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PROCEEDINGS OF SPIE SPIEDigitalLibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie Front Matter: Volume 8340 , "Front Matter: Volume 8340," Proc. SPIE 8340, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2012, 834001 (18 April 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.966008 Event: SPIE Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, 2012, San Diego, California, United States Downloaded From: https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie on 01 Feb 2021 Terms of Use: https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/terms-of-use

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  • PROCEEDINGS OF SPIE

    SPIEDigitalLibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie

    Front Matter: Volume 8340

    , "Front Matter: Volume 8340," Proc. SPIE 8340, Electroactive PolymerActuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2012, 834001 (18 April 2012); doi:10.1117/12.966008

    Event: SPIE Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation andHealth Monitoring, 2012, San Diego, California, United States

    Downloaded From: https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie on 01 Feb 2021 Terms of Use: https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/terms-of-use

  • PROCEEDINGS OF SPIE

    Volume 8340

    Proceedings of SPIE, 0277-786X, v. 8340

    SPIE is an international society advancing an interdisciplinary approach to the science and application of light.

    Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2012

    Yoseph Bar-Cohen Editor 12–15 March 2012 San Diego, California, United States Sponsored by SPIE Cosponsored by American Society of Mechanical Engineers (United States) Cooperating Organizations Intelligent Materials Forum (Japan) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (United States) National Science Foundation (United States) Published by SPIE

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  • The papers included in this volume were part of the technical conference cited on the cover and title page. Papers were selected and subject to review by the editors and conference program committee. Some conference presentations may not be available for publication. The papers published in these proceedings reflect the work and thoughts of the authors and are published herein as submitted. The publisher is not responsible for the validity of the information or for any outcomes resulting from reliance thereon. Please use the following format to cite material from this book: Author(s), "Title of Paper," in Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2012, edited by Yoseph Bar-Cohen, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8340 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2012) Article CID Number. ISSN 0277-786X ISBN 9780819489975 Published by SPIE P.O. Box 10, Bellingham, Washington 98227-0010 USA Telephone +1 360 676 3290 (Pacific Time)· Fax +1 360 647 1445 SPIE.org Copyright © 2012, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Copying of material in this book for internal or personal use, or for the internal or personal use of specific clients, beyond the fair use provisions granted by the U.S. Copyright Law is authorized by SPIE subject to payment of copying fees. The Transactional Reporting Service base fee for this volume is $18.00 per article (or portion thereof), which should be paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. Payment may also be made electronically through CCC Online at copyright.com. Other copying for republication, resale, advertising or promotion, or any form of systematic or multiple reproduction of any material in this book is prohibited except with permission in writing from the publisher. The CCC fee code is 0277-786X/12/$18.00. Printed in the United States of America. Publication of record for individual papers is online in the SPIE Digital Library.

    SPIEDigitalLibrary.org

    Paper Numbering: Proceedings of SPIE follow an e-First publication model, with papers published first online and then in print and on CD-ROM. Papers are published as they are submitted and meet publication criteria. A unique, consistent, permanent citation identifier (CID) number is assigned to each article at the time of the first publication. Utilization of CIDs allows articles to be fully citable as soon as they are published online, and connects the same identifier to all online, print, and electronic versions of the publication. SPIE uses a six-digit CID article numbering system in which:

    The first four digits correspond to the SPIE volume number. The last two digits indicate publication order within the volume using a Base 36 numbering

    system employing both numerals and letters. These two-number sets start with 00, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09, 0A, 0B … 0Z, followed by 10-1Z, 20-2Z, etc.

    The CID number appears on each page of the manuscript. The complete citation is used on the first page, and an abbreviated version on subsequent pages. Numbers in the index correspond to the last two digits of the six-digit CID number.

