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Predicting phonotactic difficulty in second language acquisition. Katarzyna Dziubalska-Kołaczyk Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań [email protected] Predicting phonotactic difficulty in second language acquisition. Katarzyna Dziubalska-Kołaczyk Grzegorz Krynicki - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Predicting phonotactic difficulty in second language acquisition

  • Predicting phonotactic difficulty in second language acquisition

    Katarzyna Dziubalska-Koaczyk Adam Mickiewicz University, Pozna [email protected]

  • Predicting phonotactic difficulty in second language acquisition

    Katarzyna Dziubalska-KoaczykGrzegorz Krynicki Adam Mickiewicz University, Pozna [email protected]@ifa.amu.edu.pl

  • *Aim of the paperto demonstrate thatuniversal phonotactic preferences guide the acquisition of consonant clusters in a second language

  • *Empirical evidenceyoung learners of English (L2 English) with the following L1s:independent: Japanese, Korean, VietnameseSino-Tibetan: ChineseAustronesian: Kosraean, Marshallese, Palauan, Ponapean, Samoan, Tagalog, Trukese, VisayanDravidian: TamilPolish

  • *Outline of the talkHypothesisDescription of the experimentIntroduction to B&B phonotacticsPhonotactic calculatorAnalysis of the selected dataPreliminary conclusions

  • *Hypothesisa degree of difficulty in pronouncing L2 clusters would correlate with the universal characteristics of a given consonantal clusterthe more preferred a cluster, the easier and less susceptible to modifications it is expected to beNAD is expected to be a universal criterion, underlying the performance of all subjects, and surpassing other relevant factors, such as the structure of the subjects mother tongue, their experience with English or their other capacities and motivationsdegree of preference is measured by the NAD Principle

  • *Description of the experiment53 subjects; 15 subjects analysed hereaged 11-13native speakers of 15 various languages; 10 here recorded reading 83 times an English carrier sentence I havent seen a xxx before! each time containing a different bi-syllabic nonce wordeach word contained just one double or triple consonant clusterall positions (initial, medial and final) and representative combinations were covered

  • *Text for subjectsRead the following sentences aloud:

    I havent seen a kyati before!I havent seen a shwepy before!I havent seen a chluppy before!I havent seen a katewt before!I havent seen a petewm before!

  • *a sound file demo

    a Ponapean speaker (Micronesia)

  • *B&B phonotacticsa universal model of phonotactics within Beats & Binding Phonology (Dziubalska-Koaczyk 2002) a syllable-less theory of phonology embedded in Natural Phonologyintersegmental cohesion determines syllable structure, rather than being determined by it (if one insists on the notion of the syllable)

  • **B&B phonotacticsthe phonotactic preferences specify the universally required distances between segments within clusters which guarantee, if respected, preservation of clusters (cf. intersegmental cohesion)

    clusters, in order to survive, must be sustained by some force counteracting the overwhelming tendency to reduce towards CV's (CV preference)

    this force is a perceptual contrast defined as NAD Principle (cf. Dziubalska-Koaczyk 2002, 2003, Dressler & Dziubalska-Koaczyk 2007, in press, Dziubalska-Koaczyk & Krynicki 2007, Bertinetto et al. 2007)

  • **B&B phonotacticsthe universal preferences specify the optimal shape of a particular cluster in a given position by referring to the

    Net Auditory Distance Principle (NAD Principle)NAD = |MOA| + |POA| + |Lx|

    whereby MOA, POA and LX are the absolute values of differences in the Manner of Articulation, Place of Articulation and Voicing of the neighbouring sounds respectively

  • *B&B phonotacticsExample:NAD (C1,C2) NAD (C2,V)In word-initial double clusters, the net auditory distance (NAD) between the two consonants should be greater than or equal to the net auditory distance between a vowel and a consonant neighbouring on it.

  • **Table of consonants

  • **B&B phonotacticsconsider the preference for initial double clustersNAD (C1,C2) NAD (C2,V)let us now define two Net Auditory Distances between the sounds (C1, C2) and (C2, V) whereC1(MOA1, POA1, Lx1) C2 (MOA2, POA2, Lx2)V (MOA3, Lx3)in terms of the following metric for (C1, C2) cluster|MOA1 - MOA2| + |POA1 - POA2| + |Lx1 - Lx2|& |MOA2 MOA3| + |Lx2 Lx3|for (C2, V) cluster

  • **B&B phonotacticsExample:in CCV in E. tryt = (4, 2, 0), r = (1, 2, 1), V = (0, 0, 1)NAD (C1, C2) = |4-1| + |2-2| + |0-1| = 3+0+1=4NAD (C2, V) = |1-0| + |1-1| = 1+0=1thus, the preference NAD (C1,C2) NAD (C2,V)is observed because 4 > 1

    NAD Principle makes finer predictions than the ones based exclusively on sonority: prV > trV, krV > trV, trV > drV, etc.

