Side Impact Vehicle Testing: Development of A Lateral ?· Side Impact Vehicle Testing: Development of…

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<ul><li><p>Side Impact Vehicle Testing: Development of A Lateral Test Procedure for </p><p>Child Restraints</p><p>Taryn Rockwell, ACE Systems Technologies, Inc.</p></li><li><p>2</p><p>BackgroundTREAD Act Nov. 2000Mandated that NHTSA determine whether to:l Apply scaled injury criteria performance levels </p><p>developed for FMVSS No. 208, to CRS covered in FMVSS No. 213</p><p>l Include CRS in NCAP crash tests</p><p>In response, NHTSA:l Issued NPRM to address proposed changes to 213 </p><p>(Docket No. 2002-11707-3) proposed 208 scaled injury performance levels</p><p>l Issued ANPRM for child protection in side &amp; rear impact</p><p>l Conducted frontal &amp; side NCAP vehicle tests with CRABI 12MO &amp; Hybrid III 3YO in CRS</p></li><li><p>3</p><p>Ongoing Research to Address Issues Raised in the ANPRM</p><p>Evaluating real world side impact datal CHOP, NASS, FARS, SCI</p><p>Evaluating different lateral test procedures for evaluating CRSsl ISO, Japan NCAP, Australia, Euro NCAP</p><p>Sled testingl Countermeasuresl Dummies</p><p>l Q3 vs. Hybrid III</p><p>l IARVs</p><p>Vehicle testingl NCAP and R&amp;D</p></li><li><p>4</p><p>Objectives of This Research</p><p>Address some of the issues raised in the ANPRM including:l Determining child injury mechanisms in side </p><p>impact vehicle tests</p><p>l Compare performance in vehicle tests to that of suggested 90o sled tests</p></li><li><p>5</p><p>Vehicle Selection</p><p>8 vehicles selected:l 5 from list of vehicles to be selected for 2002 SINCAP</p><p>l 3 vehicles piggy-backed to R&amp;D tests with ES-2 dummy</p><p>The following considered when selecting vehicles:l Difficulty of correctly positioning rear SID dummy </p><p>exempt from side NCAP testing</p><p>l Popular models</p><p>l Covered various vehicle classes (2-dr. pass. cars, 4-dr. pass. cars, SUVs, vans, pickups)</p><p>l Vehicle availability* Did NOT attempt to get cross-sample from vehicle </p><p>manufacturers</p></li><li><p>6</p><p>Vehicle Configuration</p><p>For any one particular vehicle, the following were identical for both outboard rear seating positions:l Model of CRS</p><p>l CRS orientation</p><p>l CRS belt configuration</p><p>l Child dummy</p></li><li><p>7</p><p>Model of CRSSafety 1st Forerunnerl 5-point harnessl Convertible</p><p>l 5-35 lbs. rear-facingl 22-40 lbs. forward-facing</p><p>l Equipped with lower anchorages &amp; tether (LATCH)</p><p>Evenflo On-My-Wayl 5-point harnessl Rear-facing only (Infant seat)</p><p>l 5-20 lbs.</p><p>l Equipped only with tether not used</p></li><li><p>8</p><p>CRS Belt Configuration &amp; Orientation</p><p>Safety 1st Forerunnerl VSB, no tether, RF</p><p>l VSB, tether, FF</p><p>l LATCH, FF</p><p>l Lower anchorages, no tether, RF</p><p>Evenflo On-My-Wayl VSB, no tether, RF</p></li><li><p>9</p><p>Child Dummy Selection &amp; Instrumentation</p><p>Hybrid III 3YO dummy</p><p>12MO CRABI dummy</p><p>Equipped with:l Upper &amp; lower neck load cells</p><p>l Tri-axial head, chest, and pelvis accelerometers</p><p>l Chest lateral spring potentiometer for 3YO only</p></li><li><p>10</p><p>Side NCAP Test