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  • Contents

    xi Conference Committee

    xv Introduction

    xvii EAP-in-Action Demonstrations EAP AS EMERGING ACTUATORS I 8340 04 The need for speed [8340-03] S. Rosset, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); P. Gebbers, Ecole

    Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland) and Zürcher Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften (Switzerland); B. M. O'Brien, The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); H. R. Shea, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    EAP AS EMERGING ACTUATORS II 8340 06 Actuators, biomedicine, and cell-biology (Invited Paper) [8340-05] E. W. H. Jager, Linköping Univ. (Sweden) 8340 08 Cutting the fat: artificial muscle oscillators for lighter, cheaper, and slimmer devices

    [8340-07] B. M. O'Brien, The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); S. Rosset, H. R. Shea, Ecole

    Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); I. A. Anderson, The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)

    SPECIAL SESSION: EAP ACTUATED MEDICAL AND TACTILE DEVICES 8340 09 Navigating conjugated polymer actuated neural probes in a brain phantom [8340-08] E. D. Daneshvar, D. Kipke, Univ. of Michigan (United States); E. Smela, Univ. of Maryland,

    College Park (United States) 8340 0A Designing micro- and nanostructures for artificial urinary sphincters [8340-09] F. M. Weiss, H. Deyhle, Univ. Basel (Switzerland); G. Kovacs, EMPA (Switzerland); B. Müller,

    Univ. Basel (Switzerland) 8340 0C Standing wave tube electro active polymer wave energy converter [8340-106] P. Jean, A. Wattez, G. Ardoise, C. Melis, R. Van Kessel, A. Fourmon, E. Barrabino, J. Heemskerk, J. P. Queau, SBM Offshore (Monaco) 8340 0D Molecular engineering of polymer actuators for biomedical and industrial use [8340-11] M. Banister, R. Eichorst, Medipacs Inc. (United States); A. Gurr, G. Schweitzer, Univ. of Arizona

    (United States); Y. Geronov, Medipacs Inc. (United States); P. Rao, D. McGrath, Univ. of Arizona (United States)

    iii

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  • 8340 0E Tactile display with rigid coupling [8340-12] H. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, D. G. Kim, U. K. Kim, C. H. Lee, N. N. Linh, N. C. Toan, J. C. Koo, H. Moon,

    J. Nam, Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of); J. Han, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd (Korea, Republic of); H. R. Choi, Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    8340 0F Dielectric elastomer vibrissal system for active tactile sensing [8340-13] A. T. Conn, M. J. Pearson, A. G. Pipe, J. Welsby, J. Rossiter, Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom)

    and Univ. of the West of England (United Kingdom) 8340 0H A dynamic physics-based model for base-excited IPMC sensors [8340-15] C. Lim, H. Lei, X. Tan, Michigan State Univ. (United States) IONIC EAP I: CONDUCTING, IMC, AND GELS 8340 0I Applications of scanned pipettes to the localized characterization of actuating conducting

    polymers: an SICM design for simultaneous ion flux and topography measurements (Invited Paper) [8340-16]

    K. Kannappan, C. Laslau, D. E. Williams, J. Travas-Sejdic, The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)

    8340 0J Patterning process and actuation in open air of micro-beam actuator based on conducting

    IPNs (Invited Paper) [8340-17] A. Khaldi, Lab. de Physico-Chimie des Polymères et des Interfaces (France) and Institut d

    Electronique de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS (France); C. Plesse, Lab. de Physico-Chimie des Polymères et des Interfaces (France); C. Soyer, Institut d Electronique de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS (France); C. Chevrot, D. Teyssié,

    F. Vidal, Lab. de Physico-Chimie des Polymères et des Interfaces (France); E. Cattan, Institut d Electronique de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS (France)

    8340 0K How to improve electrochemomechanical strain in conducting polymers [8340-18] K. Kaneto, K. Takayanagi, K. Tominaga, W. Takashima, Kyushu Institute of Technology

    (Japan) IONIC EAP II: CONDUCTING, IMC, AND GELS 8340 0M Influence of micro- and nanofillers on electro-mechanical performance of silicone EAPs

    [8340-20] A. L. Skov, A. Bejenariu, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); J. Bøgelund, Danish

    Technological Institute (Denmark); M. Benslimane, Danfoss Polypower (Denmark); A. D. Egede, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark) 8340 0P Physics-based electromechanical model of IPMC considering various underlying currents

