Solar Cell Photovoltaic

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basics of solar cells

Text of Solar Cell Photovoltaic

  • Renewable EnergyPhotovoltaic - Solar CellDaniel Pham

  • Solar Source

    The average solar power incident on Continental US is 1600 x 1012 W

    This is 500x the power consumption in US (3.3 x 1012 W)

    If we cover 2% of the continental US with 10% efficient PV systems, we would make all the energy we need.

    FYI: 1.5% of Continental US is covered by roads

  • Drivers for Solar power

    2 billions people without electricity worldwide Low cost for remote requirements Power line extension costs $10,000 to $30,000 per mile Reduce peaking loads Government subsidies Environmental friendly

  • How Photovoltaic Solar Cell Work

    p-n junctionLight can be separated into different wavelengths Only photon has more energy required can generate electron-hole pair

  • High band gap PV cell provides higher voltageTypical efficiency of commercial PV is around 12%Theoretical Efficiency of Photovoltaic Cell

  • Types of Photovoltaic CellFirst Generation PV Cell:

    Single crystalline siliconMulti-junction cell (different band-gap materials)Second Generation PV Cell:

    Thin film silicon (amorphous silicon)CdTe (Cadmium Telluride)CuInSe2 (Copper Indium Diselenide)

    Third Generation PV Cell

    Ultra-High Efficiency concepts (>80%)Ultra-low Cost Polymer cells with quantum dots or nanostructuresCdTe rods in polymerCarbon nanotube on Sifor more efficient solar power

  • Photovoltaic Roadmap

    1st Generation PV Crystalline Silicon2nd Generation PV Thin Film3rd Generation PV Ultra-High EfficiencyUltra-Low CostSource: European Commission meeting Dec. 2004

  • Decline Price of PV

    Where is the cost: Produce wafer (40%) Fabricate cell (30%) Interconnect and laminate (30%)

    PV manufacturing cost Installation cost (same as cost of the module)

    State, federal, utility and other subsidize combine paying half of the cost

  • Worldwide PV Growth

    Source: European Commission meeting Dec. 2004

  • Future Reality ?

    Within 50 years, photovoltaic will supply more than half of the worlds supply energy If the PV market growth continues at rate of 20% and panel lasts 50yrs, there will be 100 TW of energy provide by PV cells on the ground

  • Government Policy For Solar EnergyNational Energy Policy Act of 1992

    Using other alternative energy sources by 2010Reduce green house gas emission by other alternative energy sources

    Alternative Fuels Initiative (Summer 1998)

    Energy Smart Schools, to cut energy bills in schools and reinvest the savings in educating the nation's most valuable resource - our children. (Solar power panel started installing in schools)

    The Million Solar Roofs Initiative, announced in June, 1997, by President Clinton, to install solar energy systems on one million rooftops by the year 2010.

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005, the new national energy law signed by President Bush on August 8, 2005, valuable federal tax credits

    Financial Opportunity

    Federal, State and subsidize for consumer Grants, Federal funding for manufacturing and development

  • ConclusionsSolar power source is abundant Many types of PV cells are in development to meet to PV Roadmap for future needsPV cells efficiency can be increased and underdevelopmentSolar power from PV cell are safe and potentially growing