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Rutherford. Quantum Mechanics. Through the Looking Glass. This is how the model of the atom has developed so far:. Bohr-Planetary Model. Correcting Bohr’s Planetary Model. …using the Photoelectric Effect. then why can’t particles have a wavelike nature?. Louis DeBroglie’s insight:. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Quantum MechanicsThrough the Looking GlassBohr-Planetary ModelThis is how the model of the atom has developed so far:

Correcting Bohrs Planetary Modelusing the Photoelectric Effect

Louis DeBroglies insight:If light radiation can have a particle naturethen why cant particles have a wavelike nature?If electrons are particlesElectrons must have a wavelike nature = h mv

Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976)There is an uncertainty in either the position or the momentum of an electron that cannot be reduced beyond a certain minimum levelHeisenbergs Uncertainty PrincipleIs Shrodingers cat dead or alive?

The Quantum Mechanical ModelDescribes the wave properties of electronsand regions of space surrounding the nucleusCalled orbitalsWhere there is a high probability offinding electrons

Describing an electrons addressBohrs model places the electron ina quantum energy level (n)

Describing an electrons addressusing the Quantum Mechanical ModelElectrons exist in orbitalsA collection of orbitals with the same energyis called an electron shell designated (n)1st quantum #-principle quantum number (n) n = (1,2,3,, ) describes shell or energy level

Describing an electrons addressusing the Quantum Mechanical Model2nd quantum # - azimuthal number (l), value 0 to n-1 describes sublevel

3rd quantum # - magnetic number (ml), value = l to 0 to-l The orientation of the orbital in space 4th Quatum # - Spin (ms), value is + or , describes the spin

The first energy level (n = 1) is constructed from a single orbital (l = 0), also designated 1s,which is spherical ( ml = 0)

The second energy level (n = 2) is constructed from a single orbital (l = 0) also designated 2swhich is spherical ( ml = 0)

The third energy level (n = 3) is constructed from a single orbital (l = 0) also designated 3swhich is spherical ( ml = 0)

Energy level n = 2 is more complex than energy level n =1 and is constructed from two kinds of orbitals

The innermost part of n =2 consists of asingle spherical orbital designated 2sThe outermost part of n = 2 consists of three orbitals which are not spherical, (l = 1)

Energy level n = 3 is more complex than energy level n =1 or n = 2 and consists of aninnermost spherical orbital designated 3s

The middle part of n = 3 consists of three dumbbell-shaped orbitals , (l = 1)The outermost part of n = 3 consists of five orbitals which are also not spherical, (l = 2)

Each four-lobed orbital (l = 2), also designated 3 d orbital is oriented along different planes ( ml = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2)Like the s and p orbitals, the d orbitals also repeat in subsequent energy levels

Energy level n = 4 is more complex than energy level n =1, 2, or 3 and consists of aninnermost spherical orbital designated 4s

The lower middle part of n = 4 consists of three dumbbell-shaped orbitals , (l = 1)The upper middle part of n = 4 consists of five orbitals which are also not spherical, (l = 2)

The outermost part of n = 4 consists of seven orbitals, also designated f orbitals, which are also not spherical, (l = 3)In fact, they are a real nightmare ( ml = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3)

Describing an electrons address

which of the following is not an allowable quantum number4,4,3,1/23,2,2,15,2,-1,-1/2

What are the maximum number of electrons allowed that have the quantum numbers designated?1. n=32. n=3, l=23. n= 3, l=2, ml = 14. n= 3, l=2, ml = 1, ms = 1/2

Which of the following are in an excited state and what element do they represent?1. 1s22s22p63p64s23d104p65s24d105p6

How many unpaired electrons are in each of the following.CrFe3+Cl1-