already carried out some fruitful EC measures. Then it highlights the EC potential availability and suggests some practicable
tons of furnace oil, 0.2 million tons of high-speed diesel
The authors experiences are with a privately ownedmedium size spinning and sewing thread industry inTamilnadu state, producing 15 tons of yarn and 10 tons
measures carried out are:
electricity cost, and an attractive benet/investmentratio of 61.29% during the rst year itself. The
ARTICLE INof sewing thread/day. The industry considered is a high-tension consumer, receiving electricity from the StateElectricity Board (SEB) under Tariff I. The permittedMaximum Demand is 3250 kVA, and the SanctionedDemand is 2600 kVA. The electrical energy consump-
successful rst stage EC measures encouraged theindustry and made them to go for further (called asthe second stage) measures as presented in this paper.This paper initially addresses the second stage ECexperiences of the authors; later it highlights the ECpotential availability and suggests some practicableenvironmental friendly EC policies suitable to the*Correspondi
drexel.edu (N. S
0301-4215/$ - see
doi:10.1016/j.enpand 5000 million units of power in the organised sectoralone. In view of the liberalisation in India and thenecessity to compete with modern textile industries(ADB, 1999; UNIDO, 1992) of countries, such asChina, Korea, Japan, etc. in the international market,there is a remarkable need to reduce the production cost.At present prices, even a 1% reduction in energyconsumption could mean substantial savings annually.
Running parallel cables,Change of motor connections,Power factor improvement,Introducing energy efcient motors,Efcient lighting systems, andPeak shaving.
Such measures resulted in a saving of 18.23% on ther 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Energy conservation experience; Textile industry; Potential availability; Energy conservation policy suggestion; Governments role
The Indian textile industrial sector is energy intensive(ADB, 1999; Palanichamy et al., 2001, pp. 340345)consuming nearly 3.0 million tons of coal, 0.6 million
tion is 58,250 kWh/day, the steam requirement is0.6 tons/h, and the furnace oil requirement is 1000 l/day. The industry has already undergone energyconservation (EC) measures (called the rst stage)during the nancial year 19981999. Some of the earlierenvironmental friendly EC policies suitable for the Indian context to achieve the estimated potential, and nally it highlights the
Governments role in the EC endeavour.Energy Policy 33 (2
Second stage energy cwith a tex
aDepartment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Sult
Brunei BB 2313bDrexel University, Ph
The Indian textile industrial sector is one of the oldest ind
currently undergoing several studies to reduce its energy consum
excellent opportunity. This paper, at the beginning, addressesng author. Tel.: +673-2344717; fax: +673-2343207.
sses: email@example.com (C. Palanichamy), nsb25@
front matter r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
. Sundar Babub
iful Rijal Technical College, Simpang 125, Jalan Muara,
phia, PA 19104, USA
l sectors in the country, which is also energy intensive. It is
n and hence energy conservation (EC) in this context offers an
experiences of the authors with a textile industry, which has
PRESSIndian context, and nally it points out the Govern-ments role in the EC endeavour.
2. Second stage EC experience
2.1. Audit outcome
The EC team, through second stage energy auditnoticed that, the rst stage EC involved only measuresof conserving electrical energy, which brought down theelectrical energy consumption to 47,630 kWh during19992000. As the next stage of EC, the management ofthe industry is further interested only in conservingelectrical energy, and if at all is there any possibility of
at the same time they turn their computers on, andseldom shut down the computers when they were awayfor 30min or longer, etc. Such activities resulted inhigher energy consumption.The EC team carried out the following activities in
order to conserve energy:
* To change their habit of switching on the computerperipherals equipment as soon as they enter the ofceevery day.
* To switch on peripherals like a laser printer only
ARTICLE IN PRESSC. Palanichamy, N. Sundar Babu / Energy Policy 33 (2005) 603609604conserving energy in other forms, the industry wanted toreserve such measures as the third stage of conservation.Since EC has been already carried out, the EC team hada hard time to identify the areas for further electricalEC. However, it identied the following areas forfurther EC after studying all the loads irrespective oftheir capacities:
* Computer loads;* Building insulation;* Introducing natural lighting;* Motor belts;* Change of spindle tapes;* Steam use in place of electrical energy and* Renewable energy in place of conventional energy.
