Ptp Reported

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    Unit 2

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    There are two ways of relating what a person

    has said: direct and indirect. In direct speechwe repeat the original speakers exact words:

    [1] He said, I have lost my umbrella.

    What kind of punctuation marks this type of

    reporting? Where is it usually found?

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    In indirect speech we give the exact meaningof a remark without necessarily using thespeakers exact words:

    [2] He said that he had lost his umbrella.

    The verbs used to introduce this kind orretelling (reported speech) are usually say ortell, but also many other verbs: complain,explain, object, point out, protest, etc.

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    An indirect speech sentence is a complexsentence structure consisting of the mainclause (REPORTING CLAUSE (1)) and asubordinate clause (REPORTED CLAUSE (2))

    which functions as a direct object.Han Solo said (1), I love you, Lea (2).

    Han Solo told Lea (1) that he loved her (2).

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    Depending on the sentence discourse typeof the reported clause (statement, question,command, exclamation), the object nominalclause can be structurally realized in several

    ways:

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    Discoursetypes Subordinate nominal clause Examples

    Statements that-clause He said that the was angry.

    questionsyes/no interrogative clause He asked her if she was married.

    wh-interrogative clause He asked her where she lived.

    commands to-infinitival clausethat-clause

    I told Tom to tidy his roomI Insisted that Tom tidy his room.

    exclamations wh-interrogative clause Jenny told them what brave boysthey were.

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    When converting DIRECT SPEECH TOINDIRECT SPEECH, changes occur becausethe conditions under which the utterance wasproduced changed: BACKSHIFT of tenses (if the reporting verb is in the

    past tense) CHANGES OF PRONOUNS (central and

    demonstrative) ADJUNCTS OF TIME AND PLACE ALSO CHANGE now > then

    today > that day

    here > there

    Etc.

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    Direct speech Indirect speechSimple present

    I nevereatmeat,he explained.

    Present continuous

    Iam waitingforAnn,he said.

    Present perfect

    Ihave founda flat,he said.Present perfect continuous

    Ihave been waitingforages,he said.

    Simple past

    Itookit home with me,she said.

    Future

    He said, Ishall/wi ll bein on Monday.

    Future continuous

    She said, Ill be usingthe car on April 24th.

    But note, Conditional

    I said, Iwould li keto see it.

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    Direct speech Indirect speech

    Simple present

    I nevereatmeat,he explained.

    Simple past

    He explained that he neveratemeat.

    Present continuous

    Iam waitingforAnn,he said.

    Past continuous

    He said (that) he was waiti ngfor Ann.

    Present perfect

    Ihave founda flat,he said.

    Past perfect

    He said (that) he had founda flat.Present perfect continuous

    Ihave been waiti ngforages,he said.

    Past perfect

    He said (that) he had been waitingfor ages.

    Simple past

    Itookit home with me,she said.

    Past perfect

    Se said (that) she had takenit home with her.

    FutureHe said, Ishall /will bein on Monday.

    Future in the pastHe said he would be in on Monday.

    Future continuous

    She said, Ill be usingthe car on April 24th.

    Future in the past continuous

    She said she would be usingthe car on April

    24th.

    But note, Conditional

    I said, Iwould li keto see it.

    Conditional

    I said Iwould li keto see it.NO CHANGES

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    I/we shall/should normally becomes he/she/they would:

    I shall be 21 tomorrow

    Bill said he would be 21 the following day.

    If I had the instruction manual, Ishould/would know what to do.

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    BACKSHIFT is optional if the time reference ofthe original utterance is still valid at the timeof reporting: King Leonidas said that he was/*isa citizen of the

    world. Leonidas said that nothing could/canharm a

    freedom-loving man.

    I didnt know that our meeting is/wasnext

    Thursday.

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    In spoken English, the past tense does necessarily shift into the pastperfect, provided this can be done without causing confusion about therelative time of the actions.

    [4] i. a. He said, I loved her. b. He said he had loved her. In [4a] the implied meaning is that he does not love her any more,

    therefore, the tense has to be shifted to past perfect; otherwise themeaning would be wrong. But if the situation is obvious, as in [5], theshift is not necessary:

    [5] a. He said, Ann arrived on Monday. b. He said Ann arrived/had arrived on Monday. Similarly, the past continuous in theory changes into the past perfect

    continuous, but in practice usually remains unchanged except when itrefers to a completed action:

    [6] i. a. She said, We were thinking of selling the house, but wedecided not to.

    b. She said that they had been thinking of selling the house, buthad decided not to.

    but ii. a. He said, When I saw them, they were playing tennis. b. He said that when he saw them they were playing tennis.

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    If a state talked about in present remains unchanged, constant,or exists when a speech act is over, it does not require a shift inthe past:

    [7] John: I love you and that is why I want to marry you. John told me he loves me and that is why he wants to marry

    me. (provided his feelings remained the same) Unreal past tenses (subjunctives) in indirect speech Unreal past tenses after wish, would rather/sooner and it is time

    do not change: [8] i. We wish we didnt have to take exams, said the children. The children said they wished they didnt have to take

    exams.

    ii. Ann said, Id rather Bill went with a group than alone. Ann said shed rather Bill went with a group than alone.

