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Should we be thinking in new ways about locally-led professional learning? Randomized trial of lesson study with mathematical resource kits. SREE, September 2011 Catherine Lewis & Rebecca Perry Mills College, Oakland, CA www.lessonresearch.net. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Should we be thinking in new ways about locally-led professional learning?

Randomized trial of lesson study with mathematical resource kits

SREE, September 2011Catherine Lewis & Rebecca PerryMills College, Oakland, CA

www.lessonresearch.net

This material is based upon research supported by the Department of Education Institute for Education Sciences, Grant No. R308A960003. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this website are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the grantors.

Knowledge Development and Use through Lesson Study

1. STUDYConsider long term goals for student learning and developmentStudy curriculum and standards2. PLANSelect or revise research lessonDo taskAnticipate student responsesPlan data collection and lesson

3. DO RESEARCH LESSONConduct research lessonCollect data

4. REFLECTShare dataWhat was learned about student learning, lesson design, this content?What are implications for this lesson and instruction more broadly?

Pathways

Teachers Knowledge

- of Content - of Instruction - of Student Thinking - of Curriculum

Teachers Beliefs, Dispositions

- Attention to Student Thinking - Beliefs about Students - Inquiry Stance toward Practice - Identity - Sense of Efficacy

Professional Community

- Changes in Norms - Changes in Relationships - Changes in Learning Opportunities

Materials & Tools

-Tasks, lessons, etc.InstructionalImprovementVisibleFeatures of Lesson Study

Planning Curriculum Study Research Lesson Data Collection Discussion Revision Etc.

How Does Lesson Study Improve Instruction?Student Learning

Theoretical Context of Lesson StudySituated cognition (Learning in context of practice; e.g., Cobb et al, 2003)

Shared, improvable instructional plan accumulates knowledge (Morris & Hiebert, 2011)

Professional learning community fosters knowledge, beliefs and habits to improve instruction (McLaughlin & Talbert, 2001)

Lesson observation yields High-yield, low stakes data (Shulman, 2007) and Practical measurement (Bryk, 2011)

Common Challenges in Understanding Fractions Seeing fraction as number (I cant put 2/3 on number line because its two different numbers)

Understanding the magnitude of the denominator (that 1/6 is smaller than 1/5)

Knowing what is the whole (construct whole from a fraction)

Seeing that fractions can be greater than one

Research Literature & Field Studies Suggested Affordances of Linear Measurement Context for Learning Fractions Davydov & Tsvetkovich (1991)Saxe et al., (2007, 2009)Dougherty (2008)Watanabe (1996, 2002, 2006, 2007)

Area of circle

Area of rectangle

Part of a set

Linear measurement

Chart1

3.33

3.33

3.33

Sales

Sheet1

Sales

1st Qtr3.33

2nd Qtr3.33

3rd Qtr3.33

To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

Comparison of US & Japanese Texts

Some Dramatic DifferencesEarlier Introduction of Fractions in US

More representations in US (15) than Japan (4)

Different RepresentationsOnly Japanese texts used linear measurementOnly US texts used circle area (and many others)

Grade 1 Harcourt Brace (US)

Fraction Understanding Using Linear Measurement: Japanese Ex.

How Can We Describe the Blue Mystery Piece in Terms of One Meter?

Seeing Fraction as NumberLinear measurement context may help students transition to see fractions as numbers on number line, not just as pieces or as situation

How Linear Measurement Context Might Help Length helps students attend to magnitude of fractions (how much) rather than just count pieces (how many)

Understanding Meaning of DenominatorOnly 1 dimension (length) varies, making it easier to see that is bigger than

Understanding the WholeStandard measurement unit gives clear, stable image of the whole

Understanding 4/3 as 4 1/3sLength may support multiplicative image that 3 times 1/3 meter is 1 meter and x times 1/n meter is x/n meter

Lesson Study Resource KitMathematics tasks to solve and discuss (& related student work to analyze)

Curriculum inquiry: Japanese textbook, lesson video, teachers materials

Lesson study materials (template for lesson plan, protocol for discussion, etc.)

Suggested teacher-led inquiry process to explore and use resource kit

Lesson Study1. STUDYConsider long term goals for student learning and developmentStudy curriculum and standards2. PLANSelect or revise research lessonDo taskAnticipate student responsesPlan data collection and lesson

3. DO RESEARCH LESSONConduct research lessonCollect data

4. REFLECTShare dataWhat was learned about student learning, lesson design, this content?What are implications for this lesson and instruction more broadly?