    [8340-24] D. Pugal, K. J. Kim, V. Palmre, K. K. Leang, Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States); A. Aabloo,

    Univ. of Tartu (Estonia) 8340 0Q Multi-physical modeling for electro-transport and deformation of ionic polymer metal

    composites [8340-25] Z. Zhu, H. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Li, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China)

    iv

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  • 8340 0R Bistable electroactive polymer for refreshable Braille display with improved actuation stability [8340-95]

    X. Niu, P. Brochu, H. Stoyanov, S. R. Yun, Q. Pei, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States) NANOTUBES AND NANOTECHNOLOGY 8340 0T CNT/conductive polymer composites for low-voltage driven EAP actuators [8340-27] T. Sugino, Y. Shibata, K. Kiyohara, K. Asaka, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science

    and Technology (Japan) 8340 0V Ionic EAP transducers with amorphous nanoporous carbon electrodes (Invited Paper)

    [8340-29] F. Kaasik, J. Torop, I. Must, E. Soolo, I. Põldsalu, A.-L. Peikolainen, V. Palmre, A. Aabloo, Univ.

    of Tartu (Estonia) DIELECTRIC ELASTOMERS 8340 0Y Novel DEA materials by chemical grafting of silicone networks on molecular level [8340-32] B. Kussmaul, Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung (Germany); S. Risse, Univ.

    Potsdam (Germany); M. Wegener, Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung (Germany); G. Kofod, Univ. Potsdam (Germany); H. Krüger, Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung (Germany)

    8340 0Z Modeling and characterization of stiffness controlled robotic legs using dielectric

    elastomers [8340-33] J. Newton, J. Morton, J. Clark, W. S. Oates, Florida State Univ. (United States) 8340 10 A framework to investigate instabilities of homogeneous and composite dielectric

    elastomer actuators [8340-34] M. Gei, S. Colonnelli, R. Springhetti, Univ. of Trento (Italy) 8340 11 Out-of-plane motion of a planar dielectric elastomer actuator with distributed stiffeners

    [8340-35] W. Lai, A. F. Bastawros, W. Hong, Iowa State Univ. (United States) ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRODES 8340 12 Compliant composite electrodes and large strain bistable actuation (Invited Paper)

    [8340-36] S. Yun, Z. Yu, X. Niu, W. Hu, L. Li, P. Brochu, Q. Pei, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United

    States) 8340 13 Super-compliant metallic electrodes for electroactive polymer actuators [8340-37] F. Habrard, J. Patscheider, G. Kovacs, EMPA (Switzerland) 8340 14 Actuated strains in excess of 100 percent in dielectric elastomer actuators using silver film

    electrodes [8340-38] S. H. Low, A. W. Y. Tan, L. L. Shiau, G. K. Lau, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)

    v

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  • 8340 15 Transferring electrical energy between dielectric elastomer actuators [8340-39] H. C. A. Lo, T. Gisby, T. McKay, The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); E. Calius, Industrial

    Research Ltd. (New Zealand); I. Anderson, The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand) 8340 16 Self-clearing dielectric elastomer actuators using charcoal-powder electrodes [8340-40] G.-K. Lau, S.-L. Chua, L.-L. Shiau, A. W. Y. Tan, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore) 8340 17 Low-voltage bending actuators from carbide-derived carbon improved with gold foil

    [8340-41] J. Torop, Univ. of Tartu (Estonia); T. Sugino, K. Asaka, National Institute of Advanced Industrial

    Science and Technology (Japan); A. Jänes, E. Lust, Univ. of Tartu (Estonia); M. Arulepp, Skeleton Technologies (Estonia); A. Aabloo, Univ. of Tartu (Estonia)

    8340 18 Bidirectional power electronics for driving dielectric elastomer transducers [8340-42] L. Eitzen, C. Graf, J. Maas, Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe Univ. of Applied Sciences

