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Copyright: www.JobTestPrep.co.uk 1 Raven Test Guide Contents Raven - What Is This Test? ................................................................................................. 2 Introduction to Cutouts Questions.................................................................................... 2 Cutouts Questions Rules.................................................................................................... 3 Introduction to Matrix Questions...................................................................................... 6 Matrix Rules ....................................................................................................................... 7 Progression ..................................................................................................................... 8 Rotation .......................................................................................................................... 9 Frequency ..................................................................................................................... 10 Construction ................................................................................................................. 11 Motion .......................................................................................................................... 13 Complex Questions ....................................................................................................... 16 Solving Strategy ............................................................................................................... 19 Summary: ......................................................................................................................... 20 Terminology ..................................................................................................................... 21

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Page 1: Raven Test Guide - tbo.jobtestprep.com

Copyright: www.JobTestPrep.co.uk 1

Raven Test Guide

Contents

Raven - What Is This Test? ................................................................................................. 2

Introduction to Cutouts Questions .................................................................................... 2

Cutouts Questions Rules .................................................................................................... 3

Introduction to Matrix Questions...................................................................................... 6

Matrix Rules ....................................................................................................................... 7

Progression ..................................................................................................................... 8

Rotation .......................................................................................................................... 9

Frequency ..................................................................................................................... 10

Construction ................................................................................................................. 11

Motion .......................................................................................................................... 13

Complex Questions ....................................................................................................... 16

Solving Strategy ............................................................................................................... 19

Summary: ......................................................................................................................... 20

Terminology ..................................................................................................................... 21

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Raven – What Is This Test?

Raven Progressive Matrices is a cognitive ability test that assesses examinees' ability

to solve problems and draw conclusions. The test is delivered online and has two

versions. The Standard Progressive Matrices test consists of 60 questions, and The

Advanced Progressive Matrices test consists of 36 questions. Both tests must be

completed within a 40-minute time limit. Passing the Raven test successfully will

show your future employer that you possess critical reasoning skills, clear thinking,

and advanced learning skills. These abilities are crucial for almost any position. This

guide is a good way to start preparing for the test.

In this guide, you will find:

• A general explanation regarding the test's structure

• Common rules found on the Raven test followed by examples.

• Tips and strategies for solving the questions on the Raven test

Introduction to Cutout Questions

In these types of questions, you will be presented with a patterned background that has a

portion of it cut out. Your task is to identify the missing cutout from a series of six possible

options. It is important to note that there is only one missing piece that matches the given

background.

Cutout questions usually appear in the earlier parts of the tests and tend to be relatively easier

than the later matrices questions. However, you should familiarise yourself with them and

learn the tips and tricks for solving them.

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Cutout Questions Rules

In cutout questions, you will be asked to identify the correct missing piece out of six

alternatives. Let’s start with an example:

To solve this kind of question, you need to identify the patterns in the given background to

identify the pattern in the missing piece.

The background usually contains different kinds of lines or repeating shapes. These lines and

shapes could be different in many ways, for example:

1. Orientation – Horizontal, vertical, straight, curved, diagonal, crisscross, etc.

2. Style – Lines and shapes could change in their thickness, be solid, or dashed.

3. Direction – Lines could go inward, outward, straight, or change through the pattern.

4. Frequency – Lines or shapes could split or be expanded into multiple figures.

5. Space – The spaces between figures could be parallel or change through the pattern.

In the question above, you can identify curvy lines from two styles – solid and dashed. They

have several shifts in their direction through the pattern. However, they are always parallel to

each other.

Thus, the correct answer is the first option in the top-right corner:

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After identifying the properties of the given background, it is time to determine which parts

are relevant to finding the missing piece. Here are questions to ask while attempting to

identify it:

*Note that the explanation refers to the question above, and the same figure appears again at

the bottom of the page.

1. The piece’s surroundings – how many lines or shapes are going ‘into’ the piece, and

how many of them are going ‘out’ of it? How many items are above and under the

cutout? The figures on the cutout should match the pattern. In the example figure,

there are two dashed lines and two solid lines that are going ‘in’ and ‘out’ of the

missing piece.

2. Orientation – What is the orientation of the figures on the missing piece? Horizontal

lines? Diagonal shapes? Vertical solid columns? You can quickly disqualify options that

have the wrong orientation. In the example, the dashed lines are vertical, and the solid

lines are horizontal.

3. Parallel Figures – Is the cutout pattern identical to another part of the background that

is not hidden? You can identify the exact pattern in the parallel part of the figure and

search for it in the answers. In the example figure, the upper and lower parts, and the

left and right parts, are parallel to each other. Based on this information, we can infer

that the missing piece should be parallel to the same part on the left side of the figure.

4. Confusing Colours - Which colours and style of shapes should appear in the missing

piece? Note that sometimes the background’s colour does not match the cutout’s

colour. You will see this in the next example.