Teachers try a problem: Find the length of the mystery strip

Conduct Lesson Study Cycle

Randomized Trial: 3 ConditionsC1: Lesson study with fractions resource kit

C2: Lesson study without fractions resource kit, focused on self-chosen topic other than fractions

C3: Locally-chosen professional development

(Roughly 5 month study period)

Sample13 Groups per condition (4-9 teachers per group, locally formed)

213 Teachers41% New to Lesson Study78% Elementary Teachers

1059 Students (Grades 2-5)

Pre- and Post-AssessmentStudents Knowledge of Fractions17-41 item student assessment (3 forms for grades 2-3, 4,5): items from published research studies, NAEP, California standards, curriculum materials

Teachers Beliefs and Dispositions, e.g.effectiveness of collegial learningexpectations for student achievementresearch relevance for practice

Teachers Knowledge of Fractions33-item teacher assessment, from Univ. of Michigan LMT (21 items); Univ. of Louisville; New Zealand, etc. (plus additional self-rating & open-ended measures)

Teachers Fraction KnowledgeItem examples:1. Anna says 7/3 is not possible as a fraction.a) Is 7/3 possible as a fraction? Yes No (Circle one.)What action, if any, do you take as a teacher to respond to Anna? [Source: New Zealand Maths, 2009]

Robin has 2 1/3 yards of rope and needs 5/6 yards to make each jump rope. How many jump ropes can Robin make? Please show your work. [Source: adapted from Shifter, 1998]

Students Fraction KnowledgeItem examples:- How many fourths make a whole? Answer:______ [Source: IES/NCES, 2007]

- Which of the following fractions is the greatest? 1/9 1 /2 1/5 1/10 [Source: California Department of Education, 2005]

I drank 1 3/5 cups of juice yesterday and 1 4/5 cups today. How much juice did I drink altogether on both days? Please explain and show your work. [Source: Japanese teachers manual]

HLM Analyses: Lesson Study with Resource Kit Vs. Two Other Conditions CombinedSignificant Impact on Teachers and Students Fractions KnowledgeEffect sizes for teachers knowledge: .19 for mostly LMT-based measure.26 for open-ended measure of understanding of whole.37 for self-rating of fractions knowledge

Teachers Knowledge of Fractions at Pre- and Post-Test (Z Score)

Change in Students Fractions Knowledge (Absolute Score, N=1059, Effect Size: .50)

- HLM Analyses: Impact of LS with Resource Kit on Teachers BeliefsSignificant Positive Impact (p
Survey Item ExamplesExpectations for Student AchievementNo matter how hard I try, some students will not be able to learn aspects of mathematics [reversed item](7 items, alpha: .63 pretest, .64 posttest)Research Relevance for PracticeEducational research often provides useful insights for teaching(4 items, alpha: .64 pretest, .66 posttest) Using and Promoting Student Thinking I have some good strategies for making students mathematical thinking visible (4 items, alpha: .63 pretest, .68 posttest)

Perceived Effectiveness of Collegial Learning in Mathematics (alpha: .62 pretest, .63 posttest)I have learned a lot about student thinking by working with colleagues Working on mathematics tasks with colleagues is often unpleasant (rev)I have good opportunities to learn about the mathematics taught at different grade levelsI have learned a great deal about mathematics teaching from colleaguesI find it useful to solve mathematics problems with colleagues

Vs. Professional Community Scale e.g.Mathematics teachers in this school regularly observe each other teaching classes.

