already carried out some fruitful EC measures. Then it highlights the EC potential availability and suggests some practicable
tons of furnace oil, 0.2 million tons of high-speed diesel
The authors experiences are with a privately ownedmedium size spinning and sewing thread industry inTamilnadu state, producing 15 tons of yarn and 10 tons
measures carried out are:
electricity cost, and an attractive benet/investmentratio of 61.29% during the rst year itself. The
ARTICLE INof sewing thread/day. The industry considered is a high-tension consumer, receiving electricity from the StateElectricity Board (SEB) under Tariff I. The permittedMaximum Demand is 3250 kVA, and the SanctionedDemand is 2600 kVA. The electrical energy consump-
successful rst stage EC measures encouraged theindustry and made them to go for further (called asthe second stage) measures as presented in this paper.This paper initially addresses the second stage ECexperiences of the authors; later it highlights the ECpotential availability and suggests some practicableenvironmental friendly EC policies suitable to the*Correspondi
drexel.edu (N. S
0301-4215/$ - see
doi:10.1016/j.enpand 5000 million units of power in the organised sectoralone. In view of the liberalisation in India and thenecessity to compete with modern textile industries(ADB, 1999; UNIDO, 1992) of countries, such asChina, Korea, Japan, etc. in the international market,there is a remarkable need to reduce the production cost.At present prices, even a 1% reduction in energyconsumption could mean substantial savings annually.
Running parallel cables,Change of motor connections,Power factor improvement,Introducing energy efcient motors,Efcient lighting systems, andPeak shaving.
Such measures resulted in a saving of 18.23% on ther 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Energy conservation experience; Textile industry; Potential availability; Energy conservation policy suggestion; Governments role
The Indian textile industrial sector is energy intensive(ADB, 1999; Palanichamy et al., 2001, pp. 340345)consuming nearly 3.0 million tons of coal, 0.6 million
tion is 58,250 kWh/day, the steam requirement is0.6 tons/h, and the furnace oil requirement is 1000 l/day. The industry has already undergone energyconservation (EC) measures (called the rst stage)during the nancial year 19981999. Some of the earlierenvironmental friendly EC policies suitable for the Indian context to achieve the estimated potential, and nally it highlights the
Governments role in the EC endeavour.Energy Policy 33 (2
Second stage energy cwith a tex
aDepartment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Sult
Brunei BB 2313bDrexel University, Ph
The Indian textile industrial sector is one of the oldest ind
currently undergoing several studies to reduce its energy consum
excellent opportunity. This paper, at the beginning, addressesng author. Tel.: +673-2344717; fax: +673-2343207.
sses: email@example.com (C. Palanichamy), nsb25@
front matter r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
. Sundar Babub
iful Rijal Technical College, Simpang 125, Jalan Muara,
phia, PA 19104, USA
l sectors in the country, which is also energy intensive. It is
n and hence energy conservation (EC) in this context offers an
experiences of the authors with a textile industry, which has
PRESSIndian context, and nally it points out the Govern-ments role in the EC endeavour.
2. Second stage EC experience
2.1. Audit outcome
The EC team, through second stage energy auditnoticed that, the rst stage EC involved only measuresof conserving electrical energy, which brought down theelectrical energy consumption to 47,630 kWh during19992000. As the next stage of EC, the management ofthe industry is further interested only in conservingelectrical energy, and if at all is there any possibility of
at the same time they turn their computers on, andseldom shut down the computers when they were awayfor 30min or longer, etc. Such activities resulted inhigher energy consumption.The EC team carried out the following activities in
order to conserve energy:
* To change their habit of switching on the computerperipherals equipment as soon as they enter the ofceevery day.
* To switch on peripherals like a laser printer only
ARTICLE IN PRESSC. Palanichamy, N. Sundar Babu / Energy Policy 33 (2005) 603609604conserving energy in other forms, the industry wanted toreserve such measures as the third stage of conservation.Since EC has been already carried out, the EC team hada hard time to identify the areas for further electricalEC. However, it identied the following areas forfurther EC after studying all the loads irrespective oftheir capacities:
* Computer loads;* Building insulation;* Introducing natural lighting;* Motor belts;* Change of spindle tapes;* Steam use in place of electrical energy and* Renewable energy in place of conventional energy.
