Straight from the [War] Horse¢â‚¬â„¢s Straight from the [War] Horse¢â‚¬â„¢s Mouth Fogleman McPeak Widnall Moorman

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  • 16 Press for Conversion! (Issue # 55) December 2004

    The following quotations, largely culled from U.S. military

    sources, were selected by Press for Conversion! editor,

    Richard Sanders. They illustrate, beyond any reasonable

    doubt, that the U.S. military fully intends to continue

    militarizing space and to deploy space-based weapons.


    Space Operations Doctrine “When you think about protecting this nation’s global inter-

    ests, you have to remember it

    starts with space. It’s a presence

    with a real impact.... Because of

    what we do in the space medium,

    I would suggest that space is the

    fourth dimension of warfare....

    Air and space power is the force

    of the future, and the Air Force –

    the nation’s Air Force – is Ameri-

    ca’s only full service air force that

    is dedicated to providing air and

    space power as the sole purpose

    of its existence.” General Ronald R. Fogleman

    “Our mission is to defend the U.S.

    through the control and exploitation

    of air and space.”

    General Merrill McPeak

    “Today, the ultimate high ground is

    space.” General Joseph W. Ashy, then Com-

    mander-in-Chief, U.S. Space Command

    “In Desert Storm, we used

    space-based ballistic missile

    warning, communications,

    weather, navigation, and intel-

    ligence as force enhancers and

    in some cases, mission ena-

    blers.... Space systems also

    play key roles in humanitarian

    operations, disaster relief, drug

    enforcement, and peacekeep-

    ing missions.... Exploiting

    space allows us to establish and

    maintain ‘information dominance,’ enabling our fighting

    forces to operate inside the enemy’s decision loop.” Sheila E. Widnall, former Secretary of the Air Force

    “Desert Storm...was a water-

    shed event in military space ap-

    plications because for the first

    time, space systems were both

    integral to the conflict and criti-

    cal to the outcome of the war.” General Thomas S. Moorman, Jr.

    The five quotations above are from “Space Operations Doctrine,” Air Force Doctrine Document 4, July 10, 1996.

    “We’re going to fight a war in space. We’re going to

    fight from space and we’re going to fight into space.” General Joseph W Ashy, then Commander-in-Chief of U.S. Space Command, August 5, 1996.

    New World Vistas: Air and Space Power for the 21st Century “In the next two decades, new technologies will allow the

    fielding of space-based weapons of devastating effective-

    ness to be used to deliver energy and mass as force projec-

    tion in tactical and strategic conflict.... These advances will

    enable lasers with reasonable mass and cost to effect very

    many kills…. This can be done rapidly, continuously, and

    with surgical precision, minimizing exposure of friendly

    forces. The technologies exist or can be developed in this

    time period.…. Setting the emotional issues of nuclear power

    aside, this technology offers a viable alternative for large

    amounts of power in space.” New World Vistas: Air and Space Power for the 21st Century, Report, U.S. Air Force Board, 1996.

    “It’s politically sensi-

    tive, but it’s going to

    happen. Some people

    don’t want to hear

    this, and it sure isn’t

    in vogue, but – abso-

    lutely – we’re going

    to fight in space.

    We’re going to fight

    from space and we’re

    going to fight into

    space. That’s why the

    U.S. has developed

    programs in directed

    energy and hit-to-kill

    mechanisms. We will

    engage terrestrial targets someday – ships, airplanes,

    land targets – from space. We will engage targets

    in space, from space.” General Joseph Ashy, then commander-in-chief, U.S. Space Com-

    mand, interview with Aviation Week Space Technology, 1996.

    Straight from the [War] Horse’s Mouth






    Since 1931, Quakers

    in Canada have

    worked through Canadian Friends

    Service Committee. The CFSC

    works in Canada and around the

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    nity empowerment, restorative jus-

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  • 17December 2004 (Issue # 55) Press for Conversion!


    Vision for 2020 “Navies and armies have evolved to protect national inter-

    ests and investments. As sea commerce advanced in the 18th

    and 19th Centuries, nations formed navies to project power

    and to protect and enhance their commercial interests. Simi-

    larly, during the westward expansion of the continental U.S.,

    military outposts and cavalry emerged to protect our wagon

    trains, settlements and railroads.

    Air power emerged differently because it evolved to sup-

    port land and sea operations (e.g., communications and re-

    connaissance), not to protect national economic interests.

    Over time, however, air power became a separate instrument

    of warfare, protecting national interests and ensuring free-

    dom of action in the air.

    Eventually, space power will parallel both models. For sev-

    eral decades, it has mainly supported land, sea, and air op-

    erations—strategically and operationally. Early in the 21st

    Century, space will become another medium of warfare. As

    the U.S. relies more on space-based capabilities, space forces

    may protect the country’s commercial assets in this medium.

    Space power will help overcome the widening gap between

    increasing military commitments and diminishing resources.”

    “Future Trends: Although unlikely to be challenged by a

    global peer competitor, the U.S. will continue to be chal-

    lenged regionally. The globalization of the world economy

    will also continue, with a widening between ‘haves’ and

    ‘have-nots.’ Accelerating rates of technological development

    will be increasingly driven by the commercial sector – not

    the military. Increased weapons lethality and precision will

    lead to new operational doctrine.”

    “The emerging synergy of space superiority with land, sea

    and air superiority will lead to Full Spectrum Dominance.

    Space power will be ... decisive in war, and preeminent in

    any form of conflict. Increased weapons lethality will lead

    to new operational doctrine... space superiority is emerging

    as an essential element of battlefield success and future war-

    fare. There will be a critical need to control the space me-

    dium to ensure U.S. dominance on future battlefields.”

    “Control of space is... an ability to deny others the use of

    space, the fourth medium of warfare.

    “Global Engagement is the application of precision force

    from, to, and through space. USSPACECOM will have a

    greatly expanded role as an active warfighter in the years

    ahead as the combatant command responsible for National

    Missile Defense (NMD) and space force application. Glo-

    bal Engagement combines global surveillance with the po-

    tential for a space-based global precision strike capability.”

    “The proliferation of missiles and weapons of mass de-

    struction requires an NMD. NMD will evolve into a mix of

    ground and space sensors and weapons. Existing land, sea,

    and air missions will been hanced by space systems. Current

    sea and air strategic attack missions will be augmented by

    the deployment of space force application systems.”

    “As the US military relies more on space, our vulnerabil-

    ity also increases, so we must protect our space assets and

    be able to deny other nations from gaining an advantage

    through their space systems.”

    Vision for 2020. This U.S. Space Command [SPACECOM] re- port was first published in February 1997. Slightly modified ver- sions have since appeared as sections within other SPACECOM documents, such as the “Long Range Plan,” April 1998. This re- port’s front and back covers depict space-based laser weapons, one of which is destroying a target on the Earth’s surface. The caption reads: “Space... the war fighters’ edge.” SPACECOM “co- ordinates the use of Army, Navy, and Air Force space forces” was created in 1985 to “help institutionalize the use of space.”

    “With regard to space dominance,

    we have it, we like it, and we’re

    going to keep it…. Space is in the

    nation’s economic interest.” Keith Hall, Pres. Clinton’s Assistant Sec- retary, Air Force for Space, and Director, National Reconnaissance Office. Speech to National Space Club, 1997.

    “Just as by the year 1500 it was apparent that the European

    experience of power would be its domination of the global

    seas, it does not take much to see that the American experi-

    ence of power will rest on the domination of space.... Just as

    Europe expanded war and its power to the global oceans,

    the U.S. is expanding war a