Status of the Baikal Neutrino Telescope NT200+ VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 Ralf Wischnewski DESY, Zeuthen Outline: - Motivation / Methods - The

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Status of the Baikal Neutrino Telescope NT200+ VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 Ralf Wischnewski DESY, Zeuthen Outline: - Motivation / Methods - The new Detector NT200+ : Design + First Light - Why NT200+ ? - Diffuse cosmic neutrino searches with NT200 - Sensitivity of NT200+ : diffuse cosmic neutrinos. Other physics results from NT200 See talk by Z.Djilkibaev on Friday (Monopoles, WIMPs, HE muons, prompt leptons,..) - Future: A km3 Gigaton Volume Detector at Baikal. Slide 2 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 2 High Energy -Astronomy --> Catch first astrophyical HE s Cosmic ray acceleration sites New observational window to Universe (new objects ?) Dark Matter (neutralino annihilation in Earth/Sun/Gal.C.) Prompt lepton production in atmosphere ( + ; cross sections, ) Exotic particles: Magnetic Monopoles (relativistic or ultra-slow) CR: HE atmospheric muons (exotic component ?), composition Neutrino Telescopes: Physics Motivation Astro - Astro - - Particle Physics Slide 3 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 3 HE Neutrino Detection: Muons and Cascades O(km) long muon tracks direction determination by Cherenkov light timing 5-15 m - Good directionality by Cherenkov timing - Poor energy resolution Charged Current (CC) Electromagnetic & hadronic cascades ~ 5 m - Good energy resolution - Bad pointing CC e + Neutral Current Slide 4 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 4 Baikal Baikal Collaboration: Russia Germany - Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow - Moscow State University - DESY Zeuthen - Irkutsk State University - Nishni Novgorod State Techn. Univ. - State Marine Techn. Univ. St.Petersburg - Kurchatov Institute, Moscow - JINR, Dubna ~45 authors Project Milestones: >1983: site / water studies; R&D: large area PMT, underwater techno., physics small setups (exotics search) 1991: Project NT200 approved 1993: NT36 Telescope the first underwater array operates...first s and s in NeutrinoTelescope 1998: NT200 commissioned 2005: NT200+ commissioned Slide 5 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 5 4km OffShore Depth: 1366 m Shore Station Slide 6 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 6 ExtString 1 ExtString 3 ExtString 2 NT200 Central+Outer Str. New ShoreCable 100 m Foto from March, 2005, 4km off-shore: NT200+ deployment from 1m thick ice. Ice A perfect natural deployment platform Ice is stable for 6-8 winter-weeks/year : Upgrades & maintenance Test & installation of new equipment Operation of surface detectors (EAS, acoustics, ) Electrical winches used for deployment operations (all connections done dry) Slide 7 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 7 NT200 running since 1998 - - 8 strings with 192 optical modules - - 72m height, R=20m, 1070m depth, V geo =0.1Mton - - effective area: >2000 m 2 (E >1 TeV) - - Shower Eff Volume: ~1 Mton at 1 PeV NT200+ commissioned April 9, 2005 - 3 new strings, 200 m height, 36 OMs - - 1 new bright Laser for time calibration imitation of 10 PeV-500 PeV cascades, >10^13 photons/pulse w/ diffusor, SNO-Calib - 2 new 4km cables to shore - - DAQ New Underwater & Shore Station: Underwater Linux embedded PCs, Industrial Ethernet Systems 4 Km to shore NT200+ is tailored to UHE n-induced cascades - 5 Mton equipped volume - V_eff >10 Mton at 10 PeV 4fold sensitivity gain with only 20% additional PMTS. The Baikal Detector NT200+ Slide 8 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 8 4 Km to shore DAQ and Slow Control of NT200+ DAQ Modernization (2004/05): - First PCs/PC104 used underwater; - DSL Mbps to shore (w/ spare); - - UW-ethernet (hot spares); - - Full multiplexing of all data/control streams; - - Industrial auxiliary components (EthRelais,...) - - Linux (uw + shore) UW-PCs and other Central DAQ-Spheres UW-PCs design NT200+ DAQ/SlowControl schematcis Slide 9 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 9 Laser intensity ~ 10 12 5 10 13 /pulse E_Shower ~ 10 500 PeV - Ch.13 187 m away from Laser - - Time Jitter = Light Scattering + Electronics First light on NT200+: Laser pulses as high-energy cascades FWHM ~10ns @2pe,190m ! Slide 10 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 10 t1t1t1t1 t2t2t2t2 t 12 5 series of Laser pulses NT200+ time resolution t = t 1 + t 12 t 2 t 1, t 2 - PMT jitter and