    (Germany) SENSORS 8340 19 Carbon-polymer-ionic liquid composite as a motion sensor [8340-43] I. Must, F. Kaasik, I. Põldsalu, U. Johanson, A. Punning, A. Aabloo, Univ. of Tartu (Estonia) 8340 1A Microfabrication of IPMC cilia for bio-inspired flow sensing [8340-44] H. Lei, W. Li, X. Tan, Michigan State Univ. (United States) CHARACTERIZATION 8340 1C Large amplitude oscillatory measurements as mechanical characterization methods for

    soft elastomers [8340-46] A. L. Skov, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark) APPLICATIONS I 8340 1G Acoustic transducer based on dielectric elastomers [8340-50] C. Graf, J. Maas, Ostwestfalen-Lippe Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany) 8340 1I Design and optimization of small-sized actuators for driving optical lens with different

    shapes based on IPMCs [8340-52] Y. Wang, H. Chen, B. Luo, Z. Zhu, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China) ACTIVE POLYMERS: LIQUID CRYSTALS, ETC. 8340 1J Enhanced IPMC actuation by thermal cycling [8340-91] J. Rossiter, Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom); K. Takashima, Kyushu Institute of Technology

    (Japan); T. Mukai, RIKEN (Japan) 8340 1L Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles [8340-54] M. A. Meller, R. Tiwari, K. B. Wajcs, C. Moses, I. Reveles, E. Garcia, Cornell Univ. (United States)

    vi

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  • 8340 1M Synthesis and characterization of multiwalled carbon nanotube/IPMC actuator for imitating locomotion of gecko's toes [8340-55]

    Q. He, M. Yu, Y. Ding, Z. Dai, Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China) APPLICATIONS II 8340 1O Considerations for contractile electroactive materials and actuators [8340-57] L. Rasmussen, Ras Labs., LLC (United States); L. D. Meixler, C. A. Gentile, Princeton Plasma

    Physics Lab. (United States) 8340 1P Multi-layer beam with variable stiffness based on electroactive polymers [8340-58] M. Henke, J. Sorber, G. Gerlach, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany) 8340 1Q A bio-inspired bell kinematics design of a jellyfish robot using ionic polymer metal

    composites actuators [8340-59] J. Najem, D. J. Leo, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. (United States) 8340 1R Stretching cells with DEAs [8340-60] S. Akbari, S. Rosset, H. R. Shea, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland) 8340 1S How far and how hard: tactile feedback for robotic manipulators [8340-61] T. A. Gisby, B. M. O'Brien, Auckland Bioengineering Institute (New Zealand); I. A. Anderson,

    Auckland Bioengineering Institute (New Zealand) and The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand) ENERGY HARVESTING 8340 1V Dielectric elastomer energy harvesting undergoing polarization saturation [8340-64] L. Liu, X. Luo, Y. Liu, J. Leng, Harbin Institute of Technology (China) 8340 1W Energy conversion efficiency of dielectric elastomer energy harvesters under pure shear

    strain conditions [8340-65] P. Brochu, H. Stoyanov, X. Niu, Q. Pei, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States) 8340 1X Modeling guided design of dielectric elastomer generators and actuators [8340-66] T. Li, Zhejiang Univ. (China) and Harvard Univ. (United States); S. Qu, Zhejiang Univ. (China);

    C. Keplinger, Harvard Univ. (United States) and Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz (Austria); R. Kaltseis, R. Baumgartner, S. Bauer, Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz (Austria); Z. Suo, Harvard

    Univ. (United States); W. Yang, Zhejiang Univ. (China) 8340 1Y Self-priming dielectric elastomer generator design [8340-67] T. McKay, B. O'Brien, The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); E. Calius, Industrial Research Ltd.

