Employed to 'recognize and interpret similarities and differences' in oceanic crustal evolution, the meas- urements showed: lower spreading rates in the North Atlantic give rise to smaller, sharper heat flow anomalies over spreading centers; greater spreading rates in the east Pacific are associated with higher heat flow anomalies and smaller thickening gradi- ents; seismic velocities of east Pacific old crust are lower than those of younger crust areas; layer 3 clearly thickens with age (distance from spreading center). Akad. der Wissenschaften der OOR, Zentra- linst, fur Physik der Erde, DDR-1500 Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D.R.G. (sir)

81:4395 Kirkwood, S.C. and Stuart Crampin, 1981. Surface-

wave propagation in an ocean basin with an anisotropic upper mantle: numerical modelling. Geophys. Jl R. astr. Soc., 64(2):463-485.

Anisotropic alignment in layers of the top 120 km of the upper mantle, arising from either glide-plane slip or syntectonic recrystallization of olivine, is reflected in Rayleigh and Love wave mode analysis. Struc- tural symmetry can be numerically characterized by the sense of tilt and inclination varying with propagation direction. It appears that the alignment mechanisms each dominate different depths; anom- alies caused by glide-plane slip alignment are much more difficult to detect, but succumb to careful analysis of 3G modes (second Rayleigh). Includes numerous polarization diagrams. Dept. of Geophys., Univ. of Edinburgh, James Clerk Maxwell Bldg., Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland, (bas)

81:4396 Kirkwood, S.C. and Stuart Crampin, 1981. Surface-

wave propagation in an ocean basin with an anisotropic upper mantle: observations of polar- ization anomalies. Geophys. Jl R. astr. Soc., 64(2):487-497.

Short-period surface waves over the Pacific which were thought to be the 'simultaneous arrival of fundamental Love and second Rayleigh modes' are here interpreted to be the coupled motion of orthogonal components of a single second gener- alized mode controlled by upper mantle anisotropy. Its polarization anomalies suggest syntectonic re- crystallization of olivine as the cause of the aniso- tropic alignment; their pattern implies that the lithosphere is dragging the asthenosphere. Dept. of Geophysics, Univ. of Edinburgh, James Clerk Maxwell Bldg., Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland. (bas)

81:4397 Law, L.K. and J.P. Greenhouse, 1981. Geomagnetic

variation sounding of the asthenosphere beneath the Juan de Fuca Ridge. J. geophys. Res., 86(B2):967-978.

Twelve days of data were collected on two ocean bottom magnetometers located on both sides of the ridge: one 20 km, the other 40 km from the crest. Resistivities were calculated using Oldenburg's (1979) method. A three-layer structure is proposed: a basal highest resistivity layer, a low resistivity layer between 55 and 75 km depth, and a medium crustal-upper lithosphere layer. The low resistivity layer is thought to be caused by partial melt in the asthenosphere and its depth to increase with age. Pacific Geoscience Centre, Sidney, B.C. V8L 4B2, Canada. (bas)

81:4398 Lobkovskii, L.I., O.G. Sorokhtin and A.I.

Shemenda, 1980. Modelling the deformation of island arcs leading to the formation of tectonic terraces and the initiation of tsnnamigenle earth- quakes. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 255(1):74-77. (In Russian.)

81:4399 Louden, K.E., 1981. A comparison of the isostatic

response of bathymetric features in the North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea. Geophys. J1 R. astr. Soc., 64(2):393-424.

Admittance functions computed from gravity and topographic data from the Juan de Fuca Ridge area, Hawaiian Ridge, a fracture zone north of Hawaii and the Philippine Sea marginal basin are analyzed to establish the differences in isostatic compensation among the four crustal types exemplified; long wavelength compensation mechanisms are found to vary. The Philippine Sea is distinct from the Pacific as there does not seem to be any regional support. In the Pacific, regional support is given by different thickness plates: _>30 km under the Hawaiian Ridge, 5-15 km (original thickness) fracture zone,

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602 D. Submarine Geology and Geophysics OLR ( 1981 ) 28 (8)

and 5-10 km Juan de Fuca Ridge. Compensation mechanism differences between similarly aged areas in the Philippines and the Pacific may imply evolutionary differences. Dept. of Geodesy and Geophysics, Madingley Rise, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0EZ, England. (bas)

81:4400 Mohr, Paul, 1981. Mrican lithosphere. Nature, Lond.,


A reinterpretation of the 1973 U.S. Defense Map- ping Agency's Bouguer-anomaly map of Africa yields a picture of African lithospheric thickness nearly identical to earlier interpretations, but with very different absolute values. Reasons for the divergent data are considered, including the possi- bility that no asthenospheric 'cushion' exists. Ques- tions of lithospheric thickness, the manner of lithospheric thinning as Africa split, and the nature of mantle convection beneath continents remain unanswered. Univ. College, Galway, Ireland. (smf)

81:4401 Molodenskiy, S.M., 1978. Estimation of the elastic

earth-tide deviations from static tides. Phys. solid Earth (a translation of Fiz. Zemli), 14(12):856- 862.

