Society- relevant Arrays for Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges in South Africa

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Society- relevant Arrays for Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges in South Africa. Andy Nyblade Penn State University Workshop on Arrays in Global Seismology May 15, 2013. Two models: Largely externally driven - Niger Array (CTBTO) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Societally-relevant Arrays for Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges in South AfricaSociety-relevant Arrays for Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges in South AfricaAndy NybladePenn State UniversityWorkshop on Arrays in Global SeismologyMay 15, 2013Two models:Largely externally driven - Niger Array (CTBTO)Developed in partnership with the local science community South AfricaNiger ArrayComprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) sixteen element broadband seismic array in southwestern Nigerarray has a diameter of 6 km (three rings with a central element), contains twelve vertical and four 3-component broadband sensors (Guralp CMG-3TB)elements have seismic noise characteristics at or below Peterson's Low Noise Model at greater than 0.5 Hz. All of the sensors are emplaced in 50 m boreholes in crystalline rock. The array is capable of resolving and detecting events with magnitude (mb) less than 3.0 from events in Peru and Indonesia, showing that the array significantly adds to the IMS detection capabilities in the Africa region and world-wide.South Africa a possible different modelEngaged seismology and earth science communitiesNetwork infrastructure for leveragingGovernment keen on supporting BIG scienceOpportunities for building a multi-use science arraySquare Kilometre ArrayAn array of dish receptors will extend into eight African countries from a central core region in the Karoo desert of South Africa. A further array of mid frequency aperture arrays will also be built in the Karoo. A smaller array of dish receptors and an array of low frequency aperture arrays will be located in theMurchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in Western Australia.The target construction cost is 1,500 million and construction is scheduled to start in 2016.Bejaichund et al. SRL, 2009South African National Seismic Network Council for GeoscienceBB stationsCell modem telemetryContribute data to:IOTWSAfricaArray (IRIS/DMC)Bejaichund et al. SRL, 2009Bejaichund et al. SRL, 2009Kgaswane et al., 2012James et al., 2001Hansen et al., EPSL, 2013Mulibo and Nyblade, G-Cubed in press; Mulibo and Nyblade, submittedSouth Africa Large Aperture ArrayPROS: Engaged seismology and earth science communitiesNetwork infrastructure for leveragingGovernment keen on supporting BIG scienceIn kind and real $ support possibleOpportunities for building a multi-use science arrayMine safety mining related seismicityNatural resource benefits imaging shallow crustal structure of the BushveldCrust and upper mantle studies linked to the BushveldArray seismology for Superplume imaging and other targetsCONS:Some stations in urban areas. Noise levels may not be optimal at some stations or uniform across the arrayIf: The Square Kilometre Array: Exploring the Universe with the world's largest radio telescope1.5B Euro!Then why not: The 500 Square Kilometre Array: Exploring the planet with the worlds largest terrascope$0.X B ??5/10/13 10:14 AMSEISMIC : TOA0 Station InformationPage 1 of 2http://www.rdss.info/cgi-bin/site_info?dbtype_id=DATA&type=site&sta=TOA0SEISMIC : TOA0 Station InformationNetwork: SEISMIC Show Network Station: AAE Show Station[ Location | Channel ]Location Informationuse as substring on column STA STA LAT LON ELEV ONDATE OFFDATE REFSTA STATION NAME COUNTRYTOA0 13.1477 1.6947 .214 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOA0 NigerTOA1 13.1529 1.6919 .22 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOA1 NigerTOA2 13.1477 1.7004 .216 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOA2 NigerTOA3 13.1422 1.6933 .217 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOA3 NigerTOB1 13.1613 1.6934 .231 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOB1 NigerTOB2 13.1532 1.7071 .216 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOB2 NigerTOB3 13.1376 1.7042 .216 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOB3 NigerTOB4 13.1386 1.6838 .226 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOB4 NigerTOB5 13.1536 1.6806 .219 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOB5 NigerTOC1 13.1721 1.7017 .233 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOC1 NigerTOC2 13.1568 1.7204 .222 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOC2 NigerTOC3 13.137 1.7205 .214 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOC3 NigerTOC4 13.1216 1.6994 .232 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOC4 NigerMap data 2013 Google Imagery 2013 TerraMetrics2 km2 mimileskm100200mileskm400600mileskm400600mileskm400600

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