    (New Zealand); I. Anderson, The Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand) POSTER SESSION 8340 20 Adaptive absorber based on dielectric elastomer stack actuator with variable stiffness

    [8340-69] R. Karsten, H. F. Schlaak, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

    vii

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  • 8340 21 Partial discharge analysis of prestretched and unstretched acrylic elastomers for Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEA) [8340-70]

    D. P. Muffoletto, K. M. Burke, J. L. Zirnheld, SUNY Univ. at Buffalo (United States) 8340 29 Flexible autonomous scavengers: the combination of dielectric polymers and electrets

    [8340-78] C. Jean-Mistral, LAMCoS (France); T. Vu Cong, A. Sylvestre, G2Elab (France) 8340 2B Effect of temperature on electromechanical instability of dielectric elastomers [8340-80] J. Sheng, H. Chen, B. Li, Y. Wang, J. Qiang, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China) 8340 2C Electric field induced deformation in soft dielectric elastomer electroactive polymer

    [8340-81] L. Liu, X. Luo, Y. Liu, J. Leng, Harbin Institute of Technology (China) 8340 2D Design and modeling of dielectric elastomer actuators [8340-82] W. Kaal, S. Herold, T. Melz, Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability

    (Germany) 8340 2E Novel DEA with organically modified silicone elastomer for permittivity enhancement

    [8340-83] H. Böse, D. Uhl, R. Rabindranath, Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung (Germany) 8340 2H Dual-axis hybrid tactile sensor [8340-87] S. Kim, B. Kim, J. C. Koo, H. R. Choi, H. Moon, Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of) 8340 2J Reduction of the stress-relaxation of IPMC actuators by a fluctuating input and with a

    cooperative control [8340-89] K. Takagi, Nagoya Univ. (Japan) and RIKEN (Japan); S. Hirayama, S. Sano, N. Uchiyama,

    Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan); K. Asaka, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    8340 2K A structure model for Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) [8340-90] L. Chang, H. Chen, Z. Zhu, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China) 8340 2L Characterization of longitudinal tensile force of millimeter thick IPMCs [8340-92] V. Palmre, D. Pugal, K. Kim, Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States) 8340 2M Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the bucky-gel actuators and their

    electromechanical modeling [8340-93] K. Asaka, K. Kiyohara, T. Sugino, K. Mukai, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science

    and Technology (Japan); H. Randriamahazaka, Univ. Paris Diderot (France) 8340 2O Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs) as dexterous manipulators and tactile sensors for

    minimally invasive robotic surgery [8340-96] Y. Bahramzadeh, M. Shahinpoor, Univ. of Maine (United States)

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  • 8340 2P Zipping it up: DEAs independent of the elastomer's electric breakdown field [8340-97] P. Gebbers, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland) and ZHAW-ZAMP

    (Switzerland); C. Grätzel, Optotune AG (Switzerland); L. Maffli, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); C. Stamm, ZHAW-ZAMP (Switzerland);

    H. Shea, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland) 8340 2Q Pump it up [8340-99] L. Maffli, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); B. O'Brien, Univ. of

    Auckland (New Zealand); S. Rosset, H. Shea, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    8340 2W Effect of Janus particles as filler materials for acrylate-based dielectric elastomers

    [8340-105] H. Chen, The City College of New York (United States); A. J. Maliakal, LGS Innovations Inc.

    (United States); I. Kretzschmar, The City College of New York (United States) Author Index

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  • Conference Committee

    Symposium Chairs

    Norbert G. Meyendorf, Fraunhofer-Institut für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren (Germany) and University of Dayton (United States)

    Norman M. Wereley, University of Maryland, College Park (United States)

    Symposium Cochairs

    Victor Giurgiutiu, University of South Carolina (United States) Christopher S. Lynch, University of California, Los Angeles (United

    States)

    Conference Chair

    Yoseph Bar-Cohen, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (United States)

    Conference Cochair

    Keiichi Kaneto, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Japan)

    Program Committee

    Barbar J. Akle, Lebanese American University (Lebanon) Tunku Ishak Al-Irsyad, University Teknologi MARA (Malaysia) Siegfried G. Bauer, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz (Austria) Ray Henry Baughman, The University of Texas at Dallas (United States) Václav Bouda, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic) Emilio P. Calius, Industrial Research Ltd. (New Zealand) Suresh Chandra, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University

    (India) Hyouk Ryeol Choi, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of) Gal deBotton, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel) Toribio Fernández Otero, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena

    (Spain) Yahya A. Ismail, University of Nizwa (Oman) Edwin W. H. Jager, Linköping University (Sweden) Keiichi Kaneto, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Japan) Jaehwan Kim, Inha University (Korea, Republic of) Kwang J. Kim, University of Nevada, Reno (United States) Roy D. Kornbluh, SRI International (United States) Gabor M. Kovacs, EMPA (Switzerland) Maarja Kruusmaa, University of Tartu (Estonia)

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  • Jinsong Leng, Harbin Institute of Technology (China) Wen-Liang Liu, Industrial Technology Research Institute (Taiwan) John David W. Madden, The University of British Columbia (Canada) Siavouche Nemat-Nasser, University of California, San Diego (United

    States) Qibing Pei, University of California, Los Angeles (United States) Mehdi Razzaghi-Kashani, Tarbiat Modares University (Iran, Islamic

    Republic of) Jonathan M. Rossiter, University of Bristol (United Kingdom) Anuvat Sirivat, Chulalongkorn University (Thailand) Elisabeth Smela, University of Maryland, College Park (United States) Peter Sommer-Larsen, Risø National Laboratory (Denmark) Ji Su, NASA Langley Research Center (United States) Minoru Taya, University of Washington (United States) Frédéric Vidal, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise (France) Gordon G. Wallace, University of Wollongong (Australia) Thomas Wallmersperger, Technische Universität Dresden (Germany) Qiming M. Zhang, The Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    Session Chairs

    EAP as Emerging Actuators I Yoseph Bar-Cohen, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (United States) Keiichi Kaneto, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Japan)

    EAP as Emerging Actuators II Jeff Corsiglia, Spin Master, Ltd. (Canada) John A. Rogers, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    Special Session: EAP Actuated Medical and Tactile Devices John David W. Madden, The University of British Columbia (Canada) Kwang Kim, Universityrsity of Nevada, Reno (United States)

    Ionic EAP I: Conducting, IMC, and Gels Keiichi Kaneto, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Japan) Alvo Aabloo, University of Tartu (Estonia)

    Ionic EAP II: Conducting, IMC, and Gels Bert Müller, University Basel (Switzerland) Cedric Plesse, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise (France)

    Nanotubes and Nanotechnology Hyouk Ryeol Choi, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of) William S. Oates, The Florida State University (United States)

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  • Dielectric Elastomers Qibing Pei, University of California, Los Angeles (United States) William S. Oates, The Florida State University (United States)

    Electronics and Electrodes Gabor M. Kovacs, EMPA (Switzerland) Takushi Sugino, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    Sensors Ja Choon Koo, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of) Jinsong Leng, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)

    Characterization Lenore Rasmussen, Ras Laboratories, LLC (United States)

    Applications I Hyouk Ryeol Choi, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of) Edwin W. H. Jager, Linköping University (Sweden)

    Active Polymers: Liquid Crystals, Etc. Jadranka Travas-Sejdic, The University of Auckland (New Zealand)

    Applications II Todd A. Gisby, The University of Auckland (New Zealand) Reza Montazami, Iowa State University (United States)

    Energy Harvesting Christoph Keplinger, Harvard University (United States) Thomas G. McKay, The University of Auckland (New Zealand)

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  • Introduction This SPIE’s Electroactive Polymers Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) Conference is the leading international forum for presenting the latest progress and holding discussions among the attendees regarding the capabilities, challenges and potential future directions. The conference this year was co-chaired with Keiichi Kaneto, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan, and included 107 presentations.

    The Conference was well attended by internationally leading experts in the field including members of academia, industry, and government agencies from the USA and overseas. This year there were two Keynote speakers, Jeff Corsiglia, Spin Master Ltd., Canada, and John A. Rogers, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States. The title of Corsiglia’s presentation was “Bringing toys to life: toys today and unique opportunities for EAP sensors and actuator,” and the title of Rogers’s presentation Bio-integrated electronics. In Corsiglia presentation, he gave a review of how toys imitate life, the type of “smart” toys that his company is making and the areas that could benefit from advances in EAP. In Rogers presentation, he reviewed the development in flexible electronics and unique capabilities for mapping cardiac electrophysiology, in both endocardial and epicardial modes, and for performing electrocorticography.

