already carried out some fruitful EC measures. Then it highlights the EC potential availability and suggests some practicable
tons of furnace oil, 0.2 million tons of high-speed diesel
The authors experiences are with a privately ownedmedium size spinning and sewing thread industry inTamilnadu state, producing 15 tons of yarn and 10 tons
measures carried out are:
electricity cost, and an attractive benet/investmentratio of 61.29% during the rst year itself. The
ARTICLE INof sewing thread/day. The industry considered is a high-tension consumer, receiving electricity from the StateElectricity Board (SEB) under Tariff I. The permittedMaximum Demand is 3250 kVA, and the SanctionedDemand is 2600 kVA. The electrical energy consump-
successful rst stage EC measures encouraged theindustry and made them to go for further (called asthe second stage) measures as presented in this paper.This paper initially addresses the second stage ECexperiences of the authors; later it highlights the ECpotential availability and suggests some practicableenvironmental friendly EC policies suitable to the*Correspondi
drexel.edu (N. S
0301-4215/$ - see
doi:10.1016/j.enpand 5000 million units of power in the organised sectoralone. In view of the liberalisation in India and thenecessity to compete with modern textile industries(ADB, 1999; UNIDO, 1992) of countries, such asChina, Korea, Japan, etc. in the international market,there is a remarkable need to reduce the production cost.At present prices, even a 1% reduction in energyconsumption could mean substantial savings annually.
Running parallel cables,Change of motor connections,Power factor improvement,Introducing energy efcient motors,Efcient lighting systems, andPeak shaving.
Such measures resulted in a saving of 18.23% on ther 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Energy conservation experience; Textile industry; Potential availability; Energy conservation policy suggestion; Governments role
The Indian textile industrial sector is energy intensive(ADB, 1999; Palanichamy et al., 2001, pp. 340345)consuming nearly 3.0 million tons of coal, 0.6 million
tion is 58,250 kWh/day, the steam requirement is0.6 tons/h, and the furnace oil requirement is 1000 l/day. The industry has already undergone energyconservation (EC) measures (called the rst stage)during the nancial year 19981999. Some of the earlierenvironmental friendly EC policies suitable for the Indian context to achieve the estimated potential, and nally it highlights the
Governments role in the EC endeavour.Energy Policy 33 (2
Second stage energy cwith a tex
aDepartment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Sult
Brunei BB 2313bDrexel University, Ph
The Indian textile industrial sector is one of the oldest ind
currently undergoing several studies to reduce its energy consum
excellent opportunity. This paper, at the beginning, addressesng author. Tel.: +673-2344717; fax: +673-2343207.
sses: email@example.com (C. Palanichamy), nsb25@
front matter r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
. Sundar Babub
iful Rijal Technical College, Simpang 125, Jalan Muara,
phia, PA 19104, USA
l sectors in the country, which is also energy intensive. It is
n and hence energy conservation (EC) in this context offers an
experiences of the authors with a textile industry, which has
PRESSIndian context, and nally it points out the Govern-ments role in the EC endeavour.
2. Second stage EC experience
2.1. Audit outcome
The EC team, through second stage energy auditnoticed that, the rst stage EC involved only measuresof conserving electrical energy, which brought down theelectrical energy consumption to 47,630 kWh during19992000. As the next stage of EC, the management ofthe industry is further interested only in conservingelectrical energy, and if at all is there any possibility of
at the same time they turn their computers on, andseldom shut down the computers when they were awayfor 30min or longer, etc. Such activities resulted inhigher energy consumption.The EC team carried out the following activities in
order to conserve energy:
* To change their habit of switching on the computerperipherals equipment as soon as they enter the ofceevery day.
* To switch on peripherals like a laser printer only
ARTICLE IN PRESSC. Palanichamy, N. Sundar Babu / Energy Policy 33 (2005) 603609604conserving energy in other forms, the industry wanted toreserve such measures as the third stage of conservation.Since EC has been already carried out, the EC team hada hard time to identify the areas for further electricalEC. However, it identied the following areas forfurther EC after studying all the loads irrespective oftheir capacities:
* Computer loads;* Building insulation;* Introducing natural lighting;* Motor belts;* Change of spindle tapes;* Steam use in place of electrical energy and* Renewable energy in place of conventional energy.
