Quantum Mechanics

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Rutherford. Quantum Mechanics. Through the Looking Glass. This is how the model of the atom has developed so far:. Bohr-Planetary Model. Correcting Bohr’s Planetary Model. …using the Photoelectric Effect. then why can’t particles have a wavelike nature?. Louis DeBroglie’s insight:. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Quantum Mechanics

  • Quantum MechanicsThrough the Looking GlassBohr-Planetary ModelThis is how the model of the atom has developed so far:

  • Correcting Bohrs Planetary Modelusing the Photoelectric Effect

  • Louis DeBroglies insight:If light radiation can have a particle naturethen why cant particles have a wavelike nature?If electrons are particlesElectrons must have a wavelike nature = h mv

  • Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976)There is an uncertainty in either the position or the momentum of an electron that cannot be reduced beyond a certain minimum levelHeisenbergs Uncertainty PrincipleIs Shrodingers cat dead or alive?

  • The Quantum Mechanical ModelDescribes the wave properties of electronsand regions of space surrounding the nucleusCalled orbitalsWhere there is a high probability offinding electrons

  • Describing an electrons addressBohrs model places the electron ina quantum energy level (n)

  • Describing an electrons addressusing the Quantum Mechanical ModelElectrons exist in orbitalsA collection of orbitals with the same energyis called an electron shell designated (n)1st quantum #-principle quantum number (n) n = (1,2,3,, ) describes shell or energy level

  • Describing an electrons addressusing the Quantum Mechanical Model2nd quantum # - azimuthal number (l), value 0 to n-1 describes sublevel

    3rd quantum # - magnetic number (ml), value = l to 0 to-l The orientation of the orbital in space 4th Quatum # - Spin (ms), value is + or , describes the spin

  • The first energy level (n = 1) is constructed from a single orbital (l = 0), also designated 1s,which is spherical ( ml = 0)

  • The second energy level (n = 2) is constructed from a single orbital (l = 0) also designated 2swhich is spherical ( ml = 0)

  • The third energy level (n = 3) is constructed from a single orbital (l = 0) also designated 3swhich is spherical ( ml = 0)

  • Energy level n = 2 is more complex than energy level n =1 and is constructed from two kinds of orbitals

    The innermost part of n =2 consists of asingle spherical orbital designated 2sThe outermost part of n = 2 consists of three orbitals which are not spherical, (l = 1)

  • Energy level n = 3 is more complex than energy level n =1 or n = 2 and consists of aninnermost spherical orbital designated 3s

    The middle part of n = 3 consists of three dumbbell-shaped orbitals , (l = 1)The outermost part of n = 3 consists of five orbitals which are also not spherical, (l = 2)

  • Each four-lobed orbital (l = 2), also designated 3 d orbital is oriented along different planes ( ml = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2)Like the s and p orbitals, the d orbitals also repeat in subsequent energy levels

  • Energy level n = 4 is more complex than energy level n =1, 2, or 3 and consists of aninnermost spherical orbital designated 4s

    The lower middle part of n = 4 consists of three dumbbell-shaped orbitals , (l = 1)The upper middle part of n = 4 consists of five orbitals which are also not spherical, (l = 2)

  • The outermost part of n = 4 consists of seven orbitals, also designated f orbitals, which are also not spherical, (l = 3)In fact, they are a real nightmare ( ml = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3)

  • Describing an electrons address

  • which of the following is not an allowable quantum number4,4,3,1/23,2,2,15,2,-1,-1/2

  • What are the maximum number of electrons allowed that have the quantum numbers designated?1. n=32. n=3, l=23. n= 3, l=2, ml = 14. n= 3, l=2, ml = 1, ms = 1/2

  • Which of the following are in an excited state and what element do they represent?1. 1s22s22p63p64s23d104p65s24d105p6

  • How many unpaired electrons are in each of the following.CrFe3+Cl1-