PINEAPPLE (ANANAS COMOSCUS) FRUIT EXTRACT AS AN ADDITIVE INGREDIENT IN MAKING LOTION
An Investigatory Project Presented to: Ms. Juliet G. Balos Saint Louis College High School
In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement in Research II
By: Escoto, Adrian N. Viloria, Maruel Cabaog. Charisma Pascua, Kay Mae L. Rivera, Arlene Lea P.
January 11, 2011
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Nowadays, people have developed a habit of looking presentable to others. Thus, bursting the production in the field of cosmetics arose. Products that are advertised come in their own unique way. But little did the people know that most of these commercially produced products have harmful chemicals that may danger not only to them but also to the environment. The enzymes in pineapple like bromelain, which breaks down protein, thus be used as a marinade and tenderizer for meat, are being utilize in this research makes our skin elastic, hydrated, and free from damaged cells as mentioned earlier. Thus, it helps us achieve a clear and glowing complexion. The enzymes in pineapples also fight freeradical damage and can reduce age spots and fine lines. The researcher tries to provide an introduction in enhancing cosmetic products by using fruit extracts that are cheaper and can provide the community a living with minimal cost and effort. Statement of the Problem This study will test the acceptability of using pineapple fruit extract as an additive ingredient in making lotion considering the fact that the extract made from pineapples has a variety of positive effects on the skin and promotes skin elasticity while removing dead damaged skin,
3 while improving hydration and moisture and promoting a more elastic and clear looking skin. 1. What is the level of acceptability of pineapple extract as an additive ingredient in making lotion in terms of: a. moisturizing effect; b. fragrance; and c. viscosity ? 2. Which of the formulations yield the best lotion in terms of: a. moisturizing effect; b. fragrance; and c. viscosity ? Hypotheses and Assumption 1. The level of acceptability of pineapple extract as an additive ingredient is making lotion in terms of: a. moisturizing effect is least acceptable; b. fragrance is not acceptable and c. viscosity is least acceptable. 2. There is no formulation that can yield the best lotion in terms of moisturizing effect, fragrance, and viscosity. Scope and Delimitation This study is limited only on determining the acceptability of pineapple fruit as an additive ingredient in making lotion. It does not
4 involve comparison between the commercial lotion and the lotion made up of pineapple. It considers different factors which led to the result of the study. The factors being included in the study relating to the acceptability of pineapple fruit extract are the moisturizing effect, fragrance and viscosity of the lotion to be made. This study will be conducted at Sitio Paratong, Poblacion, Bacnotan, La Union. Forty-five respondents are to be randomly selected by the researches. They are with different sexes, ages and occupation. The researchers also made sure that they have no relationship with the respondents. Significance of the Study Studying possibilities of producing cheaper yet very useful and beneficial lotion provide the researchers an opportunity to develop value of resourcefulness and become environmental friendly in a way. Pineapple is a terrestrial herb, very short and have stout stem. Thus, conducting and proving its acceptability will surely reduce the cost of lotions. This study provides basic process and experiences necessary for anyone desiring to extend possible measures of making a lotion that is more beneficial without the expense thus making the product useful by either utilizing it or selling it to satisfy aesthetic needs and create profit.
