Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer 2 out of 5 ... Skin Cancer Types Slide 4.30 • Basal

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  • Skin Cancer

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer

    2 out of 5 cancers are skin cancers

  • Skin Cancer

    Slide 4.29

    • Cancer – uncontrolled cell growth • Caused by damage to the DNA (in the

    nucleus) usually through chemicals or radiation

  • Tumor Types •  Two types of tumors

    •  Benign

    •  Does not spread (encapsulated)

    •  Malignant: these are the cancerous ones

    •  Metastasized (moves) to other parts of the body

  • Prevention n  Ultraviolet Radiation is the main cause of all

    skin cancers

  • Skin Cancer Types

    Slide 4.30

    • Basal cell carcinoma • Least malignant - Most common type • Arises from stratum basale • cannot produce keratin • Boundary lost between dermis and

    epidermis

  • Skin Cancer Types

    Slide 4.30

    • Basal cell carcinoma • Least malignant - Most common type • Arises from stratum basale • cannot produce keratin • Boundary lost between dermis and

    epidermis •  90% of skin cancers are basal cell •  Seldom metastasizes – treated surgically or

    by radiation – 99% cure rate if caught early

  • Basal Cell Carcinoma

  • Basal Cell Carcinoma

  • Skin Cancer Types

    Slide 4.30 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    • Squamous cell carcinoma • 2nd most common skin cancer – most

    common in darker skinned people • Arises from stratum spinosum • Metastasizes to lymph nodes if left

    untreated • 1500-2000 deaths in US per year

    • Early removal allows a good chance of cure

  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Cumulative Effects

    n  IMPORTANT TO KNOW n  Basal cell & squamous cell carcinomas are due

    to cumulative effects of the sun’s radiation (or chemical exposures as well)

    n  These tend to develop in ages 30-40s after years of daily sun exposure

  • Skin Cancer Types

    Slide 4.31 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    • Malignant melanoma • Least common BUT most deadly of skin

    cancers • Originates melanocytes • Metastasizes rapidly to lymph and blood

    vessels • Early detection is critical

  • Intensive Effects

    n  Malignant Melanoma occurs in younger as well as older people

    n  It is due to brief intense exposures (aka: sunburns)

    n  This is the most serious form of skin cancer and MUST be caught early to be treated successfully!

  • ABCD Rule

    Slide 4.32 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    •  A = Asymmetry • Two sides of pigmented mole do not match

    •  B = Border irregularity • Borders of mole are not smooth

    •  C = Color • Different colors in pigmented area

    •  D = Diameter • Spot is larger then 6 mm in diameter (pencil

    eraser) • Mole starts growing/changing in size

  • Malignant Melanoma

  • Melanomas

  • Melanomas

  • Burns

  • Burns

    Slide 4.25 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    •  Define: Protein denaturation and cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals

    • 2 main dangers • Dehydration–Loss of fluids & Electrolytes lead to:

    • Renal Shutdown • Circulatory shock

    • Infection • Skin (mechanical)barrier lost • Immune system depresses

  • Rule of nines diagram

    n  Used to estimate the % extent of skin burned so doctors will know how much fluid to replace for rehydration to prevent n  Circulatory shock n  Renal failure

  • Epidermal Burns

    Slide 4.27 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    •  First-degree burns • Only epidermis is damaged • Local redness, swelling, & pain • Usually heal in 2-3 days (short time period)

    with NO scarring

  • Partial Thickness Burns

    Slide 4.27 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    • Second degree burns • Epidermis and upper dermis & structures

    within dermis are damaged • Appearance of blisters of any size • Skin regeneration in 3-4 weeks with some

    scarring • There is a danger of infection

  • Full Thickness Burns

    Slide 4.27 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

    •  Third-degree burns • Epidermis, Dermis and Hypodermis are

    destroyed • Usually painless at site of burn due to

    destruction of sense recepters • Surrounded by areas of 1st & 2nd degree

    burns that will be painful • Treatments are numerous but will involve

    skin grafting of some sort and fluid replacement– may take months/years