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The entire image consists of black triangles, whose bases are on the right side and whose tops

are on the left side, with white triangles being formed in the empty space. Since the missing

piece covers two black triangles fully along with a small piece of a third black triangle, the

correct answer choice should contain the pieces of those three black triangles as well as the

pieces of the two white triangles formed in the empty space between those three black

triangles.

Thus, the correct answer is the figure in the top row, upper right:

Note the alternating colours throughout the entire image and within the missing piece.

Summary:

When solving a cutout question, scan the entire figure to determine its main properties. Look

at the orientation, style, direction, and frequency of the figures in the entire image.

Then, observe the missing piece and its exact characteristics. Don’t be confused by alternating

colours or directions of the figures. Instead, ask yourself: What is happening above, under, and

to the sides of the missing piece? How many lines or shapes are going in and out of the

cutout? Which colours should appear in the missing piece? What is the orientation of the

figures on it?

Remember there is only one correct answer that matches the given background. Be sure to

choose the piece that will complete the image accurately.

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Introduction to Matrix Questions

Most matrix questions on the Raven test consist of three rows of three figures,

making a total of nine figures. Some of the questions consist of two rows of two

figures, making a total of four figures. However, the bottom right figure will be

missing, and the questions ask which figure out of six to eight options is the right one

to complete the matrix correctly (example to follow).

The matrix will have some sort of organising logic behind it, which might operate on

the level of the row, the column, or both. To determine which is the correct figure to

complete the matrix, you must first understand the logic by which the figures in the

matrix are organised.

Here is an example:

Here, for example, the organising logic of the matrix operates both in the columns and in the rows: the

three frames in each row and each column contain either a square, diamond, or a circle. The same type

of shape does not appear in the same row or column twice. Same happens with the type of fill the

shape has (no fill/ filled black/ containing diagonal lines)

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Of the six possible answers to this question, you must choose the one that will complete

the matrix correctly and keep the pattern established in the other rows/columns. Of the

three answers that feature a square, there is only one that matches the missing type of fill

(containing diagonal lines). Thus, the correct answer is:

It is important to note that a question can only have one correct answer. This means that

if more than one answer fulfils the pattern you have discovered, you either have the wrong

pattern or there is more than one pattern in the matrix.

Matrix Rules

The rules governing matrices vary from one question to the other. In some of the

questions, the rule considers the order of the objects in the row or column, while in

other questions, the order of the objects is of no importance.

The rule can also be based on different characteristics of the shapes, such as their

quantity, colour, size, location, alignment, position in the frame, and more. The

shapes in a certain question may have multiple characteristics, each governed by a

different rule.

The following section is meant to familiarise you with the most common type of rules

you are likely to find on the Raven test. This does not necessarily mean these are the

only types of rules you will find on the test but knowing how to identify these rules

when you see them will help you in most cases and save you precious time during

the real test.

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Progression

In this kind of matrix, the object changes with every step throughout the row or the

column (the direction may vary). The objects could be in the length or width, or in

the number of objects inside the frame, in the shape’s colour, or in any other of its

characteristics. For example:

In this example, in each step, one petals shape is added to the frame. This rule

applies to both the rows and the columns. In the rows, the addition progresses in a

clockwise direction, and in the columns, it progresses in a counterclockwise

direction. The first answer from the right is incorrect, even though it fulfils the

matrix's rules. That is because the object presented is rotated, which breaks the

pattern of the row and column.

Thus, the correct answer in this example is the bottom right:

There are two ways to look at the progression in the above example:

1. In each step, the object becomes more complete.

2. In each step, the number of petals increases by one.

The first way is more visual and the second is more detailed-oriented. When

answering a question, choose the method that fits you best. (You will learn how to

do this as you answer more practice questions.)

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Rotation

In questions of this type, the figures in the matrix rotate in a determined pattern across

either rows or columns. You need to identify the pattern of the rotation to answer the

question correctly. Let’s look at an example:

In this question, you can see that the rotation is operating in each row, rather than in

each column. You can see that the figure rotates upon its axis 90° clockwise in each

frame (looking from left to right). It makes sense to look at the changes occurring in

the rows from left to right, as the missing figure is the rightmost frame in the bottom

row. (This will always be the case for all Raven matrices). The missing figure, then, is

the one which completes this pattern. Look at the middle figure in the bottom row

and picture what it would look like if it were turned 90° clockwise. That is the correct

answer:

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Frequency

In questions of this type, the relationship between certain features of the figures in

the matrix determines the amount and/or order of their appearance. Let’s look at an

example:

In this question, the relationship is between the shapes’ alignment. You can see that

the pattern established in the top two rows is that two of the three shapes face a

certain direction, and the third shape faces the opposite direction. In other words,

within each row, the straight alignment has a frequency of two and the opposite

alignment has a frequency of one.

