Recirculation Aquaculture

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Recirculation Aquaculture. Why Recirculation. Water use Climate Quality Predation. Environmental impact Land Disease Exotic species (or control thereof. Cost of Labor : $7/day. Solids Siphon. Near Ensenada, Mexico; 2002. Near Ensenada, Mexico; 2002. Near Ensenada, Mexico; 2002. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Recirculation Aquaculture

  • Why RecirculationWater use

    Climate

    Quality

    PredationEnvironmental impact

    Land

    Disease

    Exotic species (or control thereof

  • Cost of Labor : $7/daySolids SiphonNear Ensenada, Mexico; 2002

  • Near Ensenada, Mexico; 2002

  • Near Ensenada, Mexico; 2002

  • Raise a lot of fish with Little Labor

  • Recirculating System:

    A production system that reconditions water to extend its reuse

    A technique that increases the value of a limited resource

    An artificial well that never ceases to flow

    A stable platform forming a reliable base for commercial production Definitions

  • Five Major Processes1) Circulation2) Clarification (Solids capture)3) Biofiltration (BOD reduction/nitrification)4) Aeration (Oxygen replacement)5) Degasification (CO2 stripping)

  • Solids CaptureCirculationAerationBiofiltrationFish TankThe Five Major Processes in a Recirculating SystemFeedingDegasificationFive Major Treatment Objectives

  • Double Drain at Center of TankReturn toTank

  • Sludge outletInletOutletFrom Under-drain

  • Over-Drain Flow

  • Captured Solids

  • Microscreen Cleaning Jets

  • From MicroscreenMicro-Bead Filter

  • 1 mm Styrene Beads

  • Centrifugal Pumps

  • Pressure line from CentrifugalPumps02 Flow MeterPressure GaugeWaterOxygenBubblesReturn to Tanks

  • Solids CaptureCirculationAerationBiofiltrationFish TankFeedingDegasificationSolids Capture

  • Impact of Solids on Recirculating SystemsIncreased BOD load (organic solids) causes problems with Biofilters

    Increased system turbidity (fine particles)

    Gill damage in fish (fine particles)Solids Capture

  • Particle Size Distribution (microns)10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 100DissolvedColloidalSuspendedSettleableSolids Capture

  • No Fine Solids CaptureTilapia

  • SOLIDS REMOVAL PROCESSES AND PARTICLE SIZES

  • INFLOWOUTFLOWInlet ZoneOutlet ZoneVsVhSludge ZoneSettling Zone(Vs > Overflow Rate to settle)SEDIMENTATIONSolids Capture

  • Solid Removal TechnologiesEffective for selected particle sizeDiffer in headlossenergy $$$Differ in labor for upkeepSensitive to organic loading Solids Capture

  • Floor Plan

  • TANKSPumpBead FilterFluidized BedLime AdditionLiquid O2Packed ColumnPacked ColumnBYPASS FILTRATION

  • TANKSPumpBead FilterFluidized BedPacked ColumnShrimp Maturation in South AmericaIN-LINE FILTRATION

  • Solids CaptureCirculationAerationBiofiltrationFish TankFeedingDegasification

  • Types of BiofiltersBiofiltration

  • Biofiltration

  • Biofiltration

  • Biofiltration

  • 0.45 kg/m3USDA - SBIR/AST, 97

  • Production Units

  • Propellor-washed Floating Bead Filters

  • SludgeReturnBypassPressure GaugeSludge View PortAnti-siphon valveIntakeBroodstock

  • ADM Tilapia System

  • Solids CaptureCirculationAerationBiofiltrationFish TankFeedingDegasificationGas Exchange

  • Different BehaviorOxygen21% of airSaturation 10 mg/lPoorly solubleTransfer H20 limitedCarbon Dioxide0.035% of air Saturation 0.5 mg/lHighly soluble50 mg/l +Transfer gas limitedOxygen goes in easier than CO2 comes outGas Exchange

  • Enrichment DevicesCommonly used for large scale applicationsSelf-generates pressure (150-200 psi)1 m3 liquid860 m3 gasDependent on local source of liquid oxygenNot impacted by power failure 15-35cents/kg typical Timmons and Lorsordo (1994) pg. 188Liquid OxygenGas ExchangeNo CO2Removal

  • Air stonesPaddle wheelsSurface AgitatorsSpray nozzlesPacked columnsGas ExchangeAmbient Air Oxygen Addition and Carbon Dioxide removal are balanced

  • Gas ExchangeAmbient Air Options

  • Solids CaptureCirculationAerationBiofiltrationFish TankFeedingDegasificationCirculation

  • Circulation OptionsPumpCirculation

  • Airlifts Perform Several FunctionsCirculationAerationC02 strippingFoam control

  • Air Bleed Builds ChargeSettled BackwashWaters returned tosystemFilter ModeDrop Filters : Low Water LossFloating Bead Bioclarifiers

  • Internal Sludge CaptureDrop Filters : Low Water LossFloating Bead BioclarifiersReleased Air Washes BeadsBackwashmode

  • Fish TankFeedingFAS 1012C: Recirculation Aquaculture QuizName:_________________List the five major treatment objectives and explain what they do.

    Aside from their direct physical impact, suspended solids generated in culture systems are highly organic. Most of the suspended solids generated in a recirculating system are feces, reflecting the undigested residuals of feed. Additional solids are generated as bacterial colonies (biofloc) grow from dissolved organic materials found in the water. Both feces and biofloc are mostly organic matter and are thus are subject to further breakdown by bacteria. Over two-thirds of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) generated is attributed to suspended solids. It is not surprising, therefore, that clarification was the first wastewater treatment component added to extend water re-use and the first to be used to treat effluents. If allowed to remain in a culture system, solids encourage heavy bacterial growths that can clog (biofoul) a wide variety of treatment units. Excessive growths of bacteria can rapidly deplete oxygen in isolated pockets within a system. Heavy organic loads can inhibit critical nitrification processes in biofilters (Bovendeur et al., 1990). These localized, oxygen depleted zones can stimulate the development of a wide variety of anaerobic reactions that produce odor and contribute to off-flavor development. The bacteria will utilize large amounts of oxygen and produce TAN as they breakdown the solids. Additionally, these enriched conditions tend to cause population explosions of less desirable bacteria, leading to disease outbreaks.Settling basins have been the clarifier of choice for a number of years. A settling basin is designed to provide an area of quiescent water where the solids can settle out into a cone, from which they can then be removed. More advanced configurations, tube settlers, use a media to shorten settling distances, reducing the size of the settling basin. Performing superbly on systems with high water replacement rates, settling provides poor control of fine suspended solids (< 80 microns in diameter), which tend to accumulate as replacement rates are reduced. This problem, coupled with labor issues, has prompted some to search for a more efficient, yet cost-effective approach.The classification of heterotrophic bacteria encompasses a great number of genera/species which share the common characteristics of extracting their nourishment from the breakdown (decay) of organic matter. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is largely an indirect measure of the biodegradable organic material in water. Heterotrophic bacteria reduce BOD levels, consuming oxygen in the process. About 60 percent of the organic matter consumed is converted to bacterial biomass; whereas, the balance (40 percent) is converted to carbon dioxide, water, or ammonia. Heterotrophic bacteria grow very fast, capable of doubling their population every ten to fifteen minutes. If the BOD in the water being treated is very high (> 20 mg -O2/l), the heterotrophs will quickly dominate the bead bed, overgrowing the slower growing nitrifying bacteria and consuming tremendous amounts of oxygen.

    The second, yet more important, classification of bacteria is the nitrifying bacteria. These bacteria are specialists, extracting energy for growth from the chemical conversion of ammonia to nitrite and from nitrite to nitrate (Figure 3.6). Nitrate is a stable end product which, although a valuable nutrient for plants, displays little of the toxic impacts of ammonia and nitrite. Composed principally of two genera (Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter), nitrifying bacteria are very slow growing and sensitive to a wide variety of water quality factors. It is not surprising that most bead filters used for biofiltration are managed to optimize conditions for nitrification.

    Carbon dioxide can be stripped from culture waters by the use of large amounts of air in traditional blown air systems usually consisting of a large rotary blower and banks of airstones. The most efficient approach identified so far involves the use of a packed column aerator (Colt and Bouck, 1984). A packed column degasifier consists of a tall column filled with a porous packing media. Water cascades down through the media as air is forced upwards. When operated with a high air to water ratio, the unit effectively strips excess carbon dioxide gas. Unfortunately, early units were subject to biofouling problems.Low head centrifugal or airlift pumps are the most common choices for recirculation of waters through the water treatment block in a recirculating system. Centrifugal pumps are extremely efficient at water movement, but, they must matched with the treatment components through their pump curve that relates flow deliver (liter per minute) with the expected headloss (meters of water). The best pumps are expensive but realize considerable savings over the long run generally drawing less than half the amperage of less expensive units commonly marketed for pool applications. Most recirculating systems operate well with head delivery pressures below 5 meters. Additional savings in energy can be realized by use of 220 or 440 V units. Airlift pumps consist in their simplest form of a partially submerged piece of p