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    Might, ought to, should, used to remainunchanged:

    [9] i. He said, Ann might ring today.

    He said that Ann might ring (that day).

    ii. They ought to/should widen this road, Isaid.

    I said they ought to/should widen the road. iii. I know the place because I used to live

    here, he explained.

    He explained he knew the place because heused to live there.

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    How are the following statements reported?What changes are likely to occur?

    a. I couldnt stand on my head, he said.

    b. He said, I could do it tomorrow

    c. I could read when I was three, she boasted.

    Could for present ability does not change;could for future ability either remainsunchanged or is reported by would be able:

    He said he would be able to do it tomorrow.

    Past ability: unchanged/had been able to.

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    If I paid my fine, I could walk out of prisontoday, he said it.

    He said that if he paid his fine hecould/would be allowed to

    Could or was/were allowed to, also, had beenallowed to:

    He said that, as a boy, he was/had been

    allowed to stay up as long as he liked.

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    The choice of the personal pronoun depends on who isreporting whose words. It usually changes from first or second to third person

    unless the speaker is reporting his own words. Sometimes the noun must be used to avoid ambiguity:

    [11] i. Tom said: Hecame in through the window. Tom said the man/burglar/cat etc. had come in

    through the window. (because Tom said hehad come in would imply it

    was Tom who came in) this and these Usually are changed into that or those, but depends on

    the perspective of the speaker.

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    Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time

    change according to the following table:Direct speechtoday

    yesterday

    the day before yesterday

    tomorrow

    the day after tomorrow

    next week/year etc.

    last week/year etc.

    a year/month ago

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    Direct speech Indirect speech

    today that day

    yesterday the day before

    the day before yesterday two days before

    tomorrow the next day/the following day

    the day after tomorrow in two days time

    next week/year etc. the following week/year

    last week/year etc. the previous week/year

    a year/month ago a year before/the previous year

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    But if the speech is made and reported on thesame day, these time changes are not necessary:

    [12] i. At breakfast this morning he said, Illbe very busy today.

    At breakfast this morning he said he wouldbe very busy today.

    Adjustments of any kind are logical: if John saidon Monday: Ill be leaving on Wednesday, this

    statement can be reported on Tuesday as Johnsaid hed be leaving tomorrow, and onWednesday, asJohn said hed be leaving today.

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    What are the common verbs of introducing reported questions ? ask, inquire, wonder, want to know, etc. Ask can also be followed by the

    person addressed (indirect object).

    E.g. i. Allan asked Sue, Whereare you going? ii. Allan asked Sue whereshe was going. When we turn direct questions into indirect speech, which

    changes are necessary? Tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives, and adverbs of

    time and place change as in statements; The interrogative form of the verb changes into affirmativeform.The question mark (?) is therefore omitted in indirect

    questions:

    He asked: Where does she live?

    He asked where she lived. What about: He asked: Who lives next door? He asked who lived next door.

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    If a question has a wh- word, it is repeated in the reportedquestion. Examples: [14] He said, Where is the station? He asked where the station was. He inquired, What do you have in your bag? He asked me what I had in my bag. He said, Mary, when is the next train? He asked Mary when the next train was. He said, Why didnt you put on the brake? He asked her why she hadnt put on the brake. She said, What do you wand? She wanted to know what he wanted.

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    If there is no question word, i.e. if the question isasked by inversion of subject and auxiliary, if orwhether must be used in reported questions.Examples:

    [15]

    He said, Is anyone there? He asked if/whetheranyone was there. Shall I wait for them or go on? he wondered.

    (a) He wondered whether he should wait for them or

    go on. (b) He wondered whether to wait for them or go on.

    Bill asked me, If you get the job, will you move toYork?

    Bill asked whether/if I got the job, Id move to York.

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    If a question is asked with the auxiliary do (do-support), this auxiliary is not used in reporting:

    He said, Do youknow Bill? He asked if/whetherI knew Bill. Did you see the accident? the policeman asked. The policeman inquired if I had seen the

    accident.

    The officer asked me, Do you want to insureyour luggage or not?

    The officer asked whether I wanted to secure myluggage or not.

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    Direct command: He said, Lie down, Tom. Indirect command: He told Tom to lie down. Indirect commands, requests, advice are

    usually expressed by:

    verb of command/request/advice + object +infinitive Which verbs are used? advise, ask, beg, command, encourage,

    entreat, forbid, implore, invite, order,recommend, remind, request, tell, urge,warn.

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    usually reported by not + infinitive [17] i. Dont swim out too far, boys, I

    said.

    ii. I warned the boysnot to swim out toofar.

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    INDIRECT SPEECH

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    She said that he had to hurry. Her father was always furious if any of themwere late for meals.My uncle said that if I was short of money, he could lend me $50 and I didnthave to worry about paying back.He warned us wed better take our sleeping bags; we might have to sleep out.

    Tom said that he hed have enjoyed the journey if the man next to him hadnt