Using the method of perturbations, the deviation of tides from static tides in an elastic earth is calculated and the influence of the dynamic effect on the liquid core is estimated. At diurnal frequencies the dynam- ic effect of the shell is considerably less than the effect of the liquid core while for semi-diurnal frequencies the opposite is true. Acad. of Sciences of the USSR, O. Yu. Shmidt Inst. of Earth Physics, USSR. (mcs)

81:4402 Reid, I. and W.A. Prothero, 1981. An earthquake

sequence studied with ocean-bottom seismo- graphs. Geophys. Jl R. astr. Soc., 64(2):381-391.

Three main shocks, and aftershocks, were recorded at the junction of the Rivera Fracture Zone with the EPR; the swarm-like character of the 3 main shocks supports the interpretation of Reid and Brune (1976) of this portion of the fracture zone as a leaky transform with a small extensional component. Causal mechanisms are discussed. Dept. of Geology, Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5, Canada. (bas)

81:4403 Reilly, W.I., 1981. Complete determination of local

crustal deformation from geodetic observations. Tectonophysics, 71(1/4): 111-123. Geophysics Di-

vision, Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Re- search, Wellington, New Zealand.

81:4404 Serri, Giancarlo, 1981. The petrochemistry of ophio-

lite gabbroic complexes: a key for the classi- fication of ophiolites into iow-Ti and high-Ti types. Earth planet. Sci. Letts, 52(1):203-212.

Fractionation trends of the gabbroic complexes, including ultramafic cumulates, layered, isotropic and upper level gabbros, and associated plagio- granites, are used to identify the original tectonic setting of the northern Apennine ophiolites, and compare it with that of other ophiolites. The Apennine ophiolite is thought to represent mid- ocean ridge type crust but most other ophiolites represent back-arc basin generated crust, especially that formed within intra-oceanic settings. Isti. di Mineralogia e Petrografia, Via S. Maria 53, 56100 Pisa, Italy. (bas)

81:4405 Sinitsyn, A.V., 1979. Origin of Precamhrian green-

stone hells. Geotectonics (a translation of Geotek- tonika), 13(6):423-433.

Two types of greenstone belts are distinguished tectonically: one associated with intercontinental arched-volcanic rifting, the second with intracon- tinental fissure rifting. It is suggested from structures in the southeastern Baltic shield that Pre-Cambrian plate movements did not involve significant lateral displacements nor the large-scale spreading typical at present. Leningrad Univ., USSR. (bas)

81:4406 Starshinova, E.A., 1980. Nonuniformity of the struc-

ture of the Sea of Okbotsk crust and mantle. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 255(6):1339-1343. (In Russian.)

81:4407 Wilshire, H.G. (comment), 1981. Forum. A variably

veined suboceanie upper mantle: genetic signif- icance for mid-ocean ridge basalls from geo- chemical evidence. Geology, geol. Soc. Am., 9(3): 99-100.

81:4408 Wood, D.A., 1981. Partial melting models for the

petrogenesis of Reykjanes Peninsula basalts, Iceland: implications for the use of trace elements and strontium and neodymium isotope ratios to record inhomogeneities in the upper mantle. Earth planet. Sci. Letts, 52(1):183-190.

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OLR (1981) 28 (8l D. Submarine Geology and Geophysics 603

Major and trace element properties of Reykjanes basalts can be explained by the 'dynamic partial melt of a regionally homogeneous veined mantle' and an episodically active spreading center. This origin is compatible with lava distributions and crustal structure. It is suggested that Sr and Nd isotope ratios reflect different scales of source mantle heterogeneity. Dept. of Geological Sciences, Univ. of Birmingham, P.O. Box 363, Birmingham, B15 2TT, U.K. (bas)

D340. Manganese nodules, etc.

81:4409 Lonsdale, Peter, 1980. Manganese-nodule bedforms

and thermohaline density flows in a deep-sea valley on Carnegie Ridge, Panama Basin. J. sedim. Petrology, 50(4): 1033-1048.

Arrangements of manganese nodules in rows and cellular networks decorate Miocene chalk surfaces stripped by erosion at depths of 2700-3000 m. The powerful currents responsible for shaping these deep-sea bedforms are believed to be density flows of Peru Basin Water (that episodically spills into the warmer Panama Basin) with many of the charac- teristics and some of the geologic competence of channelled turbidity currents. Includes 16 bottom photos. Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif. 92093, USA.

81:4410 Moore, W.S. et al., 1981. Fluxes of metals to a

manganese nodule: radiochemical, chemical, structural, and mineralogical studies. Earth plan- et. Sci. Letts, 52(I):151-171.

Detailed results of the first nodule intensively studied by the Nodule Handling Task Group (MANOP) are reported. Radiochemical (23°Th, 231pa, 232Th, 238U, 234U) and chemical data, and alpha-track profiles were used to investigate fluxes of metals to the bottom and top surfaces of a manganese nodule and to determine nodule growth rates. Impact of nodule diagenesis on nodule gross chemistry has not been resolved, nor has the question of how U, Th and Pa are incorporated into the nodule. Dept. of Geology, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. 29208, USA. (ahm)

D360. Books, collections (general)

81:4411 Vysko~il, P., R. Green and H. Malzer (eds.),

1979/81. Recent crustal movements, 1979. Pro-

ceedings of the IUGG Interdisciplinary Sym- posium No. 9, Canberra, A.C.T., Australia, December 13-14, 1979. (Special issue.) Tectono- physics, 71(1/4):355pp; 24 papers + 14 ab- stracts.

