Quantitative Research: Important issues pertaining to .Quantitative Research: Important issues pertaining to research methodology & analysis strategy Concepts in Quantitative Research

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  • Quantitative Research: Important issues pertaining to research methodology &

    analysis strategy

    Helene Muller

    1

  • Quantitative Research: Important issues pertaining to research methodology & analysis strategy

    Outline

    Quantitative research

    Where does Quantitative Research slot in in the bigger Research picture?

    The survey research design in quantitative research

    Questionnaire design

    Reliability and validity

    Analysis strategy: options explained by means of examples

    Example 1 (1 variable, categorical)

    Example 2 (2 variables, categorical)

    Example 3 (2 variables, continuous, different measures)

    Example 4 (2 variables continuous, same measure)

    Example 5 ( 2variables, continuous and categorical)

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  • Quantitative Research: Important issues pertaining to research methodology & analysis strategy

    Concepts in Quantitative Research

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    Concept 1: Where does Quantitative Research slot in within the Research Process?

    1. When conducting research, the research approach can be either: A qualitative (collected data: words (interviews), pictures (video)or objects (artefacts) or a quantitative ( data collected: numerical data) or a mixed approach. The research approach followed determines the Research Design

    2. Research Designs A quantitative approach is appropriate when the research purpose is to test predictive and/ or

    cause-effect type of hypotheses. Deductive logic is used and the design is suitable for phenomena that have been well developed with regard to theory and concept

    Qualitative designs on the other is applicable when the research purpose is to accumulate knowledge of a (social) phenomenon that is relatively unknown and seeks understanding. Reasoning in this instance is more inductive

    A mixed research design often strengthen research in the sense that the abovementioned approaches can be used to validate and enhance the research findings of each approach. (De Vos, et al 2005)

  • Quantitative Research: Important issues pertaining to research methodology & analysis strategy

    Concept in Quantitative Research (Cont.)

    Concept 2: The Survey Research Design in Quantitative Research

    Most of the quantitative research in Educational studies adopts a survey design type.

    This presentation will focus on the survey research design

    Why is the Survey design appropriate? These design type has certain properties

    In quantitative research a tool/ or measuring instrument is required to evaluate the phenomenon under investigation The tool-of-measurement in survey designs is the questionnaire (standardized or designed) The design type generates/ collects numeric data The information collected is objective and reliable (if properly structured, administered and validated) Reliable findings because respondent selection & analysis processes adhere to statistical principles The questionnaire is purpose-designed according to structured theoretical knowledge and research questions Collects only essential information

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  • Quantitative Research: Important issues pertaining to research methodology & analysis strategy

    Concept in Quantitative research (cont)

    Concept 3: Questionnaire design

    **Three crucial principles to remember/ consider when designing a questionnaire

    1. The format/type of questions determine the type of data generated Closed ended questions (A list of possible options to choose from)

    o Single choice (male / female) Categorical data, nominal o Multiple choice response (all hobbies of interest listed) Categorical o Rating levels (agree / undecided / disagree) Categorical, ordinal o Exact figures (weight, age) Continuous

    Open ended (Written text response) Categorical data

    2. The type of data generated dictates the type of statistical analyses that can be performed

    3. The analysis techniques applied determines the type of research questions (hypotheses) that can be addressed and answered

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  • Quantitative Research: Important issues pertaining to research methodology & analysis strategy

    Concepts in Quantitative research (cont)

    Concept 4: Reliability and validity in research

    Quantitative research strives to present valid and reliable research finding.

    Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. A questionnaire/ or test is considered reliable if the same result is obtained repeatedly when the questionnaire is re-administered/ or tested repeated (Thermometer reading)

    Validity refers to the extent to which a questionnaire / or test measures what it purports to measure (Thermometer does not measure blood pressure)

    There are various types of validity and reliability involved in the various stages of the quantitative research process. Measures have been developed to ensure valid & reliable research findings. That is why quantitative research adhere to

    Protocol for questionnaire design

    Protocol while administering a questionnaire

    Measures to ensure data integrity

    Measures to ensure validity and reliability (appropriate analysis strategy)

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  • Quantitative Research: Important issues pertaining to research methodology & analysis strategy

    Analysis strategy

    Once a sample for the research has been selected (according to a selection protocol/ sampling method) and questionnaires administered, the responses of the respondents is electronically captured as data(examples to follow)

    The next step is the research process is then the analysis strategy. The analysis strategy refers to the type of statistical analysis techniques the researcher plans to use in analyzing the data

    The analysis strategy, along with questionnaire design, determines the type of research questions and hypotheses that the researcher will be able to answer from the analysis results.

    The importance of the previous statement is best illustrated by means of example. The rest of the presentation discusses analysis techniques and their applicability to answering specific types of research questions

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  • Questionnaire: Reading methods

    Section A

    1. Please indicate your age

    2. Please indicate your gender

    3. Years of experience teaching junior level primary school

    Reading methods questionnaire 2

    4 8: Other biographical attributes

    Section B

    9. Please tick the reading approaches/ methods that you use in your classroom

    Method

    1. Phonics

    2. Look-&-say

    3. Eclectic

    4. Language expression

    5. THRASS

    6. Readers

    7. Other books in class

    1. >30

    2. 31-40

    3. 41-50

    4. 51-65

    1. male 2. Female

    1.

  • Reading methods questionnaire 3

    10. Please provide the class average for the following first term evaluations

    11. Please provide class average of the second term reading evaluation before & after introduction of Look & Say reading approach

    Reading methods questionnaire 4

    12. Please indicate your level of agreement , with the following statements, where 1: agree++ 2: agree 3: undecided 4: disagree 5: disagree++

    Class average, Reading

    Class average, Spelling .

    Class average Before .

    Class average After .

    Agreement statements 1 2 3 4 5

    1. Reading skills are important

    2. Reading skills form the basis of the learning process

    3. Sound reading habits should be fostered early

    4 . Bed time stories contribute towards love of reading

    5. Parents reading habits determine their childrens

    6. One can never read enough

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    Quantitative Research: Important issues pertaining to research methodology & analysis strategy

    Example questionnaire (continued)

  • Quantitative Research: Important issues pertaining to research methodology & analysis strategy

    Example: Questionnaire, electronically captured data

    Electronically captured data from Reading Methods Research Questionnaire

    no

    Age

    Gender

    Exp

    Q9.1

    Q9.1

    Q9.3

    .

    .

    .

    .

    Q9.7

    R e a d

    Write

    Before

    After

    q1

    q2

    q3

    q4

    q5

    q6

    1

  • Type of data recorded and analysis techniques applicable:

    Type of research questions that can be answered with the data collected from the questionnaire

    Categorical data on biographical properties (age, gender, exp.)

    Therefore limited analyses & non-parametric tests, such as One-way frequency tables & graphs (bar graphs, spider plots, pie charts) Descriptive techniques

    Research questions pertaining to a description of the sample (the respondents selected) in terms of their biographical attributes can be answered:

    Fifty seven percent of the respondents in the sample were younger than 35 .. Gender . Experience .

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    Quantitative Research: Important issues pertaining to research methodology & analysis strategy

    Example 1: Section A, Analysis strategy

  • Analysis technique: One