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EWE O.P.L. WORKBOOK (Oral Proficiency Learning) Hosted for free on livelingua.com

Peace Corps EWE O.P.L. WORKBOOK (Oral Proficiency Learning

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  • EWE O.P.L. WORKBOOK(Oral Proficiency Learning)

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  • i


    Peace Corps Togo is very pleased to present the first ever Ewe local language manual

    to Peace Corps Togo Trainees and Volunteers. This manual has become a reality due

    to the meticulous work of many people.

    The training team expresses its deepest gratitude to the Peace Togo Country Director

    George Monagan, for having taken the initiative to have materials developed in local

    languages. His support is tremendous.

    The team is grateful to Peace Corps Togo Admin Officer, Priscilla Ashamu Sampil

    and all the Administrative Staff for their logistical support and for having made funds

    available for this material development.

    A genuine appreciation to the language Testing Specialist Mildred Rivera-Martinez,

    the Training Specialist Rasa Edwards, to Stacy Cummings Technical Training

    Specialist, and all the Training Staff from the Center for their advice and assistance.

    A sincere gratitude to Peace Corps Togo Training Manager Blandine Samani-Zozo

    for her guidance and lively participation in the manual development.

    A word of recognition to all Peace Corps Volunteers who worked assiduously with

    the training team by offering their input.

    Congratulations to Trainers Sarah A. GOE, Kossi Nyonyo, Essi Gbededzi and the

    Training Secretary Jean B. Kpadenou who have worked diligently and

    conscientiously to develop this manual.

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  • ii

    To the learner

    Congratulations to all of you Peace Corps Trainees and Volunteers for