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The key characteristics of Gothic architecture Grand, tall designs, which swept upwards with height and Grandeur Flying Butress Pointed Arch The vaulted Ceiling Light and airy interior • Gargoyles The emphasis upon the decorative style on the ornate Geometric Study Aerial View of Salisbury Cathedral Purbeck marble forms a major design feature, giving it a linear quality and (combined with a total absence of sculpture or foliage capitals) a certain plainness. On the exterior, however, Salisbury makes an unforgettable impression, building up through a sequence of clearly defined volumes to culminate in the great central tower and spire.

Salisbury cathedral

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Page 1: Salisbury cathedral

The key characteristics of Gothic architecture!!• Grand, tall designs, which swept upwards with height and Grandeur!• Flying Butress!• Pointed Arch!• The vaulted Ceiling!• Light and airy interior!• Gargoyles !• The emphasis upon the decorative style on the ornate!!!!!!!!!Geometric Study! !!!!!!!!!!!!

Aerial View of Salisbury Cathedral

Purbeck marble forms a major design feature, giving it a linear quality and (combined with a total absence of sculpture or foliage capitals) a certain plainness. On the exterior, however, Salisbury makes an unforgettable impression, building up through a sequence of clearly defined volumes to culminate in the great central tower and spire.

Page 2: Salisbury cathedral

Ground Floor Plan• It is entirely made up of rectangles. !• Its fame lies in its harmonious proportions .!• From the exterior, where the massing of the various horizontal parts in contrast to the vertical of

the spire make it one of the most famous architectural compositions of the Medieval period.!• Canon Smethurst wrote “It symbolises the peaceful loveliness of the English countryside…, the

eternal truths of the Christian faith expressed in stone…!

• A large extensive transept divides the building in the middle.!• The layout forms the shape of cross.!• Upon its four piers, the crossing may support a spire.!• On the exterior, it is marked by a 160-foot (48.8m) spire.!!!

Page 3: Salisbury cathedral

• Behind the smaller transept, there are a number of buildings that gradually becomes lower. as we move eastwards: a high choir, a rectangular ambulatory, and a low eastern chapel.!

• This regular outfit fits in with the medieval liturgical divisions of the cathedral

Axis!• The axis is east/west with external emphasis upon the west front which is the main entrance!• The internal emphasis upon the eastern end so that the congregation faces the direction of the

coming of Christ.!• The architectural features of the east end focuses on enhancing interior illumination by the sun.

Page 4: Salisbury cathedral

Nave looking east from the gallery• The nave is striking for its great height and unusual

narrowness.!• It creates a visual rhythm due to the use of light

grey Chilmark stone for the walls and dark polished Purbeck marbles for columns.

Chapter House of Salisbury Cathedral

Exterior look of the Chapter HouseGround floor plan of the Chapter House

• Notable for its octagonal shape, central pillar and decorate medieval frieze!• It is a beautiful example of the Geometrical Decorated Style!• It has rib vaults fanning out from a slender central pillar

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Elevation

Exterior Elevation - East End

Transverse Section of the Nave

Section

Page 6: Salisbury cathedral

!!!!!!!!!Building Access/ Opening!

Interior Section

Pointed Arches

The openings (doors and windows) in the walls of the buildings have arched heads.

Page 7: Salisbury cathedral

The main door at the west facade

• In the first transitional period (twelfth century) semicircular and pointed arches are both met with, and are other both employed in the same part of the building.!

• The large doorway is subsided into two and approached by porches.!• The doorway is covered with a lintel, the whole being under an archway, this left a space above

the head of the door which is occupied by carving often of great beauty.

Salisbury Cathedral Windows at the east end

Stained glass

• The windows are long, narrow and with a pointed head resembling the blade of a lancet.!• The glass is generally near the outside face of the wall, and the sides of the openings are

splayed towards the inside.!• It is very customary to place these lancet windows in groups.!• A common arrangement to designing such a group was to make the central light the highest, and

to graduate the height of the others.!!

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Structural & Framing Analysis!