These papers cover recent advances in geodesy, strain and tilt measurement (e.g., interferometry and satellite techniques), and computational and evalua- tional methodology; the potential of a global geodetic network is addressed; and detailed infor- mation on vertical crustal movement from Europe (in particular) but also from North America, India and Indonesia is presented and the significance of these measurements to seismicity, volcanism and tectonic mechanisms is discussed. (fcs)

D370. Miscellaneous

81:4412 Hill, Dorothy and Carolyn Willadsen, 1980. Bib-

liography of Australian geological serials and of other Australian periodicals that include geolog- ical papers. Pap. Dep. Geol., Univ. Qd, 9(3):76pp.

The bibliography is intended primarily as 'an aid to research in all aspects of Australian geology' but also serves as a guide to the holdings of major Australian libraries. Map series are not covered. Dept. of Geol. and Mineralogy, Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia. (izs)

81:4413 Kazarinov, V.P., 1981. Pulsations of the Earth. Int.

Geol. Rev., 23(2):125-138. (Russian original.)

A pulsating Earth theory might explain hierarchical ranks in global sedimentation cycles, differentiation of primordial material, global transgressions and regressions, etc. The theory is reviewed in light of 20 years' work with the 'lithologic-associational meth- od.' (fcs)

81:4414 Kerr, R.A., 1981. Prediction of huge Peruvian quakes

quashed. Science, 211(4484):808-809.

In its first meeting ever to consider a specific prediction, the U.S. National Earthquake Evaluation Council firmly rejected Brian T. Brady's widely publicized prediction of devastating earthquakes in Peru in 1981-1982, finding it to be based on 'speculative and vague evidence,' scientifically un- convincing, and unsubstantiated by observations or arguments. (smf)

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604 OLR(1981)28(8)

81:4415 Mitchell-Tapping, H.J., 1980. Abrasion rates of

certain marine shells and corals. Fla Scient., 43(4):279-284.

Florida field experiments and laboratory tests studied abrasion rates using common reef shoal molluscs and corals. Abrasion rates with quartz sand were higher than those with carbonate grit. The major factor of breakdown in the back-reef open sand zone may be abrasion. Amoco Production Co., New Orleans, La. 70105, USA. (ahm)

81:4416 Yoder, C.F., J.G. Williams and M.E. Parke, 1981.

Tidal variations of Earth rotation. J. geophys. Res., 86(B2):881-891.

Periodic variations in the Earth's rotation arising from moon- and sun-caused tidal deformation for terms >.002 millisec (lmm) are recomputed to estimate the effect of the fluid core and ocean tides on the Earth's motion, assuming that 'the mantle but not the fluid core, is coupled to the length of day variations.' A model developed from Laplace's tidal equation enables the effects of ocean tides on the Earth's rotation, nutation, and polar motion to be determined. Other pertinent parameters are com- puted. Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. 91103, USA. (bas)


El0. Apparatus and methods

81:4417 Christie, H., 1980. Methods for ecological monitoring:

biological interactions in a rocky subtidal com- munity. Helgoldnder Meeresunters., 33(1/4):473- 483.

Predation primarily and recruitment secondarily are most important in structuring the rocky subtidal community in the Oslofjord (Norway). Stereophoto- graphy and settlement plate experiments appear suitable for monitoring chronic pollution effects. Inst. of Marine Biology, Univ. of Oslo, P.O. Box 1064, Blindern, Oslo 3, Norway. (ahm)

81:4418 Hamburger, K., 1981. A gradient diver for meas-

urement of respiration in individual organisms from the micro- and meiofauna. Mar. Biol., 61(2/3):179-183.

A stoppered diver operating as a microrespirometer in a density gradient shows adaptability to labo- ratory and possibly field work. Measurements of 1.0 ~g-1.0 mg wet weight aquatic organisms are possible. A major advantage of this technique is that the device can be used repeatedly after a one-time

calibration. Biol. Inst. of the Carlsberg Foundation, 16, Tagensevj, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. (ahm)

81:4419 Ivanovici, A.M., 1980. Application of adenylate

energy charge to problems of environmental impact assessment in aquatic organisms. Helgo- l~nder Meeresunters., 33(1/4):556-565.

Adenylate energy charge (AEC) is calculated from concentrations of ATP, ADP and AMP, and has great potential as an indicator of environmentally induced stress in aquatic organisms. Field and laboratory examples using mollusc species are given. Although AEC measurement could be useful in monitoring studies, several limitations restrict its utility. Dept. of Biochemistry, Australian National Univ., P.O. Box 334, Canberra City, A.C.T. 2601, Australia. (mjj)

81:4420 Jensen, Arne, 1980. The use of phytoplankton cage

cultures for in-situ monitoring of marine pollu- tion. Rapp. P.-v. R~un. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer, 179:306-309.