5 This study can provide the learners to become keener in seeing a new perspective in thing therefore developing values and desirable habit. This study can also provide a livelihood that is simple yet potentially profitable. Definition of Terms Pineapple- is the common name for an edible tropical plant and also its fruit Extract- a substance made by a part of a raw material; -a concentrated preparation of the essential constituents of a food, flavoring, or other substance -acquired through the process of distillation Lotion - any of various cosmetic preparations that are applied to the skin for cosmetic or medical reason; Emulsifying Wax- a cosmetic emulsifying ingredient used primarily in manufacturing creams, lotions, and other beauty products Beeswax- it is a natural wax produced in the bee hive of honey bees of the genus Apis and can be used as a substitute for emulsifying wax. It is mainly esters of fatty acids and various long chain alcohols. Moisturizing effect - the ability to make the skin moist Fragrance - aroma: a distinctive odor that is pleasant
6 Viscosity - a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress
Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents a brief literature and study on the effectiveness of Pineapple (Ananas Comoscus) fruit extract as an additive ingredient in making a moisturizing lotion. Lotion or emulsion is a skin care product that is used to soothe dry skin and is sometimes formulated with ingredients (mainly oil, water and emulsifying wax) that are intended to offer added benefits to the skin. A lotion might help to correct uneven tone in the skin or help to balance combination skin, which is skin that has some oily patches and some dry patches. Body lotion is a product that can be used from the neck down to the toes. There are, however, also emollients that are meant to be used specifically on the face. As such, face lotion is often more delicate than formulas for skin on the rest of the body. Face lotion also is sometimes formulated to address skin issues specific to the face or most commonly targeted on the facial skin. There are some lotions that are meant to help manage acne on the face. There are also many emollients for the face that are made with ingredients that help to reverse or fight the signs of aging such as fine lines, wrinkles, and various forms of sun damage. Lotions for the face often vary in thickness or viscosity, depending on whether they are meant to be worn during the day or at night. Day moisturizers and lotions are almost always lighter and less viscous than night lotions.
8 Lotions for the body might be used to address the kinds of skin issues that crop up on the legs, arms, back, belly, and so on. A lotion may include ingredients that are meant to help fade and heal stretch marks that may be the result of rapid growth, pregnancy, or weight fluctuation. Like face lotion, body lotion often includes sun block as a way to prevent sun damage to the skin. Many people who are serious about protecting their skin from sun damage wear body and face lotions with sun block on a daily basis. Lotion consists of primarily oil and water which are naturally incompatible. This physical incompatibility of water and oils can be overcome by agitating the water and oil mix. Agitation disperses the molecules, and generates an emulsion. However, emulsions made by simply agitating water and oil will is just temporary because water is denser than oil, it will sink to the bottom while the oil will float on top. However there is one way to stabilize emulsion and that is through the use of an emulsifying agent. EMULSIFYING AGENTS Emulsifying agents are substances that help water and oils bind together, and allow it to prepare stable emulsions where water and oils do not separate or substances that are soluble in both fat and water and enable fat to be uniformly dispersed in water as an emulsion.
9 There are several classifications of emulsifying agents: Natural emulsifying agents from vegetable sources which consist of agents which are carbohydrates and include gums and mucilaginous substances. Since these substances are of variable chemical composition, these exhibit considerable variation in emulsifying properties. They are anionic in nature and produce emulsions. They act as primary emulsifying agents as well as secondary emulsifying agents, natural emulsifying agents from animal source the examples include gelatin, egg yolk and wool fat (anhydrous lanolin), type A gelatin (Cationic) is generally used for preparing emulsion while type B gelatin is used for emulsions of pH 8 and above lecithin and cholesterol present in egg yolk also act as emulsifying agent, semi-synthetic polysaccharides Includes mainly cellulose derivatives like sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, hydroxyl propyl cellulose and methyl cellulose and synthetic emulsifying agents contains surface active agents which act by getting adsorbed at the oil water interface in such a way that the hydrophilic polar groups are oriented towards water and lipophillic non polar groups are oriented towards oil, thus forming a stable film. Each differs from its source, effect and usage. EMULSIFYING COMPOUNDS AND E-WAXES
10 Often referred to as "e-wax", emulsifying compounds are widely used, both in the cosmetic and in the food industry, to prepare stable emulsions that do not separate. Virtually all emulsifying compounds and e-waxes are blends of chemically prepared substances. The vast majority of commonly available emulsifying compounds include a significant portion of petrochemical materials (fossil hydrocarbons), and several are considered or feared to be possible sources of irritation and sensitisation reactions. PINEAPPLE Pineapples are usually grown by propagation. That is, they are grown by replanting a part of themselves. The four common parts are: the slips, which are located on the stem below the fruit, the suckers that start at the leaves, the crowns-the leafy growth on top of the pineapple, and the ratoons that are located on the roots. Pineapples are thought to have gotten their start in the Caribbean Islands from Spanish shipwrecks. The fruit is thought to have washed ashore from ships that met the terrible fate of destructive storms, or other such perils of the sea. The Spanish explorers knew that eating pineapple helped to prevent scurvy, a disease caused by a deficiency of Vitamin C, so they carried pineapples whenever it was possible. The plant grows about 3 feet (90 cm) tall and bears 30 to 40 stiff, sword-shaped leaves clustered very tightly around a thick, fleshy stem.