2.2. Energy saving from computers loads
The EC team felt that there would be a possibility ofconserving energy by properly changing the computerusage culture (Chan et al., 1997) and hence the teamconducted a survey regarding the number of computersin use, the hours of operation of each computer, and theusers practice.There were 23 PCs, 4 Laser Printers, and 4 Scanners
available for use. Fifty-ve persons (both clerical andtechnical) were found to be capable of using thecomputers. The users had different practices likeswitching on all peripherals like printer, scanner, etc.
Energy saving, saving in energy cost, investment, and payback period
Measures Saving in electricity consumption
Computer loads 19,116 2.30
Building insulation 61,600 7.40
Natural lighting 82,320 9.89
Flat belts 76,667 9.21
Sandwich tapes 768,000 92.25Steam heating:
(a) Canteen use 400,000 48.05
(b) Wax melting 16,650 2.00
Total 1,424,353 171.10when one is ready to print.* To switch off computer monitors while they are
away.* Security guards were instructed to switch off the
computer power supply after the working hours andon holidays.
* Automatic Power Management System (APMS)designed to switch off computers and peripheralsafter a certain period of inactivity has been intro-duced.
The benets of EC by changing the computer usageculture are given in Table 1.
2.3. Conservation through building insulation
The industry is around 30 years old. Computers wereintroduced along with air conditioners without renovat-ing the buildings. It has 27 numbers of 1.5-ton capacityair conditioners. Except 7, remaining 20 were used forthe computer rooms environment. The rooms weremaintained at an operating temperature of 24C alwaysirrespective of the changing seasons. The south and westfacing walls are having an area of 1688 square feet. Thewindows are of single glass type and the total area isfound to be 700 square feet.The EC team felt that changes in the windows glasses
and additional insulation to south and west facing wallareas would result in reduced cooling load of the
Net annual saving in
electricity cost ($)
Investment ($) Payback period
1673 2875 21
5390 8450 19
7203 12,330 21
6708 4140 8
67,200 51,840 1018,200 1065 1
557 750 17
IN/ Enbuildings. Since all the windows are of single glass type,the EC team recommended replacing them by doubleglass0.5-in space windows. Also for the south andwest facing walls, R-13 insulation has been recom-mended since it has high resistance to heat ow.Automatic door closers were suggested for the doors.All recommendations were carried out with drivablecare. Due to the modications of the window glassesand wall insulations of the general-purpose and thecomputer rooms, there was sufcient energy saving asshown in Table 1.
2.4. Saving through natural lighting
The existing roof-structure of the spinning and sewingoors were made up of asbestos sheets. During recentyears transparent lite-roof has become very popularsince it provides adequate amount of lighting dependingupon the area of usage and in some cases it providesnatural heating too. The EC team felt that replacingsome of the asbestos sheets by transparent lite sheetswould result in more lighting because of its widerangular coverage of sunlight. The EC team made aspecial design to control natural lighting and heating atall seasons of the year. A single asbestos sheet has beencut into two equal halves. One half is replaced by meansof transparent lite sheet and it has been permanentlyxed with one of the cut halves of the asbestos. It formsone full-modied sheet, which has half asbestos and halftransparent sheets. This sheet provides sufcient amountof natural lighting and heat and however it does notprovide any control for the light and heat. In order toachieve such a control, the other cut half of the asbestossheet has been xed with the modied sheet with aparallel sliding mechanism. The slide travels over thetransparent sheet and it can partly or fully cover thetransparent portion of the modied sheet. The travel ofthe slide is electric motor operated and the motoroperation is automatically controlled by means of lightand heat sensors provided in the working oor. Themicroprocessor-controlled sensors can be set to therequired amount of light and heat needed. By this way,the natural light and heat can be controlled during thedifferent seasons of the year. It has been recommendedto replace one asbestos sheet for every four asbestossheets in a uniform fashion by the modied sheet withsensor control. The light sensors are set to a lightinglevel of 250 lux such that there are no safety problems,and also no reduction in productivity. The sensorsswitch on sufcient articial lighting when the naturallighting is less than 250 lux. By experimentation, no