Perceived Quality of Professional LearningTeachers in both lesson study conditions rated their professional learning significantly more positively than teachers in the locally-chosen professional learning condition on scale of the following indicators:

Professional Learning Quality(11 items, alpha: .95 posttest)Built on my existing knowledge of teaching and learningHelped me consider how to apply what I learnedGave me ideas I would like to share with colleaguesWas intellectually engaging and importantHelped me see how content ideas are connectedEncouraged my active participationValued my opinion, experience, and contributionsSupported my own professional inquiry and investigationEncouraged me to share ideas and take intellectual risksIncluded intellectual rigor, constructive criticismEncouraged me to become more of an educational leader in my school/ district

SummaryLow touch lesson study supported by mathematical resources:Increased teachers and students mathematical knowledgeIncreased teachers beliefs in effectiveness of collegial learning, usefulness of research, efficacy to improve student learning

Lesson study (with or without toolkit) was seen by teachers as higher quality professional development than locally chosen PD

Groups of teachers worked independently in distant sites, suggesting the potential of locally-led learning in which educators actively adapt program to local site (rather than centrally-prescribed fidelity)

Marriage of teacher-led inquiry and research-based (system-valued) resources may build local ownership and quality simultaneously

Conclusions

Teacher-led investigation may create demand for research-based knowledge.

The problem, then, lies not in the supply of new ideas, but in the demand for them. That is, the primary problem of scale is understanding the conditions under which people working in schools seek new knowledge and actively use it to change the fundamental processes of schooling. Richard Elmore

Elmore, R. F. (1996). Getting to scale with good educational practice. Harvard Educational Review 66(1): 1-26

Conclusions

Conclusions Shared, improvable instructional products that guide classroom teaching (Morris & Hiebert, 2011) may provide vehicle to build and share knowledge in the U.S., as they have in Japan But, there is no place that our curriculum is held accountable (as happens in public research lessons in Japan)

Pathways

Teachers Knowledge

- of Content - of Instruction - of Student Thinking - of Curriculum

Teachers Beliefs, Dispositions

- Attention to Student Thinking - Beliefs about Students - Inquiry Stance toward Practice - Identity - Sense of Efficacy

Professional Community

- Changes in Norms - Changes in Relationships - Changes in Learning Opportunities

Materials & Tools

-Tasks, lessons, etc.InstructionalImprovementVisibleFeatures of Lesson Study

Planning Curriculum Study Research Lesson Data Collection Discussion Revision Etc.

How Does Lesson Study Improve Instruction?Student Learning

Quotes from ParticipantsThe information my lesson study colleagues gathered while observing the lesson was very eye-opening. I would never have realized how many misconceptions my students had about fractions by listening to them. They could say with ease the sign represented one fourth of a mile, but they could not explain what that meant. Having additional eyes and ears in the classroom during a lesson is extremely valuable to me as a teacher. The collaboration that occurs before, during, and after a lesson is extremely valuable to me. [Teacher #557]

TIMEQUALITYLesson Material & ToolsTeacher CommunityTeachers Knowledge & Dispositions

Quotes from ParticipantsThe lesson study has taught me: We must never assume that all students understand. It was observed several times that even our "good" students did not have full understanding.Lesson study is staff development in its purest form. Rich discussion occurs. Team members are allowed to be creative, curious, self-motivated participants. The team building was incredible. [Teacher #562]

Thank you!

Catherine Lewis clewis@mills.eduRebecca Perry rperry@mills.edu

Lesson Study Resources at: www.lessonresearch.net

Fractions Resource Kit at: www.lessonresearch.net/FRACTIONTK/fractions_toolkit.html

References CitedCobb, P., McClain, K., de Silva Lamberg, T., & Dean, C. (2003). Situating teachers' instructional practices in the institutional setting of the school and district. Educational Researcher, 32(6), 13-24.

McLaughlin, M. W., & Talbert, J. E. (2001). Professional communities and the work of high school teaching. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Morris, A. K., & Hiebert, J. (2011). Creating shared instructional products: An alternative approach to improving teachinig. Educational Researcher, 40(1), 5-21.

Shulman, L. (2007). Counting and recounting: Assessment and the quest for accountability. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning 39(1):20-25.

****Teachers said this was new to them*Teachers said this was new to them***Bright bluelinear measurePink number line**Julie-Change to theme colors******Melissa: add same 2 graphics in lower part of slide as prior slide; also, please make 1/n a vertical fraction (3 times)If posters not yet sent oiut, we might want to label them 1 2 3. If they have, we can append numbers*Melissa: add same 2 graphics in lower part of slide as prior slide; also, please make 1/n a vertical fraction (3 times)If posters not yet sent oiut, we might want to label them 1 2 3. If they have, we can append numbers*****Please make numbers in white***Rebecca, add shifter year*Rebecca: add sources *******CL: What do you mean by this slide? What following indicators? Is this supposed to precede slide 38?*********