11 The leaves are often jagged at the edges. Flowers, generally lavender, located in the axis of red or green bracts, from on a flower stem several inches long. As the flowers mature, they become fleshy and the ovaries fuse to form the multiple, small, hexagonal fruits that together constitute the pineapple. (Freeman S. Howlett, Ohio State University, Americana) Pineapple fruit has some active principles with important effect on skin - sugars and a-hydroxy-acids (AHA) as well as enzymes. These active principles are responsible for its moisturizing and anti-ageing action, and also have a antifungal and purifying effect on the skin. In studies it was also shown that bromelain, contained in pineapples, also has a strong anti-inflammatory action and has a positive effect, interfering with the growth of malignant cells and tumors. The ahydroxy-acids (AHA) are a group of organic acids that work on the corneal layer and reduce the cohesion of the corneocytes. The result of the application of AHAs is a thinner corneal layer, which improves its elasticity and flexibility regardless of the degree of skin hydration. Bromelain is a natural anticoagulant that works by breaking down the blood-clotting protein fibrin. This may help to explain why results of at least two clinical trials suggest that the enzyme can help to improve the symptoms of angina and thrombophlebitis. As well as thinning the blood, bromelain also thins mucus, and thus may be of benefit to asthmatics and people suffering from chronic bronchitis. There is also
12 evidence that bromelain can trigger beneficial changes in white blood cells, and thus may improve immune function. However, whether or not the enzyme would be beneficial to immunocompromised people has not been established clinically. Bromelain has potent anti-inflammatory properties and therefore may be useful in promoting the healing of minor muscle injuries such as sprains and strains. Results of one study also found evidence to suggest that it can help to improve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. When applied topically it may help to speed wound healing. There has also been some suggestion that bromelain has anticancer properties, although this has not been proven. Several recent studies have linked chronic inflammation to cancer, thus any anti-cancer action of bromelain could be due to it anti-inflammatory properties. The enzyme may also enhance the effect of the antibiotics amoxicillin, erythromycin, penicillamine, and penicillin. In a study of people with urinary tract infections, 100% of participants given antibiotics in combination with bromelain and another enzyme called trypsin were cured of their infection, compared with just 46% who received antibiotics alone. Bromelain aids digestion by enhancing the effects of the digestive enzymes trypsin and pepin. It can also help to prevent heartburn by ease diarrhea, if either is caused by a deficiency of digestive enzymes. Bromelain supplements often contain a plant pigment called quercetin.
13 The two substances are found in combination simply because they enhance each others antiinflammatory actions, and that bromelain appears to improve quercetin absorption.
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter gives the general outline of the procedure used in the study. It includes the research design, instrumentation, materials and procedures of the study. Research Design This study made use of the descriptive and experimental research using different treatments. Under this study, we will be using the Single group with only a post-test design. This involves a group that is subjected to an experimental factor for a period of time. Then, after the experimental period, that group will be then compared to another group with similar characteristics and studying the same subject matter under customary instructional methods but unexposed to the experimental factor. Any excess between the two achievements is considered due to the experimental factor. This design is best suited for this study or experiment because it determines the effectiveness of each individual method. Selection Phase There are no experiments to be done without the materials used. These materials must be abundant and easy to find. Water, olive oil, emulsifying wax or beeswax and pineapple extract was the ingredients used in this study. These ingredients, except emulsifying wax or beeswax can be found at the market of City of San Fernando...