Elements of the Structure of he Building! (1) Bay (a segment of the nave)! (2) Nave! (3) Side Aisle! (4) Arcade! (5) Triforium! (6) Clerestory Window!(7-8) Piers! (9) Ribbed-Vaulting! (10) Buttresses! (11) Flying Buttress! (12) Flying Arch! (13) Roof

It has buttresses at the outer walls of the aisles, quadrant arches under the roofs abutting the triforium wall, an ornate triforium that opens on to the roofs of the aisles, a short clerestory of triple lancet windows, and a passage at clerestory level where the walls are built double with an inner decorative row of arches on slender Purbeck shafts, and an outer wall of masonry.

Construction Structure of the nave of Salisbury Cathedral

Page 9: Salisbury cathedral

Rib vault ceiling

• pointed arch !• The cells (severies/ infilling) rest upon the

back of the ribs.!• These severies were of arched form, but

often had winding surfaces and were constructed so that their pressure was directed toward the piers and not the wall rib!

• The geometry of the Gothic system was a rough use of mathematical truths in which beauty was sought for, and not a strict regard for the exactitude of scientific demonstration.!

• The curvature of the ribs was obtained from arcs struck from one or more centres, and designed without reference to the curvature of adjoining ones, as is seen in the setting out of Gothic vaulting compartment.

Pointed Arches Structural System!!Round Arches on the side + Round Arches Diagonal = Unequal Heights!!Pointed Arches on the sides + Round Arches Diagonal = Equal Heights

Page 10: Salisbury cathedral

Salisbury Cathedral, the Chapter House Ploughshare Twist

• Irregular or winding surface in a vault, where the wall ribs, owing to the position of the clear-storey windows, start at a higher level than the other ribs.!

Ploughshare Twist

Page 11: Salisbury cathedral

Flying Buttresses

• The addition of the weight of the tower and stone spire caused many structural problems which resulted in manifold strategies over the centuries. !

• This is visible at the Cathedral both on the outside and on the inside. !• Additional flying buttresses were one of the first measures to be taken against movements

induced by the spire weight.!

Initial Stage!• The buttressing system is well concealed beneath the side aisle roof.!!First Change!• External flying buttresses were added.!• Internal flying buttresses remained as they were.!• 2 types of flying buttresses were added!!Second change!• Another 2 types of external flying buttresses were added.

Flying Buttresses at Salisbury cathedral

Page 12: Salisbury cathedral

Location of exterior flying Buttresses Type 1

Location of exterior flying Buttresses Type 2

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Location of exterior flying Buttresses Type 3

Location of exterior flying Buttresses Type 4

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Interior Flying Buttresses

Exterior Flying Buttresses

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Analysis and evaluation of the form/structural behaviour of the flying buttresses

Interior Flying Buttress!• The lower the minimum thrust, the lesser the

load exerted by the flyer onto the neighbouring structure (culée)

Exterior Flying Buttersses Type 2!• A more vertical line of thrust at the culée

increases stability

Exterior Flying Buttresses Type 3!• A more horizontal line of thrust at the head

increases stability

Conclusion:!Type 3 is very suitable to counterbalance the passive thrust of the vaults with no risk of of sliding.

Page 16: Salisbury cathedral

References!• Rolf.T., 2007: Gothic Architecture in England. Gothic Architecture Sculpture Painting.

Cambridge, Konemann.!• Dr. Zulkifli.H: 2005 Ciri-ciri seni bina Gothic. Seni Bina Gothic. Kedah Darulaman,

Amber~Solara.!• David.W., 2001. The Early Gothic Style - Salisbury Cathedral. English Architecture. Thames

&Hudson Ltd, London.!• Lan.S., 2010. The Gothic Centuries. western Architecture. Thames & Hudson Ltd, London.!• Johanna Mähner (2009). The Buttressing system. Salisbury Cathedral and its diversity of

Flying Buttresses. Retrieved from http://www.bma.arch.unige.it/pdf/CONSTRUCTION_HISTORY_2009/VOL2/MAHNER-Johanna_Paper-revised_layouted.pdf on 13th April 2014.!

• Banister F. Fletcher (2007). Early English Groined Vaulting. A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. Retrieved from http://www.victorianweb.org/art/architecture/gothic/12j.html on 14th April 2014.!

• Salisbury Cathedral (2013). At a glance- Floor Plan. What to See. Retrieved from http://www.salisburycathedral.org.uk/visit-about-building/glance-floor-plan on 14th April 2014.!!!