Smart Grid

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<p>Presented By: 1. Sunil 2. Suryakant 3. Tanuj 4. Umesh 5. Urjit 6. Vaishakh 7. Vineet 8. Vivek K 9. Vivek N</p> <p>Introduction History Modernization of T&amp;D Functions Features Information Systems Challenges Present &amp; Future</p> <p>dj vu</p> <p>Existing Infrastructure</p> <p>Grid inefficiency</p> <p>Why we need it ? If we could make electric grid even 5% more efficient, we would save more than 42 GW of energy: the equivalent of production from 42 large coal fired plants.</p> <p>Why we need it ?</p> <p>What is smart grid ?</p> <p>What is smart grid ?</p> <p>GOVT. ELECT. SUPPLY 1 MW SOLAR POWER PLANT PDPU</p> <p>HISTORY</p> <p>Grid is a term used for an electricity network which may support all or some of the following four distinct operations. 1. Electricity generation 2. Electric power transmission 3. Electricity distribution 4. Electricity control.</p> <p>History of smart grid. </p> <p>Technological improvements of the power system largely rose in the 50s and 60s. Nuclear power, computer controls helped fine tune the grids effectiveness and operability. With todays technology such as wireless protocol, network infrastructure the power grid becomes smart grid, capable of recording, analyzing and reacting to transmission data, allowing for efficient management of resources, and cost-effective appliances for consumers.</p> <p>History of smart grid. 1980s, Automatic meter reading was used </p> <p>1990s, Advanced Metering Infrastructure. Smart meters used to monitor in real time. 2000, Italy's Telegestore Project - to network (27 million) of homes using smart meters. Project cost of 2.1 bn euro annual savings of 500 mn euro</p> <p>MODERNIZATION OF T&amp;D</p> <p>Smart Grid: Transmission and Distribution</p> <p>Smart Meters: possible for energy suppliers to charge variable electric rates</p> <p>Peak curtailment/leveling and time of use pricing Platform for advanced services Provide reliability and power quality for the 21st century Effective routine operations Effective system planning capabilities</p> <p>The Current T&amp;D System</p> <p>The Modern T&amp;D System</p> <p>Smart Grid Technology Areas1.</p> <p>Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)y y y y y y</p> <p>3.</p> <p>Advanced Transmission Operations (ATO) </p> <p>Substation Automation Geographical Information System for Transmission</p> <p>Smart Meters Two-way Communications Consumer Portal Home Area Network Meter Data Management Demand Response</p> <p>Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Hi-speed information processing Advanced protection and control Modeling, simulation and visualization tools</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Advanced Distribution Operations (ADO)y</p> <p>Distribution Management System with advanced sensors</p> <p>4.</p> <p>Advanced Asset Management (AAM) </p> <p>Advanced sensors Integration of real time information with other processes</p> <p>y</p> <p>Advanced Outage Management (realtime)</p> <p>y</p> <p>Distribution Automation</p> <p>AEF Study T&amp;D FindingsPerformance R&amp;D Technolog y</p> <p>Renewabl e Resources</p> <p>Deployme nt</p> <p>Barriers</p> <p>Cost</p> <p>FUNCTIONS</p> <p>Funtions of Smart GridSelf-healing Using real-time information from embedded sensors and automated controls to anticipate, detect, and respond to system problems, a smart grid can automatically avoid or mitigate power outages, power quality problems, and service disruptions</p> <p>Consumer participation This takes shape in two forms electricity production and electricity consumption. One of the many benefits of the Smart Grid is its ability to integrate renewable energy sources into large scale electricity production. Another is the ability to communicate in real time on a broad scale to signal requests to modify electricity consumption. Both of these benefits have profound, positive impacts for consumers.</p> <p>Resist attack / Electricity Theft. Smart grid technologies better identify and respond to man-made or natural disruptions. Real-time information enables grid operators to isolate affected areas and redirect power flows around damaged facilities</p> <p>Accommodate generation options Integration of small-scale, localized, or on-site power generation allows residential, commercial, and industrial customers to self-generate and sell excess power to the grid with minimal technical or regulatory barriers. This also improves reliability and power quality, reduces electricity costs, and offers more customer choice.