Requirements for Electrical Distribution for Electrical Distribution Systems 2013 California Building Energy Efficiency Standards Architectural Energy Corp. Draft

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  • NewSection135

    RequirementsforElectricalDistributionSystems

    2013CaliforniaBuildingEnergyEfficiencyStandardsArchitectural Energy Corp. Draft Final Report August 15 2011

    James R Benya, PE Principal Investigator

    CONTENTS

    1. METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................................................7

    1.1BasicConcepts...................................................................................................................................7

    1.2Structure..............................................................................................................................................7

    1.3OtherStandards................................................................................................................................7

    1.4CostEffectiveness............................................................................................................................8

    2. ANA ..............................................................9LYSISANDRESULTS................................................................

    2.1IntentofProposal..............................................................Error!Bookmarknotdefined.

    2.2CostAnalysis.......................................................................................................................................9

    2.3EnergySavingsAnalysis..............................................................................................................10

    2.4MeteringProvisions......................................................................................................................11

    3. PROPOSEDCODELANGUAGECHANGE................................................................................................12

    3.1SummaryofProposedChanges................................................................................................12

    3.2ProposedLanguage.......................................................................................................................14

    4. MATERIALFORCOMPLIANCEMANUALS...........................................................................................20

    . BIBLIOGRAPHYANDOTHERRESEARCH............................................................................................215

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    OVERVIEW

    Description Theproposedmeasureistorequireprovisionsinabuildingselectricaldistributionsystemthatwillensurerelativelyeasyimplementationofadvancedmeteringandcontrol,includingdemandresponseandthesmartgrid

    TypeofChange MandatoryMeasure

    Thischangewouldaddmandatorymeasures.

    (a)Requirestheadditionofmodesttotalenergyreadoutstothemeteringofservices.Therequirementsareprogressive,withsimplemeteringprovisionsupto250kVAservicesandsomeloggingcapabilitiesforlargerservices.Mostofthesearealreadyprovidedbyutilitymetersandwilleasilybepartofasmartmeter.

    (b)Requiresdisaggregatingtheloadtypesinanelectricalsystemsuchthatmajorloadtypescanbeeasilymeasuredatasinglepoint.Theactualmeasuringequipmentisnotrequired.

    (c)Requiresfeederstohavenogreaterthan2%voltagedrop,andbranchcircuitstohavenotmorethan3%voltagedrop,asrecommendedbytheCaliforniaElectricalCode2010.

    (d)Requiresprovidingautomaticshutoffofaboutofallreceptaclesinofficesandrelatedspacestosaveenergy.

    (e)Requiresallbuildingstobeenabledtoreceiveandactupondemandresponsesignals.

    (f)Permitsbuildingautomationsystemstoproviderequiredcontrolfunctionsofseveralsections.

    ThischangewouldslightlyincreasethescopeordirectionofthecurrentStandards.Thischangewouldnotrequireimplementationofsystemsorequipmentthatarenotalreadyreadilyavailableonthemarketandforuseintheproposedapplications.ThesesystemsarealreadyregulatedandincludedinthecurrentStandards.

    TheStandardsandManualswouldbemodifiedinordertoincludethenewrequirements.ThechangewouldrequireanewSection135.

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    EnergyBenefits

    Parts(a),(b),(e) and(f)of thismeasureare not directlyenergysaving.

    Part(c)ofthemeasuresavesenergybyensuringthatelectricalfeedersandcircuitwiringaredesignedtominimizevoltagedrop.Voltagedropiswastedenergy.

    Part(d)ofthemeasuresavesenergybyshuttingoffreceptaclecircuitswhenaspaceisunoccupied.

    NonEnergyBenefits

    Parts(a),(b),(e)and(f)ofthismeasurerequirebasicconstructionthatwillenabletheadditionofcontrolandmeasurementtechnologiesasthetheircosteffectivenessimprovesandastheneedforcontrolandmeasurementbecomesimportantduetodemandresponse,timeofuseratesandotherfunctionsofthefuturesmartgrid.

    EnvironmentalImpact

    Therearenosignificant environmentalimpacts otherthanenergysavings.

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    TechnologyMeasures

    MeasureAvailabilityandCost:

    (a)Shouldnotresultinanymeasurablecostimpact.Thecostwillbebornebytheutilitycompanies,andthenewmetersbeinginstalledwillmeettheserequirementsatnoadditionalcosttotheowner.

    (b)Shouldnotresultinanymeasurablecostimpact.Thecoderequirementwoulddictatespecificwiringchoicesthatarealreadymadeonadaytodaybasis.