    Significant progress was reported in each of the topics of the EAP infrastructure with focus on such areas as energy harvesting, biomimetics, haptics, braille displays, and miniaturization. The papers addressed issues that can forge the transition to practical use, including improved materials, better understanding of the principles responsible for the electromechanical behavior, analytical modeling, processing and characterization methods, as well as considerations and demonstrations of various applications. The Special Session this year was dedicated to the topic of EAP Actuated Medical and Tactile Devices. Other topics that were covered in this conference include: • Electroactive polymers (EAP) and non-electro active-polymer (NEAP)

    materials • Theoretical models, analysis and simulation of EAP • Methods of testing and characterization of EAP • EAP as artificial muscles, actuators and sensors • Design, control, intelligence, and kinematic issues related to robotic and

    biomimetic operation of EAP • Under consideration and in progress applications of EAP

    The efforts described in the presented papers are showing significant improvements in understanding of the electromechanical principles and better methods of dealing with the challenges to the materials applications. Researchers are continuing to develop analytical tools and theoretical models to

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  • describe the electro-chemical and -mechanical processes, non-linear behavior as well as methodologies of design and control of the activated materials. EAP with improved response were described including dielectric elastomer, IPMC, conductive polymers, gel EAP, carbon nanotubes, and other types. Specifically, there seems to be a significant trend towards using dielectric elastomers as practical EAP actuators.

    This year, the EAP-in-Action Session was held on Monday, March 12, 2012 and it included nine demonstrations covering products like the high definition feel in mobile and gaming applications, by Artificial Muscle, Inc., Bayer MaterialScience Co. (United States); prototypes by Biomimetics Lab., Auckland Bioengineering Institute (New Zealand); EPFL-LMTS (Switzerland); Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States); Univ. of Michigan (United States), and Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States); Strategic Polymer Sciences, Inc. (USA); and EPFL/ZHAW, Optotune Inc. (Switzerland). A prototype in components form that received a significant attention is the large energy harvesting system that was presented by SBM Offshore (France). The demo presenters included Geoffrey M. Spunks, Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Iain Anderson, Emilio Calius, Todd Gisby, Andrew Lo, Thomas McKay, Ben O'Brien, Biomimetics Lab., Auckland Bioengineering Institute (New Zealand); S. Rosset, L. Maffli, S. Akbari, B. O'Brien, Herbert R. Shea, EPFL-LMTS (Switzerland); James Biggs, Artificial Muscle, Inc., Bayer MaterialScience Co. (United States); Xiaofan Niu, Paul Brochu, Sungryul Yun, Zhibin Yu, Qibing Pei, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States); Eugene Dariush Daneshvar, Univ. of Michigan (United States); Elisabeth Smela, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States); Daryl Kipke, Univ. of Michigan (United States); Shihai Zhang, Qiming Zhang, and Ralph Russo, Strategic Polymer Sciences, Inc. (USA); Pit Gebbers, EPFL/ZHAW, Optotune Inc. (Switzerland); and Philippe Jean, Guillaume Ardoise, Ambroise Wattez, SBM Offshore (France). In closing, we would like to extend a special thanks to all the conference attendees, session chairs, the EAP-in-Action demo presenters, and the members of the EAPAD program organization committee. In addition, special thanks are extended to the SPIE staff that helped in making this conference a great success.

    Yoseph Bar-Cohen

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  • EAP-in-Action Demonstrations PolyCarbon nanotube torsional muscles John D. W. Madden, Univ. of British Columbia (Canada), Geoffrey M. Spunks��������������������

    ����������

    The demo will consist of a rapid rotation of a plastic paddle in air driven by carbon nanotube yarn. The torsional muscle operates with part of the yarn immersed in a liquid electrolyte that is electrochemically charged by application of a small voltage. The charging of the yarn causes the yarn to partially untwist and produce rotation of the attached paddle. Discharging the yarn causes it to re-twist. The demonstration will illustrate the very rapid and large rotations achievable in these simple actuator systems. Steerable Catheter U. N. Rana, K. Lee, T. Shoa, S. Nafici, G. M. Spinks, V. X. D. Yang, J. D. W. Madden, ���������������������������������

    A catheter is coated with polypyrrole, and patterned to enable tip deflection. This is intended to enable navigation and imaging within the neuro-vascular system.

