Student Acquisition of Academic Language and Vocabulary

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Student Acquisition of Academic Language and Vocabulary. Jim Poirier M.Ed , B.Ed , B.A. jim.poirier@ffca-calgary.com. Presentation Goals :. Definir academique du lexique and give a theoretique contexte of acquisition dune langue. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Student Acquisition of Academic Language and VocabularyJim Poirier M.Ed, B.Ed, B.A.jim.poirier@ffca-calgary.com

1Presentation Goals: Definir academique du lexique and give a theoretique contexte of acquisition dune langue.Offer idees and exemple of how to aide eleves in acquisition strategie du academique dune langue.Fournis some donnees based on exploit du eleves when incorporer modification to my enseignement du habitude.

Presentation Goals: Define academic vocabulary and give a theoretical background of language acquisition.Offer ideas and examples of how to aid students in acquisition strategies of academic language.Provide some data based on student achievement when incorporating changes to my teaching practice.

Academic Vocabulary Beck, McKeown & Kucan (2002) offer a 3 Tiered framework for thinking about vocabulary:Tier 1: Words acquired through everyday speech learned early.Tier 2: Precise words that are used by the author in place of common words. (i.e. gallop instead of run). They change meaning with use.Tier 3: Subject/discipline specific words - the types of vocabulary words that are included in glossaries, highlighted in textbooks and address by teachers (i.e. onomatopoeia, denouement).

Academic Vocabulary Bauman & Graves (2010), Cummins, (1982) and Corson (1997)Academic language is associated with the secret language of books. It is de-contextualized, and abstract; often involves metaphor, technical uses of common words and words with Latinate roots. They involve complex, cognitive constructs: construct vs build; create vs make; obtain vs get; object vs thingIt is the Tier 2 words that are the focus of academic vocabulary instruction. Teachers tend to neglect these words, focusing instead on Tier 3 words of their subject.

Pair-ShareWhat strategies do you currently use in your classroom to teach vocabulary?

Marzano: Six Steps to Effective Vocabulary InstructionStep 1: The Teacher Provides a Description, Explanation, or Example of the New TermStep 2: Students Restate the Explanation of the New Term in Their Own WordsStep 3: Students Create a Nonlinguistic Representation of the TermStep 4: Students Periodically Do Activities That Help Them Add to Their Knowledge of Vocabulary TermsStep 5: Periodically Students Are Asked to Discuss the Terms with One AnotherStep 6: Periodically Students Are Involved in Games That Allow Them to Play with the TermsR.J. Marzano. Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement: Research on What Works in Schools. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2004

A Multi-Faceted Approach Direct and explicit instruction of big bang for your buck wordsWord studyMorphological analysis: (Nagy et al, 1989). More than 60% of new words in upper elementary have a transparent morphological structure. Prefixes, suffixes, inflected endings, root words, homophones, homographs, homonyms. These are common in English, and present difficulty for ELLs. Strategy InstructionContext clues making inferences Reading Program promote reading informational/expository text: this is where the important words are! Academic ConversationsTeacher-led discussions around current and high interest topics .

1. Direct and Explicit Instruction:We need to include:Definition and contextual information about wordsAcross modalities multiple exposure: hear it/see it/say it/ write it (Stahl, 2003). Strong engagement: opportunities to manipulate, transform, and practice move from receptive to productive vocabulary.

Direct/Explicit Instruction: Frayer ModelThe Frayer Model is a graphical organizer that prompts students to think about and describe the meaning of a word or concept by . . . - Defining the term, - Describing its essential characteristics, - Providing examples of the idea, and - Offering non-examples of the idea./concept. http://www.readingeducator.com/strategies/frayer.htm

Frayer ModelThe Frayer Model is effective for understandinghow words connect with each other.

