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Robotics and Automation Applied Robotics and Automation Applied to Caltrans Highwaysto Caltrans Highways

Professor Bahram RavaniProfessor Bahram RavaniAdvanced Highway Maintenance and Construction Technology Advanced Highway Maintenance and Construction Technology

(AHMCT) Research Center(AHMCT) Research Center

A partnership between theA partnership between theUniversity of California University of California -- DavisDavis

and theand theCalifornia Department of TransportationCalifornia Department of Transportation

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RoboticsRobotics

Concept of robotics goes back to antiquity Concept of robotics goes back to antiquity Early mechanical robots can be traced to preEarly mechanical robots can be traced to pre--industrial revolutionindustrial revolutionModern terms and concepts were first introduced in Modern terms and concepts were first introduced in Theatrics and FictionTheatrics and FictionThe field has evolved due to integration of The field has evolved due to integration of computing, sensing, communication, and mechanical computing, sensing, communication, and mechanical design technologiesdesign technologiesMuch of the developments have occurred after World Much of the developments have occurred after World War II and since 1950War II and since 1950s s

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Antiquity and RoboticsAntiquity and Robotics

In the 18th book of Iliad (8th century B.C.), In the 18th book of Iliad (8th century B.C.), Homer describes servants that are built by Homer describes servants that are built by Vulcan for the service of Gods.Vulcan for the service of Gods.

These use wheels for mobility, are human These use wheels for mobility, are human shaped, are able to speak, and have some shaped, are able to speak, and have some intelligence. intelligence.

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Leonardo Leonardo dada VinciVincis Wings Wing(15(15thth Century)Century)

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Japanese Maid (17Japanese Maid (17thth Century)Century)

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Automatic Writer by JaquetAutomatic Writer by Jaquet--Droz in 1760Droz in 1760

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TerminologyTerminology

The Word The Word RobotRobot::From Czech word Robota for forced labor or From Czech word Robota for forced labor or compulsory servicecompulsory service11stst appeared in appeared in RossumRossums Universal Robots Universal Robot (R.U.R) a (R.U.R) a Czech play by Karel Capek ((pronounced Czech play by Karel Capek ((pronounced chopchopekek ) ) R.U.R opened:R.U.R opened:

Prague 1921, New York 1922, London 1923Prague 1921, New York 1922, London 19231920 translation by P. Selver available as Penguin series from 1920 translation by P. Selver available as Penguin series from DoverDoverMore recent translation is contained in translation of a More recent translation is contained in translation of a collection of Capekcollection of Capeks writings called Towards the Radical s writings called Towards the Radical Center. Center.

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TerminologyTerminologyIsaac Asimov (1920 Isaac Asimov (1920 1992) introduced the term 1992) introduced the term robotics in his story Runaround published in 1942. robotics in his story Runaround published in 1942. Asimov is credited with popularizing the concept of Asimov is credited with popularizing the concept of robotics through a series of short stories about robots robotics through a series of short stories about robots starting with a story called starting with a story called A Strange PlayfellowA Strange Playfellowwhich he wrote for Super Science Stories magazine. which he wrote for Super Science Stories magazine. This story is about a robot and its affection for a child This story is about a robot and its affection for a child that it is protecting. He later renamed this story that it is protecting. He later renamed this story calling it calling it RobbieRobbie. . Asimov generated many other stories about robots Asimov generated many other stories about robots which are compiled into a book volume calledwhich are compiled into a book volume calledI, RobotI, Robot published in 1950 published in 1950

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Asimov Asimov First Law: A robot may not injure a human First Law: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.being to come to harm.

Second Law: A robot may not injure a Second Law: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.human being to come to harm.

Third Law: A robot must protect its own Third Law: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.not conflict with the First or Second Law.

Zeroth law: A robot may not injure Zeroth law: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.humanity to come to harm.

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First Movie on RobotsFirst Movie on Robots

MetropolisMetropolis from Fritz from Fritz Lang released in 1926. Lang released in 1926.

The female robot The female robot MariaMaria in the film is in the film is the first robot to be the first robot to be projected on a movie projected on a movie screen.screen.

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George Lucas Movie: STAR WARSGeorge Lucas Movie: STAR WARS

Star Wars, 1977:, Introduces two robots:Star Wars, 1977:, Introduces two robots:R2R2--D2 and CD2 and C--3PO 3PO

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Robot DefinitionsRobot Definitions

Robotics Institute of America (1975):An industrial Robotics Institute of America (1975):An industrial robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.

WebsterWebsters Dictionary: A robot is an automatic s Dictionary: A robot is an automatic apparatus or device that performs functions ordinarily apparatus or device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to humans or operates with what appears to ascribed to humans or operates with what appears to be almost human intelligence.be almost human intelligence.

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Robot DefinitionsRobot DefinitionsISO (1988): ISO (1988): An industrial robot is an automatic, servoAn industrial robot is an automatic, servo--controlled, freely controlled, freely programmable, multipurpose manipulator, with several axes, for tprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator, with several axes, for the he handling of work pieces, tools or special devices. Variably proghandling of work pieces, tools or special devices. Variably programmed rammed operations make possible the execution of a multiplicity of taskoperations make possible the execution of a multiplicity of taskss..

IFToMM (1991): A robot is a IFToMM (1991): A robot is a Mechanical system under automatic control Mechanical system under automatic control that performs operations such as handling and locomotionthat performs operations such as handling and locomotion; and ; and Manipulator as Manipulator as Device for gripping and controlled movements of objectsDevice for gripping and controlled movements of objects..

IEEE Community (2000): IEEE Community (2000): A robot is a machine constructed as an A robot is a machine constructed as an assemblage of joined links so that they can be articulated into assemblage of joined links so that they can be articulated into desired desired positions by a programmable controller and precision actuators tpositions by a programmable controller and precision actuators to perform o perform a variety of tasksa variety of tasks..

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Examples of Industrial Robots Examples of Industrial Robots (Adept Technology)(Adept Technology)

Control

Sensing

Preprocessing and Decision Making

Manipulation

Communication

ENVIRONMENT

Functional Block Diagram of a Robotic System

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Control and

Coordination

Processing and

Decision Making

Communication

LocomotionExternal Sensing Manipulation

Material Handling System

Roadway

Operators

Functional Architecture of a Robotic System for Highway Maintenance Applications

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First Highway ApplicationsFirst Highway Applications

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Future Highway ApplicationsFuture Highway Applications

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Tele-operations (Handling of Remote tasks)

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Remote RoadwayRemote Roadway

Operations from inside the truck

Future: Operations from office / TMC

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Remote DriversRemote Drivers

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Tele-presence Transparent Operations for the Operator

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Transparent RoadwayTransparent Roadway

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Driver Assistance for Snow Plowing Driver Assistance for Snow Plowing Operations Operations

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AutomationAutomation

Sensing (Conventional, GPS) and ActuationSensing (Conventional, GPS) and ActuationCAD & GISCAD & GISComputer Aided MetrologyComputer Aided MetrologyData Bases and Automatic SearchingData Bases and Automatic SearchingWeb Browser and Searches (IT)Web Browser and Searches (IT)

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Conventional SensingConvent