Society- relevant Arrays for Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges in South Africa

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Society- relevant Arrays for Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges in South Africa. Andy Nyblade Penn State University Workshop on Arrays in Global Seismology May 15, 2013. Two models: Largely externally driven - Niger Array (CTBTO) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Societally-relevant Arrays for Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges in South Africa

Society-relevant Arrays for Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges in South AfricaAndy NybladePenn State University

Workshop on Arrays in Global SeismologyMay 15, 2013

Two models:

Largely externally driven - Niger Array (CTBTO)

Developed in partnership with the local science community South AfricaNiger ArrayComprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) sixteen element broadband seismic array in southwestern Nigerarray has a diameter of 6 km (three rings with a central element), contains twelve vertical and four 3-component broadband sensors (Guralp CMG-3TB)elements have seismic noise characteristics at or below Peterson's Low Noise Model at greater than 0.5 Hz. All of the sensors are emplaced in 50 m boreholes in crystalline rock. The array is capable of resolving and detecting events with magnitude (mb) less than 3.0 from events in Peru and Indonesia, showing that the array significantly adds to the IMS detection capabilities in the Africa region and world-wide.

South Africa a possible different modelEngaged seismology and earth science communitiesNetwork infrastructure for leveragingGovernment keen on supporting BIG scienceOpportunities for building a multi-use science arraySquare Kilometre ArrayAn array of dish receptors will extend into eight African countries from a central core region in the Karoo desert of South Africa.

A further array of mid frequency aperture arrays will also be built in the Karoo.

A smaller array of dish receptors and an array of low frequency aperture arrays will be located in theMurchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in Western Australia.

The target construction cost is 1,500 million and construction is scheduled to start in 2016.

Bejaichund et al. SRL, 2009South African National Seismic Network Council for Geoscience

BB stationsCell modem telemetry

Contribute data to:IOTWSAfricaArray (IRIS/DMC)

Bejaichund et al. SRL, 2009

Bejaichund et al. SRL, 2009

Kgaswane et al., 2012James et al., 2001

Hansen et al., EPSL, 2013Mulibo and Nyblade, G-Cubed in press; Mulibo and Nyblade, submitted

South Africa Large Aperture ArrayPROS: Engaged seismology and earth science communitiesNetwork infrastructure for leveragingGovernment keen on supporting BIG scienceIn kind and real $ support possibleOpportunities for building a multi-use science arrayMine safety mining related seismicityNatural resource benefits imaging shallow crustal structure of the BushveldCrust and upper mantle studies linked to the BushveldArray seismology for Superplume imaging and other targets

CONS:Some stations in urban areas. Noise levels may not be optimal at some stations or uniform across the arrayIf: The Square Kilometre Array: Exploring the Universe with the world's largest radio telescope1.5B Euro!

Then why not: The 500 Square Kilometre Array: Exploring the planet with the worlds largest terrascope$0.X B ??

5/10/13 10:14 AMSEISMIC : TOA0 Station Information

Page 1 of 2http://www.rdss.info/cgi-bin/site_info?dbtype_id=DATA&type=site&sta=TOA0

SEISMIC : TOA0 Station Information

Network: SEISMIC Show Network Station: AAE Show Station

[ Location | Channel ]

Location Information

use as substring on column STA

STA LAT LON ELEV ONDATE OFFDATE REFSTA STATION NAME COUNTRY

TOA0 13.1477 1.6947 .214 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOA0 Niger

TOA1 13.1529 1.6919 .22 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOA1 Niger

TOA2 13.1477 1.7004 .216 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOA2 Niger

TOA3 13.1422 1.6933 .217 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOA3 Niger

TOB1 13.1613 1.6934 .231 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOB1 Niger

TOB2 13.1532 1.7071 .216 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOB2 Niger

TOB3 13.1376 1.7042 .216 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOB3 Niger

TOB4 13.1386 1.6838 .226 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOB4 Niger

TOB5 13.1536 1.6806 .219 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOB5 Niger

TOC1 13.1721 1.7017 .233 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOC1 Niger

TOC2 13.1568 1.7204 .222 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOC2 Niger

TOC3 13.137 1.7205 .214 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOC3 Niger

TOC4 13.1216 1.6994 .232 2005270 TOA0 TORODI ARRAY ELEMENT TOC4 Niger

Map data 2013 Google Imagery 2013 TerraMetrics

2 km2 mi

mileskm

100200

mileskm

400600

mileskm

400600

mileskm

400600

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