Procedure</p><p>MDBl 27o crabbed anglel 62.0 km/h (38.5 mph)</p><p>Target vehiclel Positioned at 63o to the </p><p>line of forward motion</p><p>l Stationaryl Impacted on drivers side</p><p>Simulates car moving at 55 km/h hitting another car moving at 27 km/h</p></li><li><p>11</p><p>Video of Crash Test Vehicle B (Pickup)</p></li><li><p>12</p><p>Post-Test CRS Examination</p><p>Post-test examinations showed:l No CRS damaged</p><p>l No plastic (permanent) deformation of lower anchorages in vehicle or connection hooks on CRS </p><p>l All vehicle seat belts intact and without damage</p></li><li><p>13</p><p>Injury Criteria</p><p>Suggested in ANPRM issued to address side impact protection for child occupants Docket No. 02-12151Examination of IARVs for side impact dummies only used as a baseline comparison</p><p>3017Extension</p><p>6843Flexion</p><p>21201460Compression</p><p>23401460Nij Intercepts: Tension</p><p>3434Chest Deflection</p><p>55503 ms Chest Clip</p><p>570390HIC 15</p><p>3YO Hybrid III12MO CRABIINJURY CRITERION</p></li><li><p>14</p><p>Head Injury Criterion</p><p>12MO</p><p>RF</p><p>NL</p><p>Pickup</p><p>3YO</p><p>FF</p><p>L</p><p>4-dr car</p><p>3YO3YO12MO12MO12MO12MO</p><p>SUV2-dr car4-dr car4-dr carVanPickup</p><p>FFFFFFRFRFRF</p><p>NLLLLLNL</p><p>0 .0</p><p>0 .2</p><p>0 .4</p><p>0 .6</p><p>0 .8</p><p>1 .0</p><p>1 .2</p><p>1 .4</p><p>1 .6</p><p>1 .8</p><p>2 .0</p><p>No</p><p>rmal</p><p>ized</p><p> HIC</p><p> 15</p><p>A B C D E F G H</p><p>V e h i c l e s</p><p>Head In ju ry Cr i t e r ion 15 mi l l i seconds (H IC 15 )</p><p>N e a r - S i d e</p><p>Fa r -S ide</p><p>*4 .42 - Va lue o f f cha r t</p></li><li><p>15</p><p>Head Injury Criterion Vehicle E (4-dr. car)</p></li><li><p>16</p><p>Intrusion Vehicle E (4-dr. car)</p></li><li><p>17</p><p>Intrusion at Window SillVehicle Intrusion at Window Sill</p><p>-200</p><p>-100</p><p>0</p><p>100</p><p>200</p><p>300</p><p>400</p><p>-1500 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500</p><p>Distance From Impact (mm)</p><p>Intr</p><p>usi</p><p>on</p><p> (mm</p><p>)</p><p>AB</p><p>CDEF</p><p>GH</p></li><li><p>18</p><p>Thoracic Criteria Chest Acceleration</p><p>0 .0</p><p>0 .5</p><p>1 .0</p><p>1 .5</p><p>2 .0</p><p>2 .5</p><p>No</p><p>rmal</p><p>ized</p><p> Ch</p><p>est </p><p>Acc</p><p>eler</p><p>atio</p><p>n (</p><p>G's</p><p>)</p><p>A B C D E F H</p><p>V e h i c l e s</p><p>C h e s t A c c e l e r a t i o n</p><p>N e a r - S i d e</p><p>Fa r -S ide</p><p>12MO</p><p>RF</p><p>NL</p><p>Pickup</p><p>3YO</p><p>FF</p><p>L</p><p>4-dr car</p><p>3YO12MO12MO12MO12MO</p><p>SUV4-dr car4-dr carVanPickup</p><p>FFFFRFRFRF</p><p>NLLLLNL</p></li><li><p>19</p><p>Intrusion Vehicle F (4-dr. car)</p><p>Dummys chest at approx. window sill level</p></li><li><p>20</p><p>Intrusion at Window SillVehicle Intrusion at Window Sill</p><p>-200</p><p>-100</p><p>0</p><p>100</p><p>200</p><p>300</p><p>400</p><p>-1500 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500</p><p>Distance From Impact (mm)</p><p>Intr</p><p>usi</p><p>on</p><p> (mm</p><p>)</p><p>AB</p><p>CDEF</p><p>GH</p></li><li><p>21</p><p>Dummy Positioning</p><p>C</p><p>B</p><p>G</p><p>A</p><p>H</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>F</p><p>Van</p><p>Pickup</p><p>2-dr. car</p><p>Pickup</p><p>SUV</p><p>4-dr. car</p><p>4-dr. car</p><p>4-dr. car</p><p>Child