ARTICLEC. Palanichamy, N. Sundar Babusafety problems and reduction in productivity arenoticed due to the warming up of the lamps, which areswitched on under insufcient natural lighting condi-tions. The benets of EC by natural lighting are given inTable 1.2.5. Conservation through flat belts
There were many motors in the spinning oors ofdifferent kW capacities, exhaust fans, and compressorsrunning with V-belts. The EC team observed that withV-belts, the efciency for power transmission was foundto be low as high frictional engagement exists betweenthe lateral wedge surfaces of the belts and hence higherpower consumption for the same amount of work to bedone by the load. V-belts contain higher bending crosssection and large mass, which cause higher bending loss.Also, as each groove of the pulley contains individualV-belt, the tension between the belt and the pulleydistributes unevenly which causes unequal wear on thebelt. This leads to vibrations and noisy running andhence reduces power transmission further. The conse-quences could be bearing damage also (See-Tech, 1999).In order to improve the efciency of power transmis-
sion, to reduce the wear and tear on the belts, and toreduce the damages of the motor bearings, the EC teamrecommended replacing the V-belts of all the motors withFlat belts. With these Flat belts, the frictional engage-ment is on the outer pulley diameter only, which cantypically save around 510% of the transmitted energy.Due to the introduction of Flat belts in place of V-belts,there was sufcient energy saving as shown in Table 1.
2.6. Synthetic sandwich tapes for spinning frames
The Coimbatore (India)-based company (HabasitIakoka Pvt. Ltd. 2000), an Indo-Swiss joint venturecompany, is the largest manufacturer of syntheticsandwich spindle tapes in the world, enjoying 70% ofthe global market. The tapes are made of polyamide,cotton yarn and a special synthetic rubber mix. Thesandwich tapes have characteristics like stable running,good dimensional stability, no breakage, less weak-twistyarn, no bre sticking, and soft & exible tape bodies.Because of the special characteristics, these tapes offer510% energy saving.Recommendations were made to replace the cotton
tapes by the Habasit synthetic sandwich spindle tapesfor all the 96 ring frames. The benets of suchmodication are shown in Table 1.
2.7. Steam heating in place of electrical heating
The textile industry runs a Canteen to provide foodand drink to staff and workers at subsidised price.Steam vessels were mainly used for the food prepa-ration. Steam was produced by a boiler tted with a
PRESSergy Policy 33 (2005) 603609 60550 kW heating element. Electrical energy was the inputfor the boiler and the boiler was found to be working forabout 8000 h in a year.The existing boilers are of sufcient capacities to
produce additional steam of 120 kg/h. Usage of steam at
IN/ En70 kg/h from the main boiler house has been recom-mended for the cooking purposes. The electricallyoperated boiler has been dismantled from the service.Such a conservation measure resulted in 100% return oninvestment with a payback period of 1 month as shownin Table 1.
2.8. Steam for wax melting
From the energy audit, the EC team identied thatelectrical heating was used for the purpose of meltingwax. The power rating of the heating element used is5 kW and the heating element was found to be workingfor about 10 h/day. The EC team recommended steamheating in place of electrical heating. Additionalconnection for the supply of steam at 9 kg/h from themain boiler house has been suggested for wax melting.Due to the introduction of steam for wax melting inplace of electrical heating, there was sufcient energysaving as shown in Table 1.
