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The National Curriculum Framework (NCF), 2005, recommends thatchildren’s life at school must be linked to their life outside the school. Thisprinciple marks a departure from the legacy of bookish learning whichcontinues to shape our system and causes a gap between the school, homeand community. The syllabi and textbooks developed on the basis of NCFsignify an attempt to implement this basic idea. They also attempt todiscourage rote learning and the maintenance of sharp boundaries betweendifferent subject areas. We hope these measures will take us significantlyfurther in the direction of a child-centred system of education outlined inthe National Policy on Education (1986).
The success of this effort depends on the steps that school principalsand teachers will take to encourage children to reflect on their own learningand to pursue imaginative activities and questions. We must recognisethat, given space, time and freedom, children generate new knowledge byengaging with the information passed on to them by adults. Treating theprescribed textbook as the sole basis of examination is one of the keyreasons why other resources and sites of learning are ignored. Inculcatingcreativity and initiative is possible if we perceive and treat children asparticipants in learning, not as receivers of a fixed body of knowledge.
These aims imply considerable change in school routines and modeof functioning. Flexibility in the daily time-table is as necessary as rigourin implementing the annual calendar so that the required number ofteaching days are actually devoted to teaching. The methods used forteaching and evaluation will also determine how effective this textbookproves for making children’s life at school a happy experience, ratherthan a source of stress or boredom. Syllabus designers have tried toaddress the problem of curricular burden by restructuring and reorientingknowledge at different stages with greater consideration for childpsychology and the time available for teaching. The textbook attempts toenhance this endeavour by giving higher priority and space toopportunities for contemplation and wondering, discussion in smallgroups, and activities requiring hands-on experience.
The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)appreciates the hard work done by the textbook development team
responsible for this book. We wish to thank the Chairperson of the advisorygroup for Social Sciences textbooks at Higher Secondary Level, ProfessorHari Vasudevan and the Chief Advisor for this book, Professor TapasMajumdar for guiding the work of this committee. Several teacherscontributed to the development of this textbook; we are grateful to themand their principals for making this possible. We are indebted to theinstitutions and organisations which have generously permitted us todraw upon their resources, material and personnel. We are especiallygrateful to the members of the National Monitoring Committee, appointedby the Department of Secondary and Higher Education, Ministry ofHuman Resource Development under the Chairmanship of ProfessorMrinal Miri and Professor G.P. Deshpande, for their valuable time andcontribution. As an organisation committed to systemic reform andcontinuous improvement in the quality of its products, NCERT welcomescomments and suggestions which will enable us to undertake furtherrevision and refinement.
New Delhi National Council of Educational20 December 2005 Research and Training
TEXTBOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON, ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS AT HIGHER
Hari Vasudevan, Professor, Department of History, University ofCalcutta, Kolkata
Tapas Majumdar, Emeritus Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University,New Delhi
E. Bijoykumar Singh, Professor, Department of Economics, ManipurUniversity, Imphal
M.M. Goel, Reader, Department of Commerce, PGDAV College (M), DelhiUniversity, Delhi
Meera Malhotra, Head, Economics, Modern School, Barakhamba Road,New Delhi
Sudhir Kumar, Reader, A. N. Sinha Institute of Social Studies, Patna
T. P. Sinha, Reader, Department of Economics, S.S.N. College, DelhiUniversity, Delhi
Neeraja Rashmi, Reader, Economics, DESS, NCERT, New Delhi
Acknowledgements are due to Savita Sinha, Professor and Head,
Department of Education in Social Sciences and Humanities, for hersupport in developing this textbook.
The Council is also thankful to J. Khuntia, Senior Lecturer, Schoolof Correspondence Courses, Delhi University; T.M. Thomas, Associate
Professor, Deshbandhu College, Delhi University; M. V. Srinivasan andJaya Singh, Lecturer, DESSH, NCERT, for helping in finalising thetextbook.
Special thanks are due to Vandana R. Singh, Consultant Editor, forgoing through the manuscript and suggesting relevant changes.
The Council also gratefully acknowledges the contributions ofAmjad Husain and Girish Goyal, DTP Operators; Dillip Kumar Agasti,Proofreader; Dinesh Kumar, In-charge, Computer Station, in shapingthis book. The contribution of the Publication Department, NCERT, inbringing out this book is also duly acknowledged.
Chapter 1 : Introduction 1
Chapter 2 : Collection of Data 9
Chapter 3 : Organisation of Data 22
Chapter 4 : Presentation of Data 40
Chapter 5 : Measures of Central Tendency 58
Chapter 6 : Measures of Dispersion 74
Chapter 7 : Correlation 91
Chapter 8 : Index Numbers 107
Chapter 9 : Use of Statistical Tools 122
APPENDIX A : GLOSSARY OF STATISTICAL TERMS 131
APPENDIX B : TABLE OF TWO-DIGIT RANDOM NUMBERS 134