Study on Basic Properties and High-Temperature Performance of Rice-Husk-Ash-Modified-Asphalt

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  • Study on Basic Properties And High-temperature

    Performance of Rice-husk-ash-modified-asphalt

    Jun Cai1,a, Yongjie Xue1,b, Li Wan1,c,Shaopeng Wu1,d, Kim Jenkins2,e

    1 State Key laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology,

    Wuhan, 430070, China

    2University of Stellenbosch, Moderator, South Africa,,,,

    Key word: rice-husk-ash, modified asphalt, basic properties, DSR

    Abstract: Currently, many inorganic materials are investigated for modifying asphalts, but biomass

    ash is rarely applied to the modification of asphalt. In this present work, rice-husk-ash, as a

    representative of the biomass ashes, was added as a modifier to evaluate the related performance.

    The result showed that the basic performance, aging resistance, and high-temperature performance

    of modified asphalt has been improved, which proves that biomass ash can be used as an asphalt

    modifier for resource reuse.


    Since transportation been great developed, requirements on asphalt mixes performance can never be

    so strict than before. To meet these high requirements, lots of pavement materials have been

    investigated [1]

    . All kinds of modified asphalt and modified asphalt mixture have been used widely

    for their well using quality; and new additive and modified asphalt mixture are also emerged at


    Among these, inorganic modified materials are given us a deep impression. Yanni Bao et

    al investigated the morphological and rheological changes of the diatomite-modified asphalt

    mixtures blends and asphalt concrete[6]

    ; Fang C et al Concentrated on the Organic montmorillonite /

    PE composite modified asphalt which softening point of the modified asphalt, significantly improve

    the ductility, high temperature stability, low temperature cracking, deformation performance has

    been significantly improved[7]

    ; Zhanping You evaluated and analysis the effect of nanoclay on the

    improvement of the modified asphalt[8]


    It can be found, from the reviews above, that most of inorganic materials modifying asphalt

    focused on those materials well recognized, few of them focused on the new inorganic mineral


    Biomass refers to the use of air, water, land and other various organisms through photosynthesis,

    that all of life can grow organic material known as biomass [9]

    . And many crops, crop waste, wood,

    wood waste and animal dung used for other purposes with little regard to the direction of

    application to modified asphalt .Some results show that most biomass ashes have many asphalt

    beneficial elements [9]

    , Therefore, in this paper, the author tries to test Basic Properties and

    high-temperature performance of rice-husk-ash-modified-asphalt, to find how biomass ash benefits

    the asphalt. To facilitate the study, we selected the single gray as research object, and X-ray

    Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 333-335 (2013) pp 1889-1894Online available since 2013/Jul/15 at (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerlanddoi:10.4028/

    All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of TTP, (ID:, Georgia Tech Library, Atlanta, USA-14/11/14,01:02:37)


  • fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Dynamic Shear

    Rheometer (DSR) et al are employed to evaluate the change in the basic performance and high

    temperature performance of the modified asphalt.


    2.1 Raw materials

    2.1.1 Matrix asphalt

    PJ 70# matrix asphalt was used in this experiment, and the physical properties of the asphalt were

    listed in Table 1.

    Table 1 Physical properties of asphalt 70#

    Physical properties Technical requirements Values

    15C / 20.1

    Penetration/0.1mm 25C 6080 73.1

    30C / 121.5

    Softening point /C / 44 47 Ductility /mm

    15C 1000 1600 5C / 455

    rice-husk-ash 2000 rice-husk-ash 10000

    Finely ground rice-husk-ash 2000 Finely ground rice-husk-ash 10000 Fig. 1 Microscopic surface morphology of rice-husk-ash by SEM

    1890 Measurement Technology and Engineering Researches in Industry

  • 2.1.2 Rice-husk-ash

    The rice-husk-ash that used in the experiment is brunt rice husk from power station. Firstly, they

    were put at 800 degrees Celsius for heat treatment, then grinded by Variable Frequency planetary

    ball mill (a grinding machine made by the XQM-4L Nanjing KeXi Laboratory Instrument Research

    Institute) for a 0.075mm (200 mesh) filter, with the pass ratio being 85%. The main component of

    rice-husk-ash is showed in Table 2, and the microscopic surface morphology of rice-husk-ash SEM

    is showed in Figures 1. Table 2 shows that with high content of SiO2, and the content of R2O3 is less

    than 5%, so the main component of rice-husk-ash are quite similar to the chemical composition of

    some parts Diatomaceous eartha modifier used in modification of asphalt. Figure 1 showed the

    rice-husk-ash is fine and also has a loose and porous structure, all of which bring it strong

    adsorption to asphalt.