</p> <p>Optimize assets and Enable high penetration of intermittent generation sources. Optimized power flows reduce waste and maximize use of lowest-cost generation resources. Smart Grid technologies will enable power systems to operate with larger amounts of renewable energy resources since they enable both the suppliers and consumers to compensate for such intermittency.</p> <p>FEATURES</p> <p>Load adjustment Demand response support Greater resilience to loading Decentralization of power generation Price signalling to consumers</p> <p>Load adjustment </p> <p>The total load connected to the power grid can vary significantly over time A smart grid may warn all individual to reduce the load temporarily or continuously It predicts how many standby generators need to be used, to reach a certain failure rate In the traditional grid, the failure rate can only be reduced at the cost of more standby generators</p> <p>Demand response supportAllows generators and loads to interact in an automated fashion in real time, coordinating demand to flatten spikes Allows users to cut their energy bills by telling low priority devices to use energy only when it is cheapest</p> <p>Decentralization of power generationDistributed generation allows individual consumers to generate power onsite Allows individual loads to tailor their generation directly to their load, making them independent from grid power failures If a local sub-network generates more power than it is consuming, the reverse flow can raise safety and reliability issues Greater resilience to loading</p> <p>Driving Factors for SMART GRID</p> <p>Reliability and Quality and Supply Aging infrastructure of Transmission and</p> <p>Distribution Networks</p> <p>The Environment Distributed resources Renewable sources Demand side Management</p> <p>Operational Excellence Information Management Automation</p> <p>Business Blocks of Smart GridSMART GRID Bringing together enabling technologies, changes in business processes, and a holistic view towards end-to-end requirements of the grid operations. Consumer-side capabilities and distributed generation technologies form the base.</p> <p>Achieving Benefit of Smart Grid</p> <p>A large scale implementation of Smart Grid will have an impact on many utility systems and process spanning over customer services, system operations, planning, engineering and field operations. Key requirements: y Systems Interoperability y Information Management y Data Integration</p> <p>Systems Involved in Distribution Smart GridDistributed Resources Infrastructure Distribution Automation Advanced Metering</p> <p>SMART GRID brings improvement in the SystemImproved System Reliability Fully Integrated Outage Management SystemTrouble Call, CIS, GIS, MDMS, DA etc.</p> <p>Penetration of Distributed &amp; Demand Side Resources Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy</p> <p>Resources, Demand Side Management</p> <p>Asset Management Equipment Condition Monitoring Equipment Maintenance Dynamic Adjustment of Operating Limits</p> <p>Enterprise Level Integration DATA ASSETS</p> <p>Currently Limited Stalled Capacity for Interoperability - Islands of Information Information Enterprise Asset Need of the hour Enterprise Level Integration of Information to providey Single, Consistent view of Information y Accurate Data y Timely Access</p> <p>Enterprise Information Integration Making GRIDS SMARTER</p> <p>ConceptuallyEnterprise Level Information Integration</p> <p>Real-Time Notification, Control and Process Integration</p> <p>Transaction Based Data Exchange</p> <p>Hardware SupportsIntegrated Communications Sensing and Measurement Advanced Components</p> <p>Sensing and MeasurementReal time Automated Meter Reading Advanced Metering Infra 2-way communicator Local mesh networked smart meter has a hub which interfaces 900MHz smart meters to the metering automation server via landline. y Adjusts supply with demandy y y y y</p> <p>Advanced Componentsy Present Network of Distribution y High Speed Computers y Mobile communication Towers y Control System Tools</p> <p>Echelon</p> <p>NES-Networked Energy Services</p> <p>Componentsy Smart meters y Data Concentrator y System Management NES Element Managery Installation, Monitoring, Performance Measurement,</p> <p>Meter-to-data assignment, configuration etc.</p> <p>y System Software Service Oriented Architecture</p> <p>Features of NESy y y y y y y y y y y</p> <p>ON demand reading Load profiling Power Quality Measurement Flexible Tariffs Eg. time of use, critical peak, real time, prepayment pricings RF Extensions into home T&amp;D faults detection Real time outage and theft detection Reverse Metering for alternative energy Uses Distribution Line Carrier Reliability and Scalability 30 million Meters Saving 500million Euros/yearly</p> <p>Partners of Echelony Oracle y Develco-RF y HCL y Lackman Metering-Meter Hardware y WiMet-Wireless Communication y Zirode-Implementing AMI y Onzo-Customer Intelligence</p> <p>Security Challenges</p> <p>A recent project from security consultancy IOActive determined that an attacker with $500 of equipment and materials and a background in electronics and software engineering could take command and control of the [advanced meter infrastructure] allowing for the en masse manipulation of service to homes and businesses. According to a report in the National Journal last year, hackers in China may have already used what little infotech intelligence there is on the current power grid to cause two major U.S. blackouts.