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  • Dielectric elastomer (DE) technology for self-sensing, portable energy harvesting, and product development Iain Anderson, Emilio Calius, Todd Gisby, Andrew Lo, Thomas McKay, Ben O'Brien, ���������������������������������������������������� �!�"��������

    This showcase will include the following demonstrations:

    1) Cyber-proprioception and cyber-pain

    Like natural muscles, DE-based artificial muscles can now provide in real time both positional feedback (cyber-proprioception) and condition-monitoring information (cyber-pain). These capabilities, essential for the control and performance of soft machines, will be demonstrated using the lab's Self-Sensing Unit coupled to a DE actuator. 2) A hand-held dielectric elastomer generator

    DE can be used to extract useful low voltage power from human movement. This will be demonstrated using a device that can be held in one hand 3) The four-channel Artificial Muscle Control Unit

    This stand-alone portable laboratory instrument simplifies the generation and control of high voltages for artificial muscle research. Features include 4 independent output channels, computer control, battery operation, and safety features that make it suitable for bench-top use.

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  • Miniaturized EAPs based on ion-implanted compliant electrodes: mm-size pumps, motors, and robots

    S. Rosset, L. Maffli, S. Akbari, B. O'Brien, Herbert R. Shea, EPFL-LMTS #!��$������� Several miniaturized dielectric elastomer devices will be demonstrated. By using metal ion-implantation compliant electrodes can be made with features as small as 50 µm. The developed devices will include micropumps, rolling robots, rotary motors, and cell-stretchers.

    Array of 72 devices on a 2×2 cm2 chips

    Inside the ion implanter

    Zipping peristaltic pump

    2-axis tilting mirror

    "Feel the game" with ViviTouchTM technology Marcus Rosenthal, Andy Cheng,�����������%���������������&���%�������#������������������#������ This demo will include the latest ViviTouch haptic actuators integrated into consumer products for "high definition feel" in mobile and gaming applications.

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  • Improved bistable electroactive polymers (BSEP) and refreshable Braille display devices Xiaofan Niu, Paul Brochu, Sungryul Yun, Zhibin Yu, Qibing Pei, ��������������������������������������#������ This demo is a bistable EAP actuators with significantly improved actuation performance, and refreshable Braille display device consisting of 1 to 4×10 cells.

    Braille screen fabricated on a plastic sheet. Articulating neural interfaces Eugene Dariush Daneshvar, ��������%���������������#������' Elisabeth Smela, ��������%��&��������������(�����������#������'�)��&��*�+������������%���������������#������ Articulating neural interfaces will be demonstrated that can guide the trajectory as well as the proximity of electrode sites to neural tissues.

    Haptics based on EAP actuators Shihai Zhang, Qiming Zhang, and Ralph Russo, Strategic Polymer Sciences, Inc. (USA) A high definition localized smartphone haptics device will be demonstrated using EAP actuators. The actuator provides sharp and concentrated multi-touch HD haptic feedback. It is driven by voltage below 200 V allowing its activation by low cost miniature power supply.

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  • A laser speckle reducer Pit Gebbers��,(-�."/���0+������������#!��$������� A laser speckle reducer that is actuated by DEAs will be demonstrated. The actuators cause a diffuser to perform in-plane, resonant movements. When a laser beam is directed through the moving diffuser, its speckle noise is significantly reduced by averaging the local interferences. The demonstrated device is significantly smaller and less expensive to produce than the commercial ones.

    Standing wave tube electro active polymer wave energy converted Philippe Jean, Guillaume Ardoise, Ambroise Wattez, #�%�0������-������ SBM Offshore will present the development of a fully flexible EAP based Wave Energy Converter. The demo will include videos of the wave tank model tests where large EAP ring generators are used on a flexible tube underwater to directly convert wave energy into high voltage DC electrical power. Large EAP ring generators of 800mm diameter with multiple layers will be displayed.

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