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PHYSICAL/BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. ~ UNIT 4 ~. What is Physical/Biological Anthropology?. Study of the _______________aspects of humans and _____________ humans . Non-cultural – all ____________ characteristics that are genetically ________ - PowerPoint PPT Presentation




ANTHROPOLOGY~ UNIT 4 ~ What is Physical/Biological Anthropology?Study of the _______________aspects of humans and _____________ humans.

Non-cultural all ____________ characteristics that are genetically ________

Near-human - includes __________, apes, other ___________, & our ____________ancestorsThe Three Categories?1. Human Biology human__________, genetic inheritance patterns, non-cultural _______________ to environment, and other biological characteristics of our species, _________

2. Primatology - ______________ primate studies. Usually done in a _____________ setting among ________ apes, monkeys, and related animals. Interested in learning about the ____________ and behavior _______ of primates--our ____________ living relatives.

3. Paleoanthropology - Recover the _______ record of _________ humans and their _________ ancestors in order to understand the path of our _______________. Often work with geologists, ________________, and scientists with other specialties who help them reconstruct _______________ environments.

searching for fossils andartifacts of our distant humanancestors in a French cave

CHAPTER 11HUMAN BIOLOGYPre-Darwin Theories Creationism - special and _____________ creation by _________ of every species and that ________________do not ______________through ___________from generation to generation.

The "Great Chain of Being"- _______ created an ____________ and _____________ series of life forms, each one grading into the next, from simplest to most ___________, and that all ___________, including humans, were created in their _________ form and that they have remained ______________ since then.

3. Catastrophism there was a ___________ & sudden _________ catastrophes (great floods and rapid formation of mountains). ___________ & animals living in those parts of the world were often ______________. Then _____________ forms moved in from other areas. Result - ___________ show a ___________changes in ____________.

4. Uniformitarianism - ___________ forces changing the ___________of the earth's _________ have been operating in the past much the same way. The _____________ is the key to understanding the __________. Had a great affect on _______ ________________in the 1830s. Charles DarwinHe didnt invent the idea of ________________, but carried out the ______________ to prove that it has occurred

In the ___________________ he made the observations that eventually led him to ________ what causes _________ and animals to ___________

The _________________________ by Means of Natural Selection,orThe ________________________________________ in the Struggle for Life

1st edition published in ____________

Galpagos Islands__________ voyage on H.M.S. __________

______________ are slightly ___________ from one _____________ to another

have _______________ found in ______________ part of the world. Similar ones exist on the ______________ coast of _______________________________

Natural Selection Nature selected the best ______________ to survive and to ___________________

He believed the ________________ already existed and that _____________ just selected for the most suitable __________ shape and against __________ useful ones

Darwin described this process as the ______________________________"Evolution Evidence has come from four sources:

1. The ___________ record of change in earlier species

2. The _________________ and _______________ similarities of related life forms

3. The _______________ distribution of related species

4. The recorded ____________________ in living organisms over many generations

Fossils_____________ of animals and plants found in _________ rockdeposits

Provides evidence that the ______________animals and plants of today were ____________ by earlier _____________ ones.

Fossil Hominids: Lucy1974 Discovered in __________________ million years oldAdult _________ about __________years oldHer arms are __________ than humans today, but __________ than a _______________She is between the two species on the _________________

'Ardi,' Oldest Human Ancestor?_______ million years oldFound in _______________________ It's not a _________ It's not a ____________Could ___________& ____________________last ________________of chimpanzees and humans.

_________________________fossil - earliest bird in fossil record. Thought to be ___________ million years old. Found 1891 in _______________________. More than 10 have been found. Has many features of a dinosaurs & birds such as scales on head, feathers, wings, a tail, etc.

Chemical and Anatomical SimilaritiesAll plants and animals receive specific characteristics from their ______________ by inheriting particular combinations of ___________________.

______________ is the same for all _____________

Species share the same types of ___________ because they ______________ them from a common _________________ that had them.

All living things either share a ________________ or they came into existence as a result of ____________ ______________________Geographic Distribution isolated ______________ and _________ groups often ____________ their own distinct plant and animal ____________________

______________ in these areas have been evolving in _____________ from the rest of the world for _________________ of years.Genetic Changes _____________________ - new ________________ of plants and animals (ex. ________________)

individuals lacking the _______________ characteristics are ______________ to _____________. Therefore, the following generations have the _____________ traits.Classification of Living ThingsToday we use the system invented by the ______ naturalist ______________________

published in his ___________________, in _____

defined ____________ and introduced the system where each species receives a _______ and species _____________

grouped the organisms according to __________

Extinction __________________ of species

occurs at the _____________ of the last ________________ of that species.

The ____________________ extinction event was the Earths most severe extinction event, rendering extinct ____________ of all ________ species and _________ of _______________________________species.Thylacine yawning

Quagga at London's Regent's Park Zoo, 1870 - last specimen in captivity died in 1883 at Artis Magistra Zoo in Amsterdam.

Thylacinus in Washington D.C. National Zoo, c. 1906 - It was 1936 when the last Thylacine took its final breath in Hobart Zoo, Tasmania

Tasmanian Tiger (Thylacine) photographed in a cage with a chicken 1936 - this marsupial carnivore