2.9. Introducing renewable energy systems
In India, among many matured renewable energytechnologies, wind energy systems (WES) have experi-enced signicant commercial market development overthe past decade (TEDA, 2001), taking advantage of thecombination of tax incentives, favourable utility powerpurchase agreements, and banking the generated powerat 2% commission, etc.The EC team recommended the management to invest
on WES of 1MW capacity at Kayathar sites (inTamilnadu state), which are having a mean wind speedof 8m/s. Such an option provides clean energy for theindustrial need at a cheaper price, room for sale ofexcess energy to the Government at attractive buybackrates, and banking the generated energy. For theconcerned textile industry, the sanctioned power de-mand is 2600 kVA, and the energy from WES isexpected to meet around 15% of the energy demandof the industry. Since energy from WES is not constant,the total energy demand of the industry could be plannedsuch that whatever generation is available from WESshould be used and the decit in energy demand shouldbe derived from the State Electricity Boards grid.The estimated cost of electricity generation during the
rst year is found to be $ 0.06/kWh and the cost ofgeneration during the subsequent years will be con-siderably reduced due to the repayment of the loan. Thereturn on investment will be around 14% per annum.
ARTICLEC. Palanichamy, N. Sundar Babu6062.10. Benefits overview
Table 1 provides the consolidated benets of thesecond stage EC activities except the benets of theproposed renewable energy system. Due to these EC3. Practicable EC policies
The industrial sector in India continues to be thelargest commercial energy consuming sector using up to52% of the total commercial energy produced in thecountry. The Indian industries are found to be highlyenergy-intensive and its energy-GDP ratio is determinedto be 5060% higher than developed nations. Insynthetic bres & textiles, paper, chemicals, foundries,steel, and cement industries, the energy costs account forabout 1520% of the total production costs. However,during recent years, due to the swift expansion of non-energy-intensive industries and implementation of mod-ern energy efcient technologies and EC measuresresulted in reduced commercial energy-intensity com-pared to previous years. Still there is substantial scopefor EC in major industries like textiles, chemicals andpaper & pulp, aluminium, and iron & steel industries. Ithas been estimated that (Nadarajan, 2002) over 58%saving is possible simply by better housekeeping andanother 815% by development of co-generation facil-ities, introducing renewable energy policies, improvedcapacity utilisation, and industrial heat & wastemanagement. The industrial EC potential works out tomeasures, a specic electrical energy saving rangingfrom 2.00 to 92.25 kWh/ton has been achieved. Itresulted in a total saving in annual electricity consump-tion of 1.424353 million kWh, which is found to be7.87% of the annual electricity consumption. Theinvestment is found to be 0.081450 million dollars andthe net annual saving in electricity cost are estimated as0.106931 million dollars. The average specic electricityconsumption/ton of the textile product has been reducedby 171.10 kWh/ton. The payback period of all themeasures is less than 2 years, which is a very attractivegure for the investor. In addition to energy saving, anannual reduction of 311.12 tons of carbon, 9.62 tons ofSO2 and 3.72 tons of NOx are estimated as environ-mental benets. The introduction of WES also offerssaving in electricity cost. The net quantity of electricityavailable per annum is 2.45 million kWh. Usage ofelectricity from WES results in a saving of $ 67,375during the rst year itself. However, the capitalinvestment for the WES is 0.85 million dollars, whichis quite a high value compared to the other ECmeasures carried out. The payback period for theWES is estimated as 67 years. This is a long-terminvestment, which offers continuous benets for about
PRESSergy Policy 33 (2005) 603609be 1450015500MW, which equals around 15% of thetotal generating capacity of the country. In this section,some practicable policies are suggested to achieve amajor portion of the said target with environmentalbenets.
