Prologue: Psychologys RootsDefinition of PsychologyThe science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings)
Psychologys RootsPrescientific PsychologyIn India, Buddha wondered how sensations and perceptions combined to form ideas.
Prescientific PsychologyConfucius (551-479 B.C.)In China, Confucius stressed the power of ideas and the importance of an educated mind.
Prescientific PsychologyHebrew ScripturesHebrew scriptures linked mind and emotion to the body.
Prescientific PsychologySocrates (469-399 B.C.) and Plato (428-348 B.C.)Socrates and his student Plato believed the mind was separate from the body, the mind continued to exist after death, and ideas were innate.SocratesPlato
Prescientific PsychologyAristotle (384-322 B.C.)Aristotle suggested that the soul is not separable from the body and that knowledge (ideas) grow from experience.
Prescientific PsychologyRene Descartes (1596-1650)Descartes, like Plato, believed in soul (mind)-body separation, but wondered how the immaterial mind and physical body communicated.
Prescientific PsychologyFrancis Bacon (1561-1626)Bacon is one of the founders of modern science, particularly the experimental method.
Prescientific PsychologyJohn Locke (1632-1704)Locke held that the mind was a tabula rasa, or blank sheet, at birth, and experiences wrote on it.
Prescientific PsychologyWhat is the relation of mind to the body?
Mind and body are connectedMind and body are distinctThe HebrewsSocratesAristotlePlatoAugustineDescartes
Prescientific PsychologyHow are ideas formed?
Some ideas are inbornThe mind is a blank slateSocratesAristotlePlatoLocke
Prologue: Psychologys RootsPsychological Science Is BornEmpiricismKnowledge comes from experience via the sensesScience flourishes through observation and experiment
Psychological Science is BornStructuralismWundt and Titchener studied the elements (atoms) of the mind by conducting experiments at Leipzig, Germany, in 1879.Wundt (1832-1920)Titchener (1867-1927)
Psychological Science is BornFunctionalismInfluenced by Darwin, William James established the school of functionalism, which opposed structuralism. James (1842-1910)Mary Calkins
Prologue: Psychologys RootsFunctionalism focused on how behavioral processes function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
Psychological Science is BornThe Unconscious MindSigmund Freud and his followers emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior.Freud (1856-1939)
Psychological Science DevelopsBehaviorismWatson (1913) and later Skinner emphasized the study of overt behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology. Watson (1878-1958)Skinner (1904-1990)
Other PioneersJohn B. Watson (18781958)psychologists should study overt behavior Father of BehaviorismB. F. Skinner (19041990)American psychologist at Harvardstudied learning and effect of reinforcement Father of Operant Conditioning
John B. Watson (18781958)
B. F. Skinner (19041990)
Psychological Science DevelopsHumanistic PsychologyMaslow and Rogers emphasized current environmental influences on our growth potential and our need for love and acceptance. Maslow (1908-1970)Rogers (1902-1987)
Psychological Associations & SocietiesThe American Psychological Association is the largest organization of psychology with 160,000 members world-wide, followed by the British Psychological Society with 34,000 members.
Psychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis
Prologue: Contemporary PsychologyPsychologys Big IssuesStability vs. Change Do our individual traits persist as we age?Do we become older versions of ourselves?
Prologue: Contemporary PsychologyRationality vs. IrrationalityRationality reasonableness, good sense of equity and proportionIrrationality not reasonable in thinking or behaving, distorted perception of reality
Philosophical Developments Another Question: Nature vs. Nurturethe relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviorsAre abilities determined by our genes or our experiences?What are the interactions between genetics and environment?What effect does it have on behavior?BIG
Prologue: Contemporary PsychologyJohn Lockeempiricist; believed that knowledge is acquired solely through life experiences. Tabula Rasa: blank tabletClaimed each of us is born a blank slate on which are written the life experiences we acquire through our senses.(Plato believed just the opposite)
Prologue: Contemporary PsychologyRene Descartesrationalist; insisted we should doubt everything that is not proved by our own reasoning. True knowledge comes through correct reasoning and it is inborn.
Prologue: Contemporary PsychologyNatural selectionprinciple that those inherited trait variations contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generationsCharles Darwin
Psychologys Current Perspectives
PerspectiveFocusSample QuestionsNeuroscienceHow the body and brain enables emotions?How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?EvolutionaryHow the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of ones genes?How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?Behavior geneticsHow much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences?To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?
Psychologys Current Perspectives
PerspectiveFocusSample QuestionsPsychodynamicHow behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts?How can someones personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?BehavioralHow we learn observable responses?How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?
Psychologys Current Perspectives
PerspectiveFocusSample QuestionsCognitiveHow we encode, process, store and retrieve information?How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving?Social-culturalHow behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures?How are we as Africans, Asians, Australians or North Americans alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?
Psychologys Subfields: Research
PsychologistWhat she doesBiologicalExplore the links between brain and mind.DevelopmentalStudy changing abilities from womb to tomb.CognitiveStudy how we perceive, think, and solve problems.PersonalityInvestigate our persistent traits.SocialExplore how we view and affect one another.
Approaches to PsychologyBiologicalBehavioralPsychoanalyticHumanisticCognitiveSociocultural
Biological PerspectiveStudy the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behaviorFocus may be at various levelsindividual neuronsareas of the brainspecific functions like eating, emotion, or learningInterest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences
Evolutionary PerspectiveInfluenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behavior patterns
Application of principles of evolution to explain behavior and psychological processes
John B. Watson
The Behavioral Approach
Behavioral PerspectiveView of behavior based on experience or learning
Classical conditioning-- PavlovOperant conditioning-- Skinner
Psychodynamic PerspectiveView of behavior based on experience treating patientsPsychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud)both a method of treatment and a theory of the mindbehavior reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influencesdrives and urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behaviorearly childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations
Cognitive PerspectiveHow is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior?Influences includePiaget studied intellectual developmentChomsky studied languageCybernetics science of information processing
Humanistic PerspectiveDeveloped by Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogersbehavior reflects innate actualization focus on conscious forces and self perceptionmore positive view of basic forces than Freuds
The Humanistic Approach
Carl Rogers (19021987)Abraham Maslow (19081970)
The Sociocultural ApproachPsychoanalyticCognitive
Cross-Cultural PerspectiveThe study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groupsHow are peoples thoughts, feelings and behavior influenced by their culture?What are the common elements across culture? Are these innate?
Psychologys Subfields: ResearchData: APA 1997
Psychologys Subfields: Applied
PsychologistWhat she doesClinicalStudies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disordersCounselingHelps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges.EducationalStudies and helps individuals in school and educational settingsIndustrial/Organiza