    Table2 Main component of rice-husk-ash

    Component SiO2 Fe2O3 Al2O3 MgO K2O P2O5 CaO others

    Content% 85.93 1.12 2.2 0.73 3.76 1.37 2.87 2.02 2.2 The Preparation of Rice-husk-ash-modified Asphalt

    The sample, certain amount of melt 70 # matrix asphalt was poured into a modification barrel, when

    the Oil-bath heated to 160-170 C the rice-husk-ash was added to the matrix asphalt at

    concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by the weight of control asphalt, respectively. The

    high-speed stirrer was maintained at 200r/min for 45mins, to ensure a well blend of the

    rice-husk-ash and in the asphalt. Therefore, the rice-husk-ash-modified-asphaltRMAwas


    2.3 The performance test of RMA

    The performance test is based on the Standard Test Methods of Bitumen and Bituminous Mixture

    for Highway Engineering to get the result. The matrix asphalt and modified asphalt were all tasted

    their penetration, softening point, ductility and high-temperature performance

    3. Results and discussion

    3.1 Basic properties of RMA

    Table 3 shows the physical properties of modified asphalt. It is clear that with the mount of

    rice-husk-ash increasing, penetration decreases and softening point increases, hardness increases.

    The high-temperature behavior of the modified asphalt is improved. On the other hand, with the

    mount of rice-husk-ash increasing, ductility of the modified asphalt decreasing, rice-husk-ash has

    certain influence on asphalts low-temperature behavior, but ductility still meets the requirement in

    the Standard Test Methods of Bitumen and Bituminous Mixture for Highway Engineering.

    Table 3 Physical properties of modified asphalt binder

    Modified asphalt Physical properties 5 wt% 10 wt% 15 wt% 20 wt%

    15C 18.6 18.9 17 15.6

    Penetration/0.1mm 25C 54.6 50.9 48.7 45.6

    30C 89.6 86.9 72.3 60.3

    Softening point /C / 47.1 49.5 49 49.9

    Ductility /mm 15C 1600 1426 1193 869 5C 318 223 145 133

    Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 333-335 1891

  • 3.2 Ageing Property of RMA

    Table 4 and Table 5 Matrix show the results of Thin Film Oven TestTFOTand Pressurized Aging

    VesselPAV of matrix asphalt and modified asphalt. The penetration and ductility decreased while

    softening point increased for both of matrix asphalt and modified asphalt. Compared to matrix

    asphalt, penetration, ductility of modified asphalt decreased slightly and softening point increased

    slowly which proved that the more rice-husk-ash was added into asphalt, the better aging resistance

    performance was observed. The detailed data were showed in Fig. 2. From Fig. 2 we can also find

    that the content of rice-husk-ash during 10-15% reflects better aging resistance performance.

    The rice-husk-ashs ageing resistance was better than that of asphalt, and porosity of

    rice-husk-ash could protect the asphalt inside from the damage caused by high temperature. All of

    these may explain the ageing resistance improvement of the modified asphalt. Therefore, the ageing

    resistance of the modified asphalt is improved with the mount of rice-husk-ash increasing.

    Table 4 Physical properties of 70# and modified asphalt binder after TFOT

    Modified asphalt Physical properties 0wt% 5 wt% 10 wt% 15 wt% 20 wt% 15C 16 12.8 13.3 13.3 11.5 Penetration/0.1mm 25C 48.7 40.1 40.6 38.9 33 30C 94.3 65.1 67.1 65.6 60.6 Softening point /C / 52.9 51.2 53 54 56.1

    Ductility /mm 15C 540 473 396 351 287

    5C 137 140 115 98 64

    Table 5 Physical properties of 70# and modified asphalt binder after PAV

    Modified asphalt Physical properties 0wt% 5 wt% 10 wt% 15 wt% 20 wt% 15C 11.6 9.5 10 9.7 9.3 Penetration/0.1mm 25C 30.3 28.5 28.2 27.5 23.8 30C 49.5 46.3 47 46 41.3 Softening point /C / 58.8 57.3 58.8 59.2 60.8

    Ductility /mm 15C 152 134 128 113 113

    5C 51 55 54 45 35

    3.3 DSR for High-temperature Performance

    DSR was made to evaluate the high-temperature performance of modified asphalt. T


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