IN/ En3.1. Tightening co-generation policy
One of the potential sources of environmental friendlypower generation is industrial co-generation. Co-gen-eration is the combined generation of process heat andelectric power by the sequential use of energy from acommon fuel source. It is an energy-efcient andenvironmental friendly technology that utilises theexhaust heat from the steam turbine for process heating.Though the overall installed generating capacity of
the Indian Power Sector is 10,4101.7MW as on 30thApril 2002, it experienced a maximum demand shortageof 16.9% during the nancial year, April 2001March2002 (Central Electricity Authority, 2002). Inadequatenancial investments by the central and state electricitysectors and huge amount of transmission power lossesare the major barriers for the generation-demandmismatch. By industrial co-generation, there is nonancial burden on the Central and State governmentelectricity sectors because the industries opting for co-generation facilities themselves meet out the nancialrequirements, and the transmission power losses aresubstantially reduced because the energy generated ismostly utilised where it is being produced. Though thecaptive power installed capacities has a signicantmagnitude of around 20% of the installed generatingcapacities, the growth of co-generation so far hasreached to a maximum of only 5% of the total installedgenerating capacities. One of the major barriers for thedevelopment of industrial co-generation has been theissue of CentralState jurisdiction. In order to heightenindustrial co-generation, it is suggested that bothCentral and State governments should have a commonamicable policy on industrial co-generation and also co-generation should be made as mandatory for industrieslike sugar, fertiliser, steel, cement, paper, man-madebre, and chemical/petrochemical industries of con-tracted demand above 500 kVA. Apart from captive use,energy produced through co-generation shall be per-mitted for third-party sales. In that case, the policies forwheeling, banking, third party sales, support forevacuation arrangements and assurance for paymentsare the key areas that need to be strengthened. By makingco-generation as mandatory for industries and permittingthird-party sale of excess power, brings about 85009000MW of power that could be further generated.
3.2. Updating renewable energy policy
The depletion of the reserves of fossil fuels and thepresent rate of excessive fossil fuel consumption together
ARTICLEC. Palanichamy, N. Sundar Babuwith the global warming gave a new thrust andimportance to renewable energy sources. India issanctied with abundant renewable energy in differentforms like solar, wind, tidal, etc. Among the renewables,the importance of power generation from wind energywas realised during 19851990 and today, powergeneration from wind has emerged as one of the mostsuccessful programmes, making a meaningful contribu-tion to bridging the gap between supply and demand forpower. The Ministry for Non-Conventional EnergySources (MNES), the Indian Renewable Energy Develop-ment Agency (IREDA) Ltd, and the State NodalAgencies has been playing a signicant role in promot-ing wind power projects. India has a gross wind powerpotential of 45,195MW, and a technical potential of13,390MW. As on March 2003, an installed capacityof 1869.5MW (Ministry of Non-Conventional EnergySources, 2003) has been established and out of which1804.7 MW (96.5%) was from private sector investments.In order to further enhance the renewable energy
investments, for new high-tension industries to beestablished, while licensing for grid electricity to use,the government shall insist for at least 10% of theindustries sanctioned demand from renewable energysources. If such a policy were introduced, according tothe authors estimate, by 2005 there would be anadditional installed wind farm capacity of 2625MWapart from the forecasted growth. For existing indus-tries those seeking enhanced sanctioned demand, 25%of the additional demand should be from renewableenergy sources. Such 10% and 25% renewable energydemand charges are naturally exempted from paymentto the state utilities.
3.3. Setting standards for specific energy conception
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is responsiblefor setting standards for manufacturing, operationalpractices and related areas in the country. Apart fromstandards, BIS has also laid down guidelines forselection of energy efcient equipments, guidelinesfor system design and proper matching of components,and codes of practice for proper equipment installationand maintenance. But as on today no policy has beenlaid on specic energy consumption for key products bydifferent industries. For example, for Spinning andSewing Thread industries, the average specic energyconsumption for producing 1 ton of yarn by Indianindustries is found to be 2400 kWh. This value is muchhigher compared to developed countries, and it needs tobe reduced. So BIS should able to set a standard for thespecic energy consumption for textile industries basedon the international standards and the Indian context.On this basis, the specic energy consumption shall beset to 1900 kWh/ton. Likewise for energy-intensiveindustries like chemicals, paper & pulp, aluminium,
PRESSergy Policy 33 (2005) 603609 607and iron & steel industries, etc., BIS should able to setspecic energy consumption standards. As a guideline,by 2005, the specic energy consumption per ton ofsteel for medium and large-sized iron and steelenterprises shall be set to 0.8 ton of standard coal. Coal
be higpollutor the
introdbe baand th
IN/ Energy Pconsumption by thermal power stations shall be set to0.380 kg standard coal/kWh. The energy consumptionfor non-ferrous metals per ton of product shall be set to4.5 tons of standard coal, and the energy consumptionfor large-sized synthetic ammonia shall be set to 37GJ,etc. Such a new policy not only helps in reducing theproduction cost of the commodities but also reduces thedamages to the environment.To enforce the specic energy consumption standard,
the following practice could be adopted in case ofelectrical energy consumption. Industries consumingmore than the set standard would be cautioned toreduce the specic energy consumption within astipulated time period. If the same situation continueseven after cautioning, there would be a penalty on theexcess energy consumption charges by the electricutilities. The penalty charges shall be worked out basedon the expected environmental damage caused by theexcess energy consumption. Likewise for other energyforms, realistic practices could be formulated. If such apolicy were practiced, there would be a saving of around20% in the electrical energy consumption alone.