Dummy Closer to Door</p><p>Rankings 1-8</p><p>1 = closest to door</p><p>8 = farthest away from door</p><p>20</p><p>21</p><p>5</p><p>7</p><p>12</p><p>32</p><p>27</p><p>20</p><p>Total</p><p>4</p><p>6</p><p>1</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>8</p><p>7</p><p>4</p><p>Ranking</p><p>2221E</p><p>1112F</p><p>6645G</p><p>4457H</p><p>3333D</p><p>8888C</p><p>7776B</p><p>5564A</p><p>HDADCDHSVehicle</p></li><li><p>22</p><p>Thoracic Criteria Chest Deflection</p><p>3YO dummy onlyl 3 vehicles F, G, &amp; H</p><p>Dummy readings normalized to 34 mm </p><p>All recorded injuries well below IARVl Negligible for far-side dummy</p><p>Highest recorded value: 0.58 near-side dummy in vehicle F</p></li><li><p>23</p><p>Neck Criteria - Nij</p><p> Faxial = Fz Fcritical = Max. force in z-direction (tens./comp.) Moc = My + (correction factor)Fx Mcritical = Max. moment about y-axis (flex./ext.)</p><p>Nij = max[Faxial/Fcritical + Moc/Mcritical]</p><p>* Development of Improved Injury Criteria for the Assessment of Child Restraint Systems. Docket No. 2002-11707-18</p><p>-3068-212023403YO</p><p>-1743-1460146012MO</p><p>Extension (N-m)</p><p>Flexion (N-m)</p><p>Compression (N)</p><p>Tension (N)</p><p>Dummy</p><p>IN-POSITION LIMITS - Nij INTERCEPTS</p></li><li><p>24</p><p>Neck Criteria - Nij</p><p>0 .0</p><p>0 .2</p><p>0 .4</p><p>0 .6</p><p>0 .8</p><p>1 .0</p><p>1 .2</p><p>1 .4</p><p>1 .6</p><p>1 .8</p><p>Max</p><p>imu</p><p>m N</p><p>ij</p><p>A B C D E F G H</p><p>V e h i c l e s</p><p>M a x i m u m N i j</p><p>N e a r - S i d e</p><p>Fa r -S ide</p><p>12MO</p><p>RF</p><p>NL</p><p>Pickup</p><p>3YO</p><p>FF</p><p>L</p><p>4-dr car</p><p>3YO3YO12MO12MO12MO12MO</p><p>SUV2-dr car4-dr car4-dr carVanPickup</p><p>FFFFFFRFRFRF</p><p>NLLLLLNL</p></li><li><p>25</p><p>Nij Failure Modes for 12MO CRABIMaximum Nij Moment and Force Levels for Near Side and Far Side </p><p>12-Month-Old CRABI Dummies in Side NCAP CRS Tests</p><p>-2500</p><p>-2000</p><p>-1500</p><p>-1000</p><p>-500</p><p>0</p><p>500</p><p>1000</p><p>1500</p><p>2000</p><p>2500</p><p>-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60</p><p>Moment (N-m)</p><p>Fo</p><p>rce </p><p>(N)</p><p>Near Side Dummy</p><p>Far Side Dummy</p><p>Tension-Flexion</p><p>Compression-FlexionCompression-Extension</p><p>Tension-Extension</p><p>Diamond formed by Nij interceptsMy &amp; Fz injury values at time of max. Nij found</p><p>Exceed 1 of 4 modes of neck motion if recorded moment/force combination falls outside diamond</p><p>EDCBA</p><p>12MO</p><p>RF</p><p>NL</p><p>Pickup</p><p>12MO12MO12MO12MO</p><p>4-dr car4-dr carVanPickup</p><p>FFRFRFRF</p><p>LLLNL</p></li><li><p>26</p><p>Nij Failure Modes for 12MO CRABI </p><p>Tension/ Extension in vehicle C (van)</p><p>Neck tension head up relative to neck or chest down relative to neckNeck extension chin up, away from sternum, forcing head back</p></li><li><p>27</p><p>Nij Neck Motion for 3YO Hybrid III</p><p>Maximum Nij Moment and Force Levels for Near Side and Far Side 3-Year-Old Hybrid III Dummies in Side NCAP CRS Tests</p><p>-2500</p><p>-2000</p><p>-1500</p><p>-1000</p><p>-500</p><p>0</p><p>500</p><p>1000</p><p>1500</p><p>2000</p><p>2500</p><p>-40 -20 0 20 40 60 80</p><p>Moment (N-m)</p><p>Fo</p><p>rce </p><p>(N)</p><p>Near Side Dummy</p><p>Far Side DummyTension-Flexion</p><p>Compression-FlexionCompression-Extension</p><p>Tension-Extension</p><p>Vehicle F</p><p>HGF</p><p>3YO</p><p>FF</p><p>L</p><p>4-dr car</p><p>3YO3YO</p><p>SUV2-dr car</p><p>FFFF</p><p>NLL</p></li><li><p>28</p><p>Nij Neck Motion for 3YO Hybrid III</p><p>Tension/Extension in vehicle G (2-dr. car)</p><p>Tension/ Flexion in vehicle F (4-dr. car)</p><p>Neck tension head up relative to neck or chest down relative to neckNeck flexion chin down toward sternum &amp; head curls forward </p></li><li><p>29</p><p>Resultant Pelvis Acceleration</p><p>0</p><p>20</p><p>40</p><p>60</p><p>80</p><p>1 0 0</p><p>1 2 0</p><p>1 4 0</p><p>1 6 0</p><p>Res</p><p>ult</p><p>ant </p><p>Pel</p><p>vis </p><p>Acc</p><p>eler</p><p>atio</p><p>n (</p><p>G's</p><p>)</p><p>A B C D E F G H</p><p>V e h i c l e s</p><p>Resu l tan t Pe lv is Acce le ra t ion</p><p>N e a r - S i d e</p><p>Fa r -S ide</p><p>12MO</p><p>RF</p><p>L</p><p>4-dr car</p><p>12MO</p><p>RF</p><p>L</p><p>Van</p><p>12MO</p><p>RF</p><p>NL</p><p>Pickup</p><p>3YO</p><p>FF</p><p>L</p><p>4-dr car</p><p>3YO3YO12MO12MO</p><p>SUV2-dr car4-dr carPickup</p><p>FFFFFFRF</p><p>NLLLNL</p></li><li><p>30</p><p>Summary of Injury</p><p>Several vehicles exceeded numerous injury criteria </p><p>3YO</p><p>3YO</p><p>3YO</p><p>12MO</p><p>12MO</p><p>12MO</p><p>12MO</p><p>12MO</p><p>Dummy Type</p><p>0.470.840.14Near-SideSUVH0.350.470.05Far-Side</p><p>0.84N/A0.55Near-Side2-dr. carG0.70N/A0.66Far-Side</p><p>0.601.520.53Near-Side4-dr. carF0.470.410.10Far-Side</p><p>1.601.881.74Near-Side4-dr. carE0.850.710.56Far-Side</p><p>0.972.074.42Near-Side4-dr. carD1.330.731.04Far-Side</p><p>1.63N/A0.45Near-SideVanC0.600.330.14Far-Side</p><p>1.290.770.28Near-SidePickupA0.550.470.09Far-Side</p><p>Pickup</p><p>Vehicle Type</p><p>Far-Side</p><p>Near-Side</p><p>Dummy Position</p><p>1.000.460.11</p><p>0.76N/A0.18B</p><p>NijChest Gs</p><p>HIC 15</p></li><li><p>31</p><p>Comparison of Sled Tests to Vehicle Tests</p></li><li><p>32</p><p>Suggested Lateral Sled Tests to Be Added to 213</p><p>ANPRM suggested 2 Options:l 90o, no rigid wall</p><p>l 20 mphl sine pulse or upgraded 213 pulse</p><p>l Tethered CRSl Impose 20 head excursion limit </p><p>l 90o, rigid-walll 15 mph </p><p>l Grand Am pulse derived from pulse of Pontiac Grand Am when tested both under 214 (15 mph w/ 21g peakaccel.) &amp; side NCAP (21 mph w/ 26 g peak accel.)</p><p>l No head excursion limit necessary</p></li><li><p>33</p><p>Comparison of 90o (No wall) TRC Sled Tests to SINCAP Vehicle Tests </p><p>Near-side dummy readings for HIC 15 &amp; chest G in sled tests (no wall) much lower than in vehicle tests</p><p>Head &amp; Chest Injury for Near-Side Dummies - Side NCAP Tests Vs. TRC 90o Sled Tests (No Wall)</p><p>0.0</p><p>0.5</p><p>1.0</p><p>1.5</p><p>2.0</p><p>2.5</p><p>3.0</p><p>3.5</p><p>4.0</p><p>4.5</p><p>5.0</p><p>0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5</p><p>Normalized Chest G</p><p>No</p><p>rmal</p><p>ized</p><p> HIC</p><p> 15</p><p>TRC 1/2 Sine Pulse (3YO)</p><p>TRC 213 Pulse (3YO)</p><p>SINCAP (3YO)</p><p>SINCAP (12MO)</p></li><li><p>34</p><p>Comparison of 90o (No wall) TRC