Students with Learning Disabilities in the Classroom Chapter 8
Adaptive Behavior Task Orientation: interaction between discrete aspects of attention Disruptive Behaviors: range from passively staring out the window to throwing a desk Hyperactivity: major problem with LD, usually out of seat behaviors and increased body movement
Behavior in Instructional Groups Individual seat work: students with LD are more off task Small group work: more on-task but need to monitor behaviors closely See Teaching Tips pg. 245
Elementary Teacher Interactions Teachers interact more frequently with students with LD but focus more on behavioral management issues rather than instructional issues. Instructional Statements: need to carefully consider the appropriate level of questions to foster academic growth Start with lower level questions for acquisition Provide high-order questions once students learn concepts
Differentiated Classroom Varying the question complexity Cubing: technique to consider a concept from six points of view Cube SideFunctionTerms Side 1Describe it Recall, name, locate, list Side 2Compare it Contrast, example, explain, write Side 3Associate itConnect, make, design Side 4Analyze it Review, discuss, diagram Side 5Apply it Propose, suggest, prescribe Side 6Argue it Debate, formulate, support
Cognitive Characteristics of Adolescents with LD Cumulative deficit: due to deficits in achievement, they fall further and further behind their peers (see figure 8.1 pg. 251) Academic plateau: improvement ceases altogether (e.g., reading at 5 th grade level in the 10 th grade) Working-memory-strategy problems
Social & Emotional Characteristics in Secondary Classrooms Motivation: problems due to repeated failure Self-Concept: generally think they are OK as a person but low self-concept in academics Locus of Control: students with LD demonstrate a more external-locus-of-control Depression & Suicide: 20% males and 32% females with LD are severely depressed Among suicides in Los Angeles, 50% involved adolescents with LD (Peck, 1985).
Program Options for Adolescents with LD Tutorial model: special education is used as a tutoring program for content areas Basic-skills remediation model: special education class is used in reading, language arts, and math instruction Work-study model: emphasizes job skills and experience Functional-skills model: instruction in various survival skills (complete job application, tax forms) Learning-strategies model: assist in coping with the demands of the standard high school curriculum Inclusive service delivery: team teaching with spec.ed.