2.2. Energy saving from computers loads
The EC team felt that there would be a possibility ofconserving energy by properly changing the computerusage culture (Chan et al., 1997) and hence the teamconducted a survey regarding the number of computersin use, the hours of operation of each computer, and theusers practice.There were 23 PCs, 4 Laser Printers, and 4 Scanners
available for use. Fifty-ve persons (both clerical andtechnical) were found to be capable of using thecomputers. The users had different practices likeswitching on all peripherals like printer, scanner, etc.
Energy saving, saving in energy cost, investment, and payback period
Measures Saving in electricity consumption
Computer loads 19,116 2.30
Building insulation 61,600 7.40
Natural lighting 82,320 9.89
Flat belts 76,667 9.21
Sandwich tapes 768,000 92.25Steam heating:
(a) Canteen use 400,000 48.05
(b) Wax melting 16,650 2.00
Total 1,424,353 171.10when one is ready to print.* To switch off computer monitors while they are
away.* Security guards were instructed to switch off the
computer power supply after the working hours andon holidays.
* Automatic Power Management System (APMS)designed to switch off computers and peripheralsafter a certain period of inactivity has been intro-duced.
The benets of EC by changing the computer usageculture are given in Table 1.
2.3. Conservation through building insulation
The industry is around 30 years old. Computers wereintroduced along with air conditioners without renovat-ing the buildings. It has 27 numbers of 1.5-ton capacityair conditioners. Except 7, remaining 20 were used forthe computer rooms environment. The rooms weremaintained at an operating temperature of 24C alwaysirrespective of the changing seasons. The south and westfacing walls are having an area of 1688 square feet. Thewindows are of single glass type and the total area isfound to be 700 square feet.The EC team felt that changes in the windows glasses
and additional insulation to south and west facing wallareas would result in reduced cooling load of the
Net annual saving in
electricity cost ($)
Investment ($) Payback period
1673 2875 21
5390 8450 19
7203 12,330 21
6708 4140 8
67,200 51,840 1018,200 1065 1
557 750 17
IN/ Enbuildings. Since all the windows are of single glass type,the EC team recommended replacing them by doubleglass0.5-in space windows. Also for the south andwest facing walls, R-13 insulation has been recom-mended since it has high resistance to heat ow.Automatic door closers were suggested for the doors.All recommendations were carried out with drivablecare. Due to the modications of the window glassesand wall insulations of the general-purpose and thecomputer rooms, there was sufcient energy saving asshown in Table 1.
2.4. Saving through natural lighting
The existing roof-structure of the spinning and sewingoors were made up of asbestos sheets. During recentyears transparent lite-roof has become very popularsince it provides adequate amount of lighting dependingupon the area of usage and in some cases it providesnatural heating too. The EC team felt that replacingsome of the asbestos sheets by transparent lite sheetswould result in more lighting because of its widerangular coverage of sunlight. The EC team made aspecial design to control natural lighting and heating atall seasons of the year. A single asbestos sheet has beencut into two equal halves. One half is replaced by meansof transparent lite sheet and it has been permanentlyxed with one of the cut halves of the asbestos. It formsone full-modied sheet, which has half asbestos and halftransparent sheets. This sheet provides sufcient amountof natural lighting and heat and however it does notprovide any control for the light and heat. In order toachieve such a control, the other cut half of the asbestossheet has been xed with the modied sheet with aparallel sliding mechanism. The slide travels over thetransparent sheet and it can partly or fully cover thetransparent portion of the modied sheet. The travel ofthe slide is electric motor operated and the motoroperation is automatically controlled by means of lightand heat sensors provided in the working oor. Themicroprocessor-controlled sensors can be set to therequired amount of light and heat needed. By this way,the natural light and heat can be controlled during thedifferent seasons of the year. It has been recommendedto replace one asbestos sheet for every four asbestossheets in a uniform fashion by the modied sheet withsensor control. The light sensors are set to a lightinglevel of 250 lux such that there are no safety problems,and also no reduction in productivity. The sensorsswitch on sufcient articial lighting when the naturallighting is less than 250 lux. By experimentation, no
ARTICLEC. Palanichamy, N. Sundar Babusafety problems and reduction in productivity arenoticed due to the warming up of the lamps, which areswitched on under insufcient natural lighting condi-tions. The benets of EC by natural lighting are given inTable 1.2.5. Conservation through flat belts
There were many motors in the spinning oors ofdifferent kW capacities, exhaust fans, and compressorsrunning with V-belts. The EC team observed that withV-belts, the efciency for power transmission was foundto be low as high frictional engagement exists betweenthe lateral wedge surfaces of the belts and hence higherpower consumption for the same amount of work to bedone by the load. V-belts contain higher bending crosssection and large mass, which cause higher bending loss.Also, as each groove of the pulley contains individualV-belt, the tension between the belt and the pulleydistributes unevenly which causes unequal wear on thebelt. This leads to vibrations and noisy running andhence reduces power transmission further. The conse-quences could be bearing damage also (See-Tech, 1999).In order to improve the efciency of power transmis-
sion, to reduce the wear and tear on the belts, and toreduce the damages of the motor bearings, the EC teamrecommended replacing the V-belts of all the motors withFlat belts. With these Flat belts, the frictional engage-ment is on the outer pulley diameter only, which cantypically save around 510% of the transmitted energy.Due to the introduction of Flat belts in place of V-belts,there was sufcient energy saving as shown in Table 1.