Sled Tests to SINCAP Vehicle Tests</p><p>Inconclusive whether HIC 15 &amp; chest G readings for far-side dummy in vehicle tests greater than in sled tests (no wall)</p><p>Head &amp; Chest Injury for Far-Side Dummies - Side NCAP Tests Vs. TRC 90o Sled Tests (No wall)</p><p>0.0</p><p>0.2</p><p>0.4</p><p>0.6</p><p>0.8</p><p>1.0</p><p>1.2</p><p>0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0</p><p>Normalized Chest G</p><p>No</p><p>rmal</p><p>ized</p><p> HIC</p><p> 15</p><p>TRC 1/2 Sine Pulse (12MO)</p><p>TRC 213 Pulse (12MO)</p><p>SINCAP (3YO)</p><p>SINCAP (12MO)</p></li><li><p>35</p><p>Comparison of TRC 90o Rigid Wall Sled Tests to SINCAP Vehicle Tests</p><p>90o Y-acceleration on rear floorpan for five vehicles</p><p>-10</p><p>-5</p><p>0</p><p>5</p><p>10</p><p>15</p><p>20</p><p>25</p><p>30</p><p>35</p><p>-0.02 -0.01 -0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10</p><p>Right Rear Floorpan 90 degrees (Y)</p><p>G'S</p><p>Time in Seconds</p><p>RSX Impreza Wagon Santa Fe Sentra TundraG (2-dr. car) F (4-dr. car) H (SUV) E (4-dr. car) A (Pickup)</p></li><li><p>36</p><p>Average acceleration curve in y-direction for 5 vehicles (v = 17.38 mph) vs. pulse for 15 mph rigid wall sled test</p><p>Comparison of TRC 90o Rigid Wall Sled Tests to SINCAP Vehicle Tests</p><p>-5</p><p>0</p><p>5</p><p>10</p><p>15</p><p>20</p><p>25</p><p>30</p><p>-0.02 -0.01 -0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10</p><p>G'S</p><p>Time in Seconds</p><p>VRTC 15 mph Rigid Wall Sled Test Pulse Avg. Accel. from Rear Floorpan of SINCAP Tests</p><p>~ 0.01 sec.</p><p>~ 8 Gs</p><p>Note different shape</p></li><li><p>37</p><p>Comparison of TRC 90o Rigid Wall Sled Tests to SINCAP Vehicle Tests</p><p>In general, near-side dummy readings for HIC 15 &amp; chest G in 15 mph rigid wall sled tests are similar to readings in SINCAP vehicle tests</p><p>Head &amp; Chest Injury for Near-Side Dummies - Side NCAP Tests Vs. TRC 90o Rigid Wall Sled Tests at Various Speeds</p><p>0.0</p><p>1.0</p><p>2.0</p><p>3.0</p><p>4.0</p><p>5.0</p><p>6.0</p><p>7.0</p><p>0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5</p><p>Normalized Chest G</p><p>No</p><p>rmal</p><p>ized</p><p> HIC</p><p> 15</p><p>TRC (10 mph)</p><p>TRC (15 mph)</p><p>TRC (20 mph)</p><p>SINCAP (17.4 mph)</p></li><li><p>38</p><p>Preliminary Observations</p><p>Based on limited test series:l CRSs withstand severity of side impact crash </p><p>conditions</p><p>l Near-side dummy readings generally greater than far-side dummy readingsl Contributors: Intrusion &amp; lower anchorage locations </p><p>changes relative position of dummy</p></li><li><p>39</p><p>Preliminary Observations</p><p>Sled tests vs. vehicle tests:l Sled test (no wall)</p><p>l Near-side dummy - readings for HIC 15 &amp; chest G much lower than in vehicle tests</p><p>l Far-side dummy inconclusive </p><p>l Sled test (rigid wall)l Near-side dummy readings for HIC 15 &amp; chest </p><p>G for test at 15 mph similar to dummy readings for vehicle tests </p></li><li><p>40</p><p>Next Steps</p><p>Evaluation of countermeasures</p><p>Evaluation of biofidelity of dummies for side impact</p><p>Additional vehicle testing</p><p>Possible development of lateral impact test procedure for CRS</p></li></ul>