2.2. Energy saving from computers loads
The EC team felt that there would be a possibility ofconserving energy by properly changing the computerusage culture (Chan et al., 1997) and hence the teamconducted a survey regarding the number of computersin use, the hours of operation of each computer, and theusers practice.There were 23 PCs, 4 Laser Printers, and 4 Scanners
available for use. Fifty-ve persons (both clerical andtechnical) were found to be capable of using thecomputers. The users had different practices likeswitching on all peripherals like printer, scanner, etc.
Energy saving, saving in energy cost, investment, and payback period
Measures Saving in electricity consumption
Computer loads 19,116 2.30
Building insulation 61,600 7.40
Natural lighting 82,320 9.89
Flat belts 76,667 9.21
Sandwich tapes 768,000 92.25Steam heating:
(a) Canteen use 400,000 48.05
(b) Wax melting 16,650 2.00
Total 1,424,353 171.10when one is ready to print.* To switch off computer monitors while they are
away.* Security guards were instructed to switch off the
computer power supply after the working hours andon holidays.
* Automatic Power Management System (APMS)designed to switch off computers and peripheralsafter a certain period of inactivity has been intro-duced.
The benets of EC by changing the computer usageculture are given in Table 1.
2.3. Conservation through building insulation
The industry is around 30 years old. Computers wereintroduced along with air conditioners without renovat-ing the buildings. It has 27 numbers of 1.5-ton capacityair conditioners. Except 7, remaining 20 were used forthe computer rooms environment. The rooms weremaintained at an operating temperature of 24C alwaysirrespective of the changing seasons. The south and westfacing walls are having an area of 1688 square feet. Thewindows are of single glass type and the total area isfound to be 700 square feet.The EC team felt that changes in the windows glasses
and additional insulation to south and west facing wallareas would result in reduced cooling load of the
Net annual saving in
electricity cost ($)
Investment ($) Payback period
1673 2875 21
5390 8450 19
7203 12,330 21
6708 4140 8
67,200 51,840 1018,200 1065 1
557 750 17
IN/ Enbuildings. Since all the windows are of single glass type,the EC team recommended replacing them by doubleglass0.5-in space windows. Also for the south andwest facing walls, R-13 insulation has been recom-mended since it has high resistance to heat ow.Automatic door closers were suggested for the doors.All recommendations were carried out with drivablecare. Due to the modications of the window glassesand wall insulations of the general-purpose and thecomputer rooms, there was sufcient energy saving asshown in Table 1.
2.4. Saving through natural lighting
The existing roof-structure of the spinning and sewingoors were made up of asbestos sheets. During recentyears transparent lite-roof has become very popularsince it provides adequate amount of lighting dependingupon the area of usage and in some cases it providesnatural heating too. The EC team felt that replacingsome of the asbestos sheets by transparent lite sheetswould result in more lighting because of its widerangular coverage of sunlight. The EC team made aspecial design to control natural lighting and heating atall seasons of the year. A single asbestos sheet has beencut into two equal halves. One half is replaced by meansof transparent lite sheet and it has been permanentlyxed with one of the cut halves of the asbestos. It formsone full-modied sheet, which has half asbestos and halftransparent sheets. This sheet provides sufcient amountof natural lighting and heat and however it does notprovide any control for the light and heat. In order toachieve such a control, the other cut half of the asbestossheet has been xed with the modied sheet with aparallel sliding mechanism. The slide travels over thetransparent sheet and it can partly or fully cover thetransparent portion of the modied sheet. The travel ofthe slide is electric motor operated and the motoroperation is automatically controlled by means of lightand heat sensors provided in the working oor. Themicroprocessor-controlled sensors can be set to therequired amount of light and heat needed. By this way,the natural light and heat can