Scope of ConflictsOverview of ADCHUMAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICTS - AlthoffLEC-01
From ADC to HWCin 30 years
Wildlife damage management is field within wildlife managementbut it hasnt always appeared that wayFundamentals of damage management contingent on the fields of ecology, behavior, population dynamics as well as sociology and economicsMany of the principles of traditional wildlife management clearly apply to wildlife damage management
Some Definitions & Acronyms
_____ = animal damage control_____ = Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (a federal agency within the USDA)_____ = Wildlife Servicesunder APHISWildlife = according to Conover.animals whose behavior and movements are not controlled by humans (i.e, undomesticated animals). __________________________= mgmt. of animals with backbones that inflict social, economic, or health-related problems for humans!
Fish and Wildlife = vertebrate species in the general sense.scope has broaden some when it comes to conservationWildlife is a more generic term that tends to omit fishWildlife is a resource = typically, a resource provides a benefit in the human contextFree-ranging wildlife have value. For consumers (like hunters and trappers), they represent a positive value. For those experience damage, wildlife can be considered to have negative value
Wildlife ManagementEconomic impact
Not counting the economic benefits of wildlife would be to ignore their positive value (think recreational-related purchases from ammo, to firearms, to binoculars, to travel expenses, to photography, etc.But the negative $$ impact considerable:according to Conover1) U.S. agricultural producers collectively spent $2.5 billion and 120 million hoursannual to manage wildlife on their farms and ranches (1998 figures)2) U.S. metropolitan households spent $5.5billion and 1.6 billion hours annually to manage wildlife around their homes
Wildlife Damage Management the science and practice of increasing the value of wildlife resources by reducing the negative values of wildlife. Conover (2002:7)
Thus, by definition, anything that a wildlife species does that causes a) _______________________________, b) _______________________________, c) _______________________________, or d) _____________________________________ ______________________. .would be considered wildlife damage. Conover (2002:7)
Hence.We are sometimes in conflict with wildlife (wildlife populations, wildlife resources) as humans.
We as humans should have a reasonable sense of being good stewards of wildlife resources even when some species in some places at some times cause damage in some way.
To that end, this course is focused on understanding how such conflicts arise, how they might be addressed, and how they might be prevented. It is in the best interest of all stakeholders to seek _____________ of human-wildlife conflicts
Necessary ingredients for wildlife damage to occur: Damage
Some historyin the U.S.Into the 1970s, most state wildlife and fish agencies DID NOT want to handle animal damage control problems.Why?
Prior to the 1970s, most animal damage control efforts, agency-wise, were conducted by the federal government within the USDA. Why?
Prior to the 1970s, most animal damage control was in the form of predator control.Why?
Today.Some state wildlife and fish agencies are actively engaged in ADC
Not all ADC work is conducted by government agenciesthere is a growing private sector
More people are coming into wildlife todayrural or urban than ever before. Think a) impact of white-tailed deer (crops, ornamentals,vehicle accidents, etc.)b) hazards presented to air travel
Miracle on the Hudson !!!
Bottomline.______________ wildlife cannot be ignored
Wildlife damage management is a ___________with much yet to be learned and evaluated
Finding __________________ sound, ______________ ______________, and ___________________resolutions to human-wildlife conflicts is challenging and needed