3.4. Electrical power demand approval policy
The policy for sanctioned (or contracted) demand forindustries is generally based on the connected loaddetails submitted by the industries. Industries alwaysdemand for higher sanctioned demand anticipating thefuture growth in electrical demand. The policy forapproving the sanctioned demand shall be on the basisof the quantity of daily commodity production, theindustry working hours per day and the specic energyconsumption standard set by BIS. An additional 10%shall be added to that to get the gure for the sanctioneddemand. So the industry will be sanctioned to the gureas arrived at and not as it requested. For example, atextile industry seeks 3500 kW of maximum demand. Ifits daily yarn production is 25 tons and it works on 3shifts with 8 h per shift, assuming the specic energyconsumption standard set by BIS as 1900 kWh/ton ofyarn, then the electrical load demand would be 1980 kW(25 1900/24). Adding 10% on the calculated gure, thesanctioned demand would be around 2200MW thoughthe industry asked for 3500MW. Such a policy onapproving the contracted demand forces the industrieseither to improve the performance of their machines orchange in production processes and or incorporatingenergy efcient machineries in case of replacements, andalso it gives room for nancial saving by reduceddemand charges.
ARTICLEC. Palanichamy, N. Sundar Babu6083.5. Introducing ration for fossil-fuels
Power cuts and load shedding by electric utilities arevery common in India. Mostly Indian industries make4. The role of the governments
The State as well as the Central governments shallformulate policies for implementing the suggestions asdiscussed earlier. Apart from that it can have fewadditional norms to promote EC in terms of technologyand incentives.
(i) Purchasing the products for government andpublic sector needs only from industries success-fully adopting EC policies.
(ii) Introducing energy efciency standards for keyindustrial energy-consuming equipment such asindustrial boiler, transformers, air-conditioners,electric motors, fans, pumps, and lighting, etc.
(iii) Providing technological basis for replacing indus-trial commodities with high-energy consumptionand implementing energy-saving product certica-tion and energy efciency identication system.
(iv) Readjusting the industrial structure and theproduct mix, and transforming traditional indus-tries with high and new technologies, and increasethe added value of products.
(v) Introducing product labelsinformation likeIndustries shall be asked to have different shifttimings so that the peak load on the utility grid will bereduced, which results in benets like less burden on theutility generators, reduced transmission losses, improvedload factors, etc. Also load levelling within the industriesitself helps in energy saving. State utilities couldimplement these policies and monitor the outcomeduring the time of monthly energy consumption3.6. L(vi)oad managementshedduced. The quantity of permissible fuel ration shallsed on the normal efciency of diesel-generator setse expected duration of utility power cuts and loading.failingher. In order to reduce fuel consumption as well asion, either new diesel-generators are to be addedexisting ones need to be renovated. For industriesto do so, a ration on the sale of diesel shall betheir eof the diesel-generator sets are old and their fuelmption is found to be very high and they arey operating under part load conditions. Hencefciency is low and the pollution level is found touse of diesel-generator sets for back up power supply.
SSolicy 33 (2005) 603609PREexpected lifetime, average energy consumption,operating efciency, and pollution level shall bespecied on product labels.Interest free loan facilities to procure energyefcient machineries or soft loans.
(vii) Introducing mandatory renewable energy sourcesas a part of their sources of energy and providing100% depreciation on the investment for the rstyear.