</p> <p>Blackout attacks Data theft Billing frauds</p> <p>The Road Ahead.. </p> <p>Greater co-ordination in deployment and security testing Independent penetration testers Independent third-party security assessments</p> <p>Political Challenge</p> <p>"Democratic congressional leaders and the Obama administration indicated Monday" in "a clean energy conference," which was "focused extensively on the need for a national 'smart' grid," that "they will push for greater federal authority The Wall Street Journal notes that the move "raises the prospect of conflict between federal energy regulators and state and local authorities, which have typically wielded extensive influence over decisions on the construction and location of new transmission lines."</p> <p>Utility giants say the U.S. government should have sweeping powers to approve high-voltage lines, especially if they're transporting renewable energy. While states would have input," the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission "would have the final say and could allocate the cost burden among customers in various states.</p> <p>What needs to be done..</p> <p>Therefore, an understanding at the National level is required for successful and quick implementation of a project of such scale and scope. Greater transparency and solid policy framework will be needed.</p> <p>Financing Challenge</p> <p>Installation of 3,000 miles of transmission lines to carry renewable energy to population centers and 40 million smart electric meters in homes across the United States. Billions of dollars would be required for any nation of comparable size to fund such a project. Newly proposed legislation would limit FERC's ability to allocate the costs of new transmission lines. Now FERC chairman Jon Wellinghoff says he agrees that only those who benefit from new lines should pay. This makes it more expensive and difficult to finance new projects.</p> <p>Technological Challenge</p> <p>Standardization</p> <p>Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. According to Section 1305 of the act, this interoperability framework shall be flexible, uniform, and technology neutral and align policy, business, and technology approaches in a manner that would enable all electric resources, including demandside resources, to contribute to an efficient, reliable electricity network. Some components, like the Power System Stabilizers (PSS) installed on generators are very expensive, require complex integration in the grid's control system, are needed only during emergencies, but are only effective if other suppliers on the network have them. Without any incentive to install them, power suppliers don't.</p> <p>Complex Systems</p> <p>Information</p> <p>&amp;</p> <p>Communication</p> <p>Most utilities find it difficult to justify installing a communications infrastructure for a single application (e.g. meter reading). Because of this, a utility must typically identify several applications that will use the same communications infrastructure for example, reading a meter, monitoring power quality, remote connection and disconnection of customers, enabling demand response, etc</p> <p>Present &amp; Future Development</p> <p>Traditional Grid</p> <p>Features: Grid are based on Large Power Stations Connected to high Voltage Transmission Systems They supply power to Medium &amp; Low Voltage Distribution Systems Power Flow in One Direction No Consumer Participation and end to end Communication</p> <p>Time Frame Analysis-Pre 2010</p> <p>Implications In Energy Management Substantial Power &amp; Transmission Losses Ageing Infrastructure in most regions One Way Metering of Consumption</p> <p>Post 2010</p> <p>Advantages Several Small generating units</p> <p> Advanced Metering Infrastructure facilitates 2 way Communication Increased Efficiencies Reduced OPEX &amp; Environmental effects</p> <p>Grids of Future</p> <p>FeaturesAccommodate Bi directional Flows Safety, Security, Reliability, Power Quality, Cost of Supply &amp; Energy efficiency examined in new ways Liberalization of Energy Markets Benefits of Competition, Choice &amp; Incentives Thus there would be democratization of energy</p>