  • *B&B phonotacticsthe universal NAD Principle leads to predictions about language-specific phonotactics, its acquisition and changespecifically, it also allows to predict and explain the order of difficulty in the acquisition of second language phonotactics which appears to be universally valid and as such calls for similar remedies across languages

  • *English frequent initial doubles according to NAD Principle

    Wykres1

    615

    615

    514

    514

    514

    514

    514

    413

    413

    25-3

    25-3

    15-4

    PO + MO + LX

    C2V

    rnica

    excel

    ZbitkiPO + MO + LXC2Vrnicast

    kr615br

    kl615kr

    br514gr

    gr514fl

    fl514kl

    tr514sl

    bl514tr

    sl413sk

    dr413sp

    sk25-3bl

    sp25-3dr

    st15-4

    excel

    PO + MO + LX

    C2V

    rnica

    PO + MO + LX

    C2V

  • **Selected Polish clusters according to NAD Principle

    Wykres8

    514

    413

    330

    330

    34-1

    34-1

    24-2

    24-2

    24-2

    MOA+POA+Lx

    C2V

    NAD

    Cluster types in Polish acc. to NAD

    speciments of used clusters B&B

    ZbitkiPO + MO + LXC2VMOPOLX

    pr514311

    kr514311

    tl413301

    kl514311

    pl514311

    fr413211

    xr413211

    s\l413211

    s\r413211

    sl312201

    s`l312201

    fl413211

    rd34-1300

    r?743331

    rv330210

    rt440301

    rz`23-1200

    lv330210

    lz`23-1200

    lm220110

    ms`330111

    mr211110

    mz`23-1110

    mw1.50.511.500

    mx431121

    ml211110

    mn12-1010

    mv13-2100

    mb24-2200

    mk541221

    mg440220

    mp34-1201

    nd24-2200

    nk440211

    nt34-1201

    ng34-1210

    nz13-2100

    nd24-2200

    s`k24-2110

    xv330021

    s`p24-2110

    z`v13-2010

    vz`13-2010

    zd14-3100

    zg24-2110

    vs`23-1011

    fk34-1120

    fs13-2010

    ft24-2110

    vd24-2110

    f?541140

    sk24-2110

    st14-3100

    sp24-2110

    wk6.542.53.521

    wg5.541.53.520

    wz3.530.52.510

    wb3.54-0.53.500

    wk6.542.53.521

    wz`3.530.52.510

    jd4.540.53.510

    jz3.530.52.510

    jk4.540.53.501

    jt5.541.53.511

    jb5.541.53.520

    jp6.542.53.521

    j?6.542.53.521

    jg3.54-0.53.500

    pr514

    fr413

    lv330

    m330

    rd34-1

    fk34-1

    mb24-2

    k24-2

    sk24-2

    pr514

    fr413

    lv330

    m330

    rd34-1

    mb24-2

    fk34-1

    k24-2

    sk24-2

    speciments of used clusters B&B

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    MOA+POA+Lx

    C2V

    NAD

    Cluster types in experiment acc. to ONAD

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    MOA+POA+Lx

    C2V

    NAD

    Cluster types in experiment acc. to subjects

  • *Phonotactic calculatorfor the purposes of B&B phonotactics, Krynicki developed the phonotactic calculatorits purpose is to enable fine-tuning and developing the theory by statistical analysis of phonetic dictionaries and phonetically annotated corpora from various languages

  • *Phonotactic Calculator - requirementsvarious cluster lengths at all word positionsformulating phonotactic hypothesesfeedback on predictability of a phonotactic hypothesischoice or customization of available phone sets, features of each phone and scores for each featureavailable phonetic dictionaries and languages (PolSynt, Festvox, Festival)metrics used for calculating distances between phones (taxicab, euclidean)accepted phonetic alphabets (IPA, SAMPA)

  • *

  • *

  • *

  • *Analysis of the selected dataa total of 1245 utterancesproduced by 15 childreneach reading 83 sentences containing a nonsense word with a 2- or 3-consonant clusterin 767 of these utterances (61,6%) the speakers modified or avoided the cluster that was assumed to be the correct pronunciation of the nonsense word

  • *Error types

    error descriptionnumber of errors in the corpussymbolvowel insertion between the elements of a consonant cluster or at the end of a cluster that was expected to be pronunced [email protected] the number of consonants in the cluster (from 3 to 2 or 1 and from 2 to 1)218$unintelligible pronunciation154?substitution of consonant in a cluster by consonants not present in the expected cluster 152#substantial mispronunciations119%pause insertion between the elements of a consonant cluster or at the end of a cluster that was expected to be pronunced word-finally24.deletion of the cluster4omission of the word2omittedtotal907

  • *

    Summary statistics for six preferencespreference numbernumber of cluster that apply to a given preferencenumber of clusters that follow the preferencepercentage11717100%21313100%3382771%45360%55360%65240%

  • *Part 1 of the hypothesisA degree of difficulty in pronouncing L2 clusters correlates with the universal characteristics of a given consonantal cluster.

    To a certain degree the amount of correlation

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