Looking at the columns, you can see the relationship is not one of alignments, but of

shapes. Three shapes are present: an equilateral triangle, a trapezoid, and a right

triangle. Moreover, each is present once, or has a frequency of one. In the final

column, you can expect the same pattern of frequency. Thus, the correct answer will

be a right triangle in the opposite direction to the prior triangles in the bottom line:

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There are many different elements which can come into play using the frequency

rule. If you think you are facing a frequency question, try examining the following

features of the figures and shapes:

• Quantity

• Colour

• Alignment

• Position in the row/column

Construction

In this kind of matrix, two objects from the same row or column are combined to

form the third object. In simple matrices, this combination might look just like a

simple addition equation. For example:

In this matrix, you can see that the third object in every row (left to right) and

column is a combination of the previous two objects. The correct answer will be a

combination of the first two objects of the bottom row, or alternatively, the

combination of the first two objects on the right column.

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Thus, the correct answer is:

For some matrices, you will be asked to find the result of the equation, while for

others, you will be asked to find one of the components of the equation.

In more complicated matrices, the combination will not be as complete and

immediately clear as in the example above. There might be certain rules that

determine which parts of the objects combined will merge and which will not.

For example:

The construction rule here is less clear than the previous example. Before we unfold

it, here are the main things you should focus on while trying to solve this type of

question:

1. Shapes and Objects – Which shapes and objects are used to form the figures that

appear in the matrix? What are their colours, patterns, and orientation?

2. Frequency – Do shapes or objects repeat themselves throughout the matrix?

How many times do each of them appears in one row? In what order?

3. Overlap – Some construction rules focus on whether there are overlapping items

(objects, shapes, colours, or patterns) among the figures in a row. An overlapping

item is an item that appears in both the first and second frame. The matrix’s rule

could determine that the third frame in each row will contain only overlapping

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items. Or alternatively, it can determine to delete all overlapping items and

contain only the items that do not overlap (items that appear in either the first or

second frame, but not both). In an even more complexed question, this rule

could be varied according to the shape or object. For example, the third frame

will contain overlapping ‘ X ’ shapes but delete overlapping ‘ | ’ shapes.

The correct answer to the matrix above is:

The third frame in the first two rows is the result of copying any lines and dots

that only appear in the first or second frame, but not both (according to the

previous explanation, these are items that do not overlap). Thus, the third frame

in the bottom row must be the result of copying any lines and dots that only

appear in the first or second frames, but not both. Meaning, copying all the items

that do not overlap in the first two frames.

To summarise, construction questions can vary in their difficulty level. It is

important to pay attention to the details of every shape and object in the matrix

and follow its pattern through the row.

Motion

In motion matrices, the objects within each frame change their position with each

step. Let’s start with an example:

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In each frame, there are three letters: X, O, and W. In each step, the three letters

change positions in a clockwise direction. Therefore, in the correct answer, the ‘X’

should be at the top-left corner of the frame, the ‘O’ at the bottom-left corner, and

the ‘W’ at the bottom-right corner:

There are three main things to pay attention to while looking at a motion matrix:

1. Direction - Objects inside a frame can move in a clockwise direction, or a

counterclockwise direction.

2. Outer Frame Shape - When answering motion matrices, you should use the

outer shape or the frame to locate the changes in an object's motion. For

example, when the outer shape of the frame is a square (as in the question

above), focus on the corners and the sides. Here is an example with another

type of outer shape:

When the outer shape is a circle, try to look at the circle as a clock and locate the

inner shapes on its hours. The inner objects' motions will never be random, but

rather fixed to certain coordinates in the outer shape or frame.

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The question above is a simpler motion question. The shapes in each row are

repeated, but they can also be seen to be rotating 45° clockwise in each frame

(looking from left to right). In the bottom row, the shapes from the first two rows

are combined, and the rotating pattern is repeated.

Thus, the correct answer is:

3. Individual Movements - In the previous examples, the same rule is applied to all

shapes in each frame. It is not always like this. In some cases, you may need to

look at each object or shape individually, since each one of them could have its

own movement.

Moreover, the motion of each shape could change with each step, as long as the

change in motion is governed by a constant rule. In the row below, for instance,

looking from left to right, the black circle’s movement is constant: it moves from

corner to corner in a clockwise direction. The triangle, however, changes its

movement: in the first 'step,' it moves from corner to corner in a clockwise

direction, but in the second step, it moves in a counterclockwise direction.

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Summary

When answering motion matrices, you should focus on these following features:

1. Direction – clockwise or counterclockwise, constant or changing

2. Outer Frame shape – number of corners or sides, hours in a clock view or angles

3. Individual shapes – Does the same rule apply to all the shapes in the frame?

Looking at these three features of each frame in the matrix should help you

accurately answer most motion matrices.