2.6. Synthetic sandwich tapes for spinning frames
The Coimbatore (India)-based company (HabasitIakoka Pvt. Ltd. 2000), an Indo-Swiss joint venturecompany, is the largest manufacturer of syntheticsandwich spindle tapes in the world, enjoying 70% ofthe global market. The tapes are made of polyamide,cotton yarn and a special synthetic rubber mix. Thesandwich tapes have characteristics like stable running,good dimensional stability, no breakage, less weak-twistyarn, no bre sticking, and soft & exible tape bodies.Because of the special characteristics, these tapes offer510% energy saving.Recommendations were made to replace the cotton
tapes by the Habasit synthetic sandwich spindle tapesfor all the 96 ring frames. The benets of suchmodication are shown in Table 1.
2.7. Steam heating in place of electrical heating
The textile industry runs a Canteen to provide foodand drink to staff and workers at subsidised price.Steam vessels were mainly used for the food prepa-ration. Steam was produced by a boiler tted with a
PRESSergy Policy 33 (2005) 603609 60550 kW heating element. Electrical energy was the inputfor the boiler and the boiler was found to be working forabout 8000 h in a year.The existing boilers are of sufcient capacities to
produce additional steam of 120 kg/h. Usage of steam at
IN/ En70 kg/h from the main boiler house has been recom-mended for the cooking purposes. The electricallyoperated boiler has been dismantled from the service.Such a conservation measure resulted in 100% return oninvestment with a payback period of 1 month as shownin Table 1.
2.8. Steam for wax melting
From the energy audit, the EC team identied thatelectrical heating was used for the purpose of meltingwax. The power rating of the heating element used is5 kW and the heating element was found to be workingfor about 10 h/day. The EC team recommended steamheating in place of electrical heating. Additionalconnection for the supply of steam at 9 kg/h from themain boiler house has been suggested for wax melting.Due to the introduction of steam for wax melting inplace of electrical heating, there was sufcient energysaving as shown in Table 1.
2.9. Introducing renewable energy systems
In India, among many matured renewable energytechnologies, wind energy systems (WES) have experi-enced signicant commercial market development overthe past decade (TEDA, 2001), taking advantage of thecombination of tax incentives, favourable utility powerpurchase agreements, and banking the generated powerat 2% commission, etc.The EC team recommended the management to invest
on WES of 1MW capacity at Kayathar sites (inTamilnadu state), which are having a mean wind speedof 8m/s. Such an option provides clean energy for theindustrial need at a cheaper price, room for sale ofexcess energy to the Government at attractive buybackrates, and banking the generated energy. For theconcerned textile industry, the sanctioned power de-mand is 2600 kVA, and the energy from WES isexpected to meet around 15% of the energy demandof the industry. Since energy from WES is not constant,the total energy demand of the industry could be plannedsuch that whatever generation is available from WESshould be used and the decit in energy demand shouldbe derived from the State Electricity Boards grid.The estimated cost of electricity generation during the
rst year is found to be $ 0.06/kWh and the cost ofgeneration during the subsequent years will be con-siderably reduced due to the repayment of the loan. Thereturn on investment will be around 14% per annum.