(viii) Making industrial energy audit compulsory.(ix) Policy for introducing Time of the Day metering for
industrial consumers for better load management.(x) Cash prizes worth of certain percentage on the
amount of energy saved charges.(xi) EC awards every year for different types of
Chan, A., Siu, W., Li, D., Wong, F., 1997. The Role of Computers in
Energy Consumption on Campus. A report prepared by the 1996/
97 ENV421 H course in the Division of the Environment at the
University of Toronto.
Central Electricity Authority, 2002. Regional Electricity Boards
Report of year 2002, Sewa Bhavan, R.K. Puram, New Delhi.
Habasit Iakoka Pvt. Ltd, 2000. Power Transmission Belts and
Conveyor Belts in India. http://www.habasitiakoka.com/.
Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, 2003. Government of
IndiaAnnual Report 200203.
Nadarajan, C., 2002. Market for Energy Conservation in India,
Magnum Power, IndiaReport.
ARTICLE IN PRESSC. Palanichamy, N. Sundar Babu / Energy Policy 33 (2005) 603609 609Efences
1999. Government of India & Netherlands: ADB Energy
ciency Support Project. http://www.energyefciency-cii.com/.5. Conclusions
In this paper, the EC experiences of the authors with atextile industry were presented at the beginning. Con-servation measures like equipment operational changes,building structural modications, changes in machineryaccessories, steam heating in place of electrical heatingwere adopted, which resulted in a reduction of171.10 kWh/ton of the textile product, and an estimatedannual reduction of 311.12 tons of carbon, 9.62 tons ofSO2 and 3.72 tons of NOx as environmental benets.Then the EC potential availability has been highlighted.Following that practicable EC policies for the Indiancontext have been suggested. Finally, the role of thegovernment in terms of formulation of norms, setting upof standards, and promotional EC incentives has beenpointed out.(xii) Providing tax benets and tax holidays forindustries successfully implementing EC and intro-ducing tax burden for products with higher energyconsumption.Budget Constrained Energy ConservationAn Experience with a
Textile Industry. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 16 (4)
See-Tech, 1999. News for Energy Conservation & Industrial Safety
Conserve Our Essential Companion. Energy & Environment, (1)
(Internet Edition), India. http://www.letsconserve.com/newsletter.
TEDA, 2001. Tamilnadu Energy Development AgencyPolicy Note:
UNIDO, 1992. Handy Manual of Output of a Seminar on Energy
Conservation in Textile Industry.
Prof. C. Palanichamy was born in Tamilnadu, India. He received the
B.E., M.Sc.Engg. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical and electronic
engineering in 1976, 1979 and 1991, respectively, from Madurai
Kamaraj University, India. Currently, he is with the Ministry of
Education, Brunei Darussalam. In 1979, he began his academic career
in India, followed by Iraq and Malaysia. His areas of interest include
economic operation of power and energy systems, electrical building
services and building automation, renewable sources of energy, energy
conservation and software development for power system
applications. He has authored three books on electrical and electronic
Dr. N. Sundar Babu was born in Tamilnadu, India. He received his
B.Sc. degree in 1992 and M.Sc. degree in applied chemistry in 1994,
from Madurai Kamaraj University, India and Ph.D. from University
of Malaya, Malaysia in 2000. He is currently working as a scientist with
Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA after his post-doctoral research.
He is an active researcher and has published many research papers in
leading national and international journals. Apart from his areas of
specialization, he developed keen interest in inter-disciplinary areas
like energy storage systems, renewable energy systems, and real-time
simulations of engineering tasks.industries. Palanichamy, C., Nadarajan, C., Naveen, P., Sundar Babu, N., 2001.
Second stage energy conservation experience with a textile industryIntroductionSecond stage EC experienceAudit outcomeEnergy saving from computers loadsConservation through building insulationSaving through natural lightingConservation through flat beltsSynthetic sandwich tapes for spinning framesSteam heating in place of electrical heatingSteam for wax meltingIntroducing renewable energy systemsBenefits overview
Practicable EC policiesTightening co-generation policyUpdating renewable energy policySetting standards for specific energy conceptionElectrical power demand approval policyIntroducing ration for fossil-fuelsLoad management
The role of the governmentsConclusionsReferences