Reflective Judgment

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Reflective Judgment. Ryan Hargrove Stephen Smith Sharon Dotger. Navigation Key. Clicking on will return you to the table of contents. If you want an example, just click on Wait to click on until you are in the review activity. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Reflective JudgmentRyan HargroveStephen SmithSharon Dotger

1Navigation KeyClicking on will return you to the table of contents.If you want an example, just click onWait to click on until you are in the review activity.If no icon is present, simply click the mouse to advance the tutorial.

ExampleReturn to Review

2You are correct!

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DOH!63The problem that was presented to you was an example of an ill-defined problem. An ill-defined problem is one that addresses complex issues and thus cannot easily be described in a concise, complete manner. Furthermore, competing factors may suggest several approaches to the problem, requiring careful analysis to determine the best approach.

Did you consider any competing factors in the problem your were presented?Did you suggest that there may be several approaches to the problem?What kind of analysis went into determining the best approach, and ultimately your opinion?

5Food AdditivesCancer patientsRetailersMedical ProfessionalsConsumersThis diagram illustrates several of the possible approaches to the food additive problem. Each of these approaches represent divergent thoughts, feelings, and opinions. By clicking on each approach you will be introduced to an example of how these groups might answer the food additives question differently.

6Cancer patientsApproach is based on the dangers of food additives to human health, particularly in relation to the development and treatment of cancer.

7RetailersApproach is based on the belief that additives are essential for the preservation, quality, and taste of many of the foods we eat everyday.

8Review Question 1True or False?Previous studies with the reflective judgment model have shown that as educational level increases, reflective judgment increases.


46ReferencesArticlesElby & Hammer (2001). On the subject of developing epistemologies.Hofer, B. (2004). Epistemological Understanding as a Metacognitive Process: Thinking aloud during online searching. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 43-55.King, P. & Kitchener, K.S. (1994). Developing Reflective Judgment. Josey-Bass.King, P. & Kitchener, K.S. (2004). Reflective judgment: theory and research on the development of epistemic assumptions through adulthood. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 5-18.Kuhn, D. (1999). A developmental model of critical thinking. Educational Researcher, 28, 16-25.Schommer-Aikens, M. (2004). Explaining the epistemological belief system: introducting the embedded systemic model and coordinated research approach. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 19-29.

64This example was intended to clarify the competing factors that exist in ill-defined problems in order to demonstrate how levels of reflective judgment are measured. Keep this example in mind as we continue to explore the concept of reflective judgment.The following tutorial will go into detail about the stages of reflective judgment, its correlations to other constructs, its relevancy to education and the opposing and competing theories.After reviewing the various approaches were you able to better understand the concept of ill-defined problems?

Continue tonext section11Unique QualitiesUnique from the previous models of intellectual judgment Focuses on the relationship between epistemology and judgment It is possible to hold epistemological positions that go beyond relativism, as described by Perry

13Measuring Reflective JudgmentReflective Judgment Interview (King & Kitchener, 1994)

Reasoning about Complex Issues Test (Wood, 2002)

Continue tonext section14Stage OneSingle concrete category for knowing.

Certain knowledge is gained by direct personal observation and needs no justification.


16StageTwoStage One ExampleI hear it and believe it because I figure if its on the news, its got to be true or they wouldnt put it on.

King & Kitchener, 1994, p. 4817Stage Two ExampleWell, some people believe that using chemical additives is wrong and that is what they want to believe. But I would never believe that way and nobody could talk me out of the way I believe because I believe the way my parents taught me.

StageThree19Stage Three ExampleI know there can be bias in scientific studies on both sides. Until they take the chemical additive off the market, no one is going to do an accurate, reliable study. After they take it off, somebody unbiased is going to do an accurate study. Then they will know.StageFour

King & Kitchener, 1994, p. 5621Stage Four ExampleId be more inclined to believe that chemical additives were harmful if they had proof. I dont think well ever know. People will come up with different interpretations because people differ. Who are you going to ask? There is no one you can trust.

StageFiveKing & Kitchener, 1994, p. 6023Stage Five ExampleI would want to find more data about chemical additives. I would see if I could find a scientific test that would lead to a clear conclusion. If I could back it up, I still wouldnt know because there could be error in the test. Id have a really hard time knowing the actuality of my results.StageSix

King & Kitchener, 1994, p. 6425Stage Six ExampleYou cant say, you are stupid or wrong to someone. But I think if you push them far enough, they too, would have to admit their argument is based on assumptions that are empirically falsifiable. Its a problem that all claims carry with them. There are no absolutes.

StageSevenKing & Kitchener, 1994, p. 6927Stage Seven ExampleWhile there are no absolutes, one argument or position may have more evidence than another. The key to making a decision is weighing the evidence in light of a predetermined set of criteria.

Continue tonext section29Womens Ways of KnowingDeveloped by BelenkyConsidered to be received knowledge

OpposingTheories45You are correct!NEXT

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WooHoo!47You are correct!NEXT

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WooHoo!56You are correct!NEXT

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WooHoo!59ReferencesWebsitesImages and Area51/4998/pictures.htm