# Preview Statics Circuits Electricity and Magnetism Chapter 16 Section 1 Electric Charge

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• PreviewStaticsCircuitsElectricity and MagnetismChapter 16Section 1 Electric Charge

• Section 1 Electric ChargeChapter 16ObjectivesUnderstand the basic properties of electric charge.

Differentiate between conductors and insulators.

Distinguish between charging by contact, charging by induction, and charging by polarization.

• Chapter 16Section 1 Electric ChargeProperties of Electric ChargeThere are two kinds of electric charge.like charges repelunlike charges attract

Electric charge is conserved.Positively charged particles are called protons.Uncharged particles are called neutrons.Negatively charged particles are called electrons.

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Chapter 16Section 1 Electric ChargeElectric Charge

• Chapter 16Section 1 Electric ChargeProperties of Electric Charge, continuedElectric charge is quantized. That is, when an object is charged, its charge is always a multiple of a fundamental unit of charge.

Charge is measured in coulombs (C).

The fundamental unit of charge, e, is the magnitude of the charge of a single electron or proton.e = 1.602 176 x 1019 C

• Chapter 16The Milikan ExperimentSection 1 Electric Charge

• Chapter 16Section 1 Electric ChargeTransfer of Electric Charge, continuedInsulators and conductors can be charged by contact.

Conductors can be charged by induction.

Induction is a process of charging a conductor by bringing it near another charged object and grounding the conductor.

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Chapter 16Charging by Induction

• Chapter 16Section 1 Electric ChargeTransfer of Electric Charge, continuedA surface charge can be induced on insulators by polarization.

With polarization, the charges within individual molecules are realigned such that the molecule has a slight charge separation.

• Section 2 Electric ForceChapter 16ObjectivesCalculate electric force using Coulombs law.

Compare electric force with gravitational force.

Apply the superposition principle to find the resultant force on a charge and to find the position at which the net force on a charge is zero.

• Chapter 16Coulombs LawTwo charges near one another exert a force on one another called the electric force.

Coulombs law states that the electric force is propor-tional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.Section 2 Electric Force

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Chapter 16Section 2 Electric ForceSuperposition Principle

• Coulombs Law, continuedThe Coulomb force is a field force.

A field force is a force that is exerted by one object on another even though there is no physical contact between the two objects.Chapter 16Section 2 Electric Force

• Chapter 16Section 3 The Electric FieldElectric Field StrengthAn electric field is a region where an electric force on a test charge can be detected.

The SI units of the electric field, E, are newtons per coulomb (N/C).

The direction of the electric field vector, E, is in the direction of the electric force that would be exerted on a small positive test charge.

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Chapter 16Section 3 The Electric FieldElectric Fields and Test Charges

• Chapter 16Section 3 The Electric FieldElectric Field Strength, continuedElectric field strength depends on charge and distance. An electric field exists in the region around a charged object.

Electric Field Strength Due to a Point Charge

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Chapter 16Section 3 The Electric FieldCalculating Net Electric Field

• Chapter 16Section 3 The Electric FieldElectric Field LinesThe number of electric field lines is proportional to the electric field strength.

Electric field lines are tangent to the electric field vector at any point.

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Chapter 16Section 3 The Electric FieldRules for Drawing Electric Field Lines

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Chapter 16Section 3 The Electric FieldRules for Sketching Fields Created by Several Charges

• Section 1 Electric PotentialChapter 17Electrical Potential EnergyElectrical potential energy is potential energy associated with a charge due to its position in an electric field.

Electrical potential energy is a component of mechanical energy.

ME = KE + PEgrav + PEelastic + PEelectric

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Chapter 17Section 1 Electric PotentialElectrical Potential Energy

• Section 1 Electric PotentialChapter 17Potential DifferenceElectric Potential equals the work that must be performed against electric forces to move a charge from a reference point to the point in question, divided by the charge.

The electric potential associated with a charge is the electric energy divided by the charge:

• Section 1 Electric PotentialChapter 17Potential Difference, continuedPotential Difference equals the work that must be performed against electric forces to move a charge between the two points in question, divided by the charge.

Potential difference is a change in electric potential.

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Chapter 17Section 1 Electric PotentialPotential Difference

• Section 1 Electric PotentialChapter 17Potential Difference, continuedThe potential difference in a uniform field varies with the displacement from a reference point.

Potential Difference in a Uniform Electric FieldV = Edpotential difference = (magnitude of the electric field displacement)

• Section 2 CapacitanceChapter 17Capacitors and Charge StorageA capacitor is a device that is used to store electrical potential energy.

Capacitance is the ability of a conductor to store energy in the form of electrically separated charges.

The SI units for capacitance is the farad, F, which equals a coulomb per volt (C/V)

• Section 2 CapacitanceChapter 17Capacitors and Charge Storage, continuedCapacitance is the ratio of charge to potential difference.

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Chapter 17Section 2 CapacitanceCapacitance

• Section 2 CapacitanceChapter 17Capacitors and Charge Storage, continuedCapacitance depends on the size and shape of a capacitor.

Capacitance for a Parallel-Plate Capacitor in a Vacuum

• Chapter 17Capacitors in KeyboardsSection 2 Capacitance

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Chapter 17Section 2 CapacitanceParallel-Plate Capacitor