light scattering t 12 ) 2 ns - electronics jitter Light scattering - scattering length 30 m - distance to Laser ~200 m Jitter of electonics ~2 ns Jitter of electonics ~2 ns - synchro cable length 1.2 km - TDC bin 2 ns The amplitude dependence of relative time jitter measured for several pairs of channels of NT200 and external strings. Red line is result of Scat_MC calculation. Slide 11 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 11 Laser intensity reconstruction r < 1 m I/I ~ 6% lowest intensity five laser intensities NT200+: Laser-cascade reconstruction NT200 NT200+ 3 outer str. Reconstruct z-r Laser vertex reconstruction Slide 12 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 12 Why NT200+ ? Diffuse Cosmic Neutrino Search with NT200. Slide 13 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 13 NT200: Search for High Energy Diffuse Cascades Watch the non-instrumented volume below detector for cascades = Upward moving light fronts. (BG) large effective volume NT200 V geo (NT-200) 10 Mton Effective Volume vs. Energy NT200+ : Instrument the volume below detector better BG suppression and improved physics. Slide 14 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 14 Limits for diffuse cosmic neutrino fluxes 1:1:1 flavor flux ratio @earth limits given for all-flavors ( e + e + + + + ) Baikal + Amanda 1 : B10, 97, 2 : A-II, 2000, unfold. 3 : A-II, 2000, cascade 4 : B10, 97, UHE 5 : NT200, 98-02, cascade 6: A-II, 2000, UHE sens. 7: A-II, 2000-03 sens. 8: IceCube 3 years 9: NT200+, 3yr, casc sens. 6 7 8 9 Baikal Cascades (98-02) subm. APP Slide 15 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 15 Expectation for NT200+ s Predicted all-flavor-sensitivity for astrophysical s : E 2 < 2.7 10 -7 GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 (3 years) ~ A-II / 4yr mu 3-4 fold improvement over NT200. Much improved reconstruction of cascade coordinates + energy NT200 NT200 NT200+ NT200+ Is a conservative predicition: vertex + energy reconstruction will improve sensitivity ! e 15Mton 30Mton Slide 16 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 16 Future: A Gigaton Volume (km3) Detector at Baikal Slide 17 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 17 NT200 + - important step towards a km3 @ Baikal NT200+ as a subunit of a km3 scale detector. For High Energy Cascades: A single small string replacing the NT200 central core reduces V eff less than x3 for E>100TeV. A short string instead of NT200 as a subunit for a Gton scale detector is ok ! 140 m Effective volume for simplified NT200s. e Slide 18 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 18 Sparse instrumentation: 91 strings with 12/16 OM = 1308 OMs Casacde effective volume for 100 TeV: ~ 0.5 -1.0 km Muon threshold between 10 and 100 TeV Baseline schedule: - R&D +TechDesRep 2006-08. Funded. - - Construction 2009. A Gigaton (km3) Detector in Lake Baikal Mini NT200+ Slide 19 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 19 - Basic detector element is NT200+. Under Real Physics Test since 4/2005. - -Dedicated R&D for Baikal/km3 technology starts in 2006. Redesign of some key elements is under consideration. Issues: - - Optical Module: Quasar vs other? Grouping 2 vs 3? FADC readout?... - - Time synchronization: electrical vs. optical,.... - - System architecture: subarray trigger, string controller, data transfer,... - - Auxiliary systems: acoustic positioning, bright laser sources, - - MC design optimization - -... - - Interaction Baikal/km3 KM3NeT : Common activities for a few selected technical issues - could this be useful ? e.g. OMs (design/in-situ tests@NT200+); MC (design; verification); TimeSync.; Auxil.Dev.; ,... A Gigaton (km3) Detector in Lake Baikal - Status - Slide 20 R.Wischnewski VLVNT2 Workshop, Catania, 9.11.2005 20 The Baikal Telescope is successfully running since >10 years.NT200 - High Sensitivity in HE-diffuse search (cascades): Mton-detector - Number of relevant other results: Magnetic Monopoles, WIMPs, GRB, atm. NT200+ - Natural upgrade after diffuse NT200success story: New 5 Mton instrumented detector commissioned in April, 2005. - Tailored to diffuse cosmic nus: >10Mton at 10PeV. Diffuse sensitivity: E 2 < 0.9 10 -7 GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 (3yr NT200+) - Shower analysis improvement: vertex, energy + direction. - UHE cosmic and transient sources: sensitivities under study. Future: Gigaton Volume Detector (km3) in Baikal. - NT200+ serves as realistic test object. Technical Proposal within 3 yrs. Summary see talk on physics by Z.Djilkibaev