    (c)Shouldnotresultinanymeasurablecostimpact.PerArticles210and215oftheCaliforniaElectricalCode,thesevaluesarerecommendedandresponsibleengineersobservethem.Withinflationandescalatingcosts,thiscoderequirementwillpreventcostcuttingthatcausesunacceptableamountsofwastedenergy.

    (d)Willresultinadditionalcost.Usingconventional,offtheshelftechnology,itwilladdabout50centspersquarefoottoelectricalconstructioncosts.

    (e)Willaddaverysmallamountofcosttoprojects.ItwillsaveconsiderablecostlaterwhenthefullbruntofDRandthesmartgridbecomesreality.

    (f)Shouldnotresultinanymeasurablecostimpact.ItspurposeistoovertlystatethatmanyofthecontrolsrequirementsofSection131andothersectionscanbemetwithanenergymanagementsystem(EMS)andforwhichbasicrequirementsareaddedbythismeasure.

    UsefulLife,PersistenceandMaintenance:

    TheproposedprovisionsofnewSection135areobviousnextstepsneededtolaythefoundationforenergyflowandmeasurement.Allofthepartsandworkrequiredareconventionalelectricalconstructionwithlonglifeandpredictableperformance.

    PerformanceVerification

    Theproposedupdatewouldrequiresomeadditionalcommissioningduringinitialinstallationofthesystembyanelectrician.Commissioningofthistechnologyisalreadystandardpracticeandiswellunderstoodbycontractors.

    CostEffectiveness

    Sincemostoftheprovisionsofthismeasurehavenosignificantcostimpactandnodirectenergysavings,costeffectivenessismoot.Thecosteffectivenessofplugloadcontrolscannotbeexactlydeterminedduetolackofdata,butexamplesshowconsiderablecosteffectivenessinmanyapplications.

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    AnalysisTools Nofurtheranalysishasbeenperformed.

    RelationshiptoOtherMeasures

    Theprincipalrelationshipofthismeasuretoothermeasuresisthatplugloadcontrolcaneasilybetiedtoautomaticlightingshutoff,inessencemakingonecontrolsignalaffecttwocircuits.

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    1. METHODOLOGY ThissectionsummarizeshowthisCASEreportwasdeveloped.

    1.1 Basic Concepts Sinceitsorigin,Title24Part6hasavoidedtopicsrelatedtoelectricalsystemsandloadsthatwerenotdirectlytiedtothestructureandbuildingenvelope.However,initspilotstudy1,theOfficeoftheFutureprojectdeterminedplugloadexceededlightingloadininCaliforniaofficebuildings.Moreover,thestudycalledattentiontotheabilitytoeasilydisaggregatelightingpowerfromplugloadandotherbuildingenergyusesifproperlyplanned.Itwasdecidedthatarelativelysimplesectioncouldrequireelectricalwiringthatproduceslogicalpointsformeasurementofenergyuse.

    1.2 Structure Thismeasurehasfollowingseparategroupsofproposedstandards.

    1. Standardsrelatedtothemetering/measurementofelectricalsystems.Theseweredeterminedtobemostlylogicalseparationsofloadsbydesign.Progressiverequirementsrelaxedtheburdenon

    smallerprojects.2. Standardsrelatedtocontrollingplugloadsinofficesandrelatedspaces.Inessence,anadditional

    herelaycontrolfromlocallightingon/offcontrolcouldbeinexpensivelyadoptedforaboutoftreceptaclesincommercialbuildings.

    3. Standardsrelatedtodesigningelectricalsystems.VoltagedropinelectricalsystemsisenergywasteandmeetingtheCaliforniaElectricalCoderecommendations.

    4. Standardsrelatedtodemandresponseandbuildingautomation.Thesestepswereaddedwiththewidestpossiblerangeofacceptance,inordertoencourageimplementation.

    1.3 Other Standards ThemeteringprovisionswereinterpretedfromASHRAE/IES189.1.ThevoltagedropcalculationsweretakendirectlyfromtheCaliforniaElectricalCodesections210and215andareconsistentwithexistingrequirementsinIECC2009and90.12010.ThedemandresponselanguagewasdevelopedfromevolvingstandardsofCaliforniasIOUs.

    1SouthernCaliforniaEdison,oPod(TheOfficeoftheFuturePhase1)Report,DougAveryetal,April2007

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    1.4 Cost-Effectiveness Asstatedabove,mostofthismeasureistomakesmartprovisionsinbuildingsforthefuturesmartgridincludingDRandhaslittleornocostimpacttoabuilding.CosteffectivenesswasatleastpartlydemonstratedinotherCASEreports2andisnotrepeatedhere.

    Wetakethepositionthatnocostisinvolvedwithrequirementstodesigningelectricalsystemstomeetvoltagedropr