The Booklet

4-8 templates per page

Up to 200 words per bookDivided into content/subject areasFrayer Model

Multiple FormatsDefinitionPersonal Association TermVisualCharacteristicsExamples - ScienceDefinitionCharacteristicsExamplesNon-examplesA change in size, shape, or stateof matter- New materials are NOT formed - Same matter present before and after changephysical change- Ice melting - Breaking a glass - Cutting hair Burning wood Mixing baking soda with vinegarExamples - MathDefinitionCharacteristicsExamplesNon-examplespolygonA mathematical shape that is a closed plane figure bounded by 3 or more line segments- Closed and plane figure- More than 2 straight sides- 2-dimensional- Made of line segments- Pentagon- Hexagon- Square- Trapezoid- Rhombus- Circle- Cone- Arrow- CylinderUse at Our High SchoolVocabulary book for the ELA classroom

First used for literary terms

Introduced to the social studies and math classrooms

Used in a variety of ways including subject specific vocabulary, math concepts, etc

Has the Booklet been Effective?YES when teacher guidedwhen the process is well modeled and practicedwhen used as part of explicit vocabulary teaching and linked to a unit of studyNOwhen used as an independent/homework activitywhen not attached to a text/unit of studywhen definitions are from teacher or dictionary

Concept CirclesWhich word does not belong? Why?RedYellowGreenBlueConcept Circles Of Mice and MenLonelinessInnocenceMarginalizationFriendshipConcept: MotifsConcept Circles Of Mice and MenSkittering lizard/birdGolden foothill slopesBlue, soft shadowHeron beak lanced downConcept: Imagery2. Word Study: Prefixes/Suffixes Morphological analysis:

3. Strategy InstructionTeach students to use context clues to infer meaning: Not only direct definitions - synonyms, antonyms, examples, etc. - Teach students how to make inferences. Strategies: Five Step Teaching Name the strategy and explain how it works. Teach, model, demonstrate, talk aloud protocol3. Guided practiceIndependent work.Assess.

We need to TEACH students how to be strategic learners.

Vocabulary in Context

DebrisThe debris left

The winter debrisbrought wi

Definition: ______

Sentence: JuncturesThe willows were fresh and green, carrying in their leaf junctures the winters dirt.

It was at this juncture that they decided to part ways.

Definition:

Sentence:

Graphic Organizer

Graphic Organizer

motifcharacterthemeironypoint of viewconflictforeshadowingsymbolismimageryElements of literature4. A Reading Program for Students Research tells us that children do not read enough, especially those who struggle. Through vast amounts of exposure to texts, good readers develop independent ways of learning new words. Effective reading programs: Build intrinsic motivation and pleasure of reading.Breadth and depth of topics - variation in genres. Words students need to learn are in non-fiction/information texts.

Reading Aloud

The single most important activity for building the knowledge required for eventual success in reading is reading aloud to children.

Becoming a Nation of Readers (1985)5. Academic Conversations Children with large vocabularies acquire them from home. Meal time conversations that are engaging, challenging and that invite lively exchange are a key feature of this kind of talk (Beals, 1997). With this in mind - how can we reconstruct the traditional family dinner table in our classrooms?

Socratic SeminarThe purpose of a Socratic Seminar:achieve a deeper understanding about the ideas and values in a textparticipants systematically question and examine issues and principles related to the contentparticipants articulate different points-of-viewthe conversation assists participants in constructing meaning through disciplined analysis, interpretation, listening, and participation.Socratic Seminar can be used to reinforce and use language in a realistic setting.

Writing Wall

Provide students with tools they need to be effective writers let them build on their vocabulary knowledge and usage.

Writing Wall

Vocabulary Targets

Vocabulary Targets

Classroom DataStudents in Alberta, Canada write Provincial Achievement Tests for English at the conclusion of grades three, six, and nine.These tests assess the students proficiency in reading comprehension, and writing.Alberta Education Website - http://education.alberta.ca/admin/testing/achievement.aspx I also use Gates-MacGinitie scoring for vocabulary and reading comprehension evaluation. http://www.assess.nelson.com/group/gp-gates.html

Classroom Data 2010 2011 2012 2013

Reading636568 none

Writing656769 70Pair-ShareReflect on the strategies you saw today.

1) Are there any strategies that could be of use to you in your classroom?

2) Describe how you plan to use one or more of these strategies in your classroom.ReferencesBeals, D. (1997). Sources of support for learning words in conversation: Evidence from mealtimes. Journal of Child Language, 24, 67394.Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G.,& Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: Guilford.Biemiller, A. (2001). Teaching vocabulary: Early, direct and sequential. American Educator, Spring, 2001. http://www.aft.org/newspubs/periodicals/ae/spring2001/biemiller.cfmNagy, W. et al (1989). Morphological families in the internal lexicon. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 263-282. Roessingh, H. (2012). The importance of the prompt for eliciting language samples: Insights from research and considerations for practice. TexELT: Texas English Language Teaching, 1(1), 37-56. Available online: http://www.textesolv.org