Complex Questions

Until now, we've looked at questions which had one dominant rule operating in

them. However, some questions have two or more rules operating in them

simultaneously. This means you might have to identify some or all of the rules to

answer the question correctly. Questions in which several different rules function

simultaneously are called complex questions. Easier complex questions might have

only two rules which are closely linked and easy to spot. Harder questions might

have several rules operating independently or in a linked way that is not easy to

spot.

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Let’s look at an example:

In this question, you can identify several rules operating simultaneously, and all are

needed to solve the matrix correctly:

1. Frequency Rule of Colour

First, you can see the shapes which appear in the left frame in each row also

appear in the right frame, although they switch colour.

2. Frequency Rule of Shapes

You can see the shape in the middle frame is different in all three rows — the

shape itself has no effect on the other shapes in the row. You can see this

because in the right frame of each row, the white shapes are identical. You can

assume it will also be identical in the correct answer.

3. Rotation Rule of Lines

The line which crosses the shapes in the middle frames rotates 90° in the right

frame. So, if it is horizontal in the middle frame, it will be vertical in the right

frame.

4. Motion Rule

You can see that the alignment of this line affects the motion of the shape it

crosses: If the line is vertical, the shape will not retain its position in the right

frame. Instead, it will move from its original position to the opposite position (as

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you can see in the top row). However, if the line that crosses the shape is

horizontal, the shape will retain its position in the right frame (as you can see in

the middle row).

According to the rules we found and explained above, the correct answer should

contain:

- Frequency Rule of Colour – The 2 ‘plus’ shapes should alternate their colours. Darker

shape in the top-right corner, and a lighter one on the bottom left.

- Frequency Rule of Shapes – We learned to ignore the heart shape (but not the line

inside of it!).

- Rotation Rule of Lines – The line inside the white shape on the third frame will be

horizonal (because the line inside the heart shape on the second frame is vertical).

- Motion Rule – The location of the new shape will be in the bottom-right corner. That

is because the line inside the heart shape is vertical, which indicates a change to the

opposite location of the new shape.

Combining all these rules together will bring you to the correct answer:

Complex questions may also contain less than four rules, and these rules may not be

related to each other at all. When you encounter a question in which you have

identified a pattern and yet the answer cannot be reached, it is possible you are

facing a complex question and should look for additional patterns in the matrix.

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Solving Strategy

There are different ways to approach matrix questions, and after attempting to solve

the practice tests you will begin to develop your own way. Nonetheless, you must

remember that the test is time-limited, and thus you must balance between speed

and accuracy.

Below is a suggested strategy for approaching these questions. It will teach you what

to look for as well as how to know when it’s best to move on.

1. Always start by quickly scanning the matrix, both the rows and the columns,

to see if anything draws your attention. Sometimes, when the rule operating

in a matrix is obvious, the answer immediately pops up. This can be enough.

2. If the rule is not immediately discernible, examine the figures in the matrix

carefully, focusing on one characteristic at a time. Remember that the rule

might operate on a figure's shape, colour, alignment, motion, or quantity,

among other features. Additionally, remember that the rule might operate in

the matrix’s rows, columns, or both, and it might not necessarily give

importance to the order of the figures. Examine each feature and see if there

is a pattern governing its operation in the different figures.

3. Once you identify a rule, examine the answers and apply your rule to them:

which one of the answers maintains it? Try to narrow down your possible

answers and visualise each possible answer in the missing frame. If an answer

cannot be reached, it is possible you have the wrong rule, or that more than

one rule is operating in the matrix.

4. Do not waste time on questions you cannot solve. You only have about 60

seconds to answer each question, so do not waste precious time on a single

answer. If a question is proving too difficult, move on.

5. When you have finished going over all the questions, and if you have some

time left, return to the questions marked as unanswered.

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Summary:

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Terminology

For your convenience, a glossary is attached. In this section, you can find clarification on the terms used in the explanations of the different types of matrices.

Shape – Simple geometrical forms which appear in matrices are called shapes. In this group, we include triangles, circles, rectangles, and other standard geometrical forms.

Object – Forms appearing in matrices which are not standard geometrical shapes, but are also not complex figures constructed from several parts, are called objects. These are various single-part forms of relatively simple complexity. In this group, we include arrows, dots, lines, and irregular geometrical forms.

Figure – The most complex forms appearing in matrices are called figures. These are forms constructed from several shapes, objects, or a combination of both.

Frame – Many matrices have a square framing the figures or objects inside it. A Raven matrix contains nine frames. Within this frame, the figures/objects might move, rotate, or change in various ways.

Step – The changes in some matrices occur along the row or column. When examining these changes, from frame to frame in a row or a column, each advancement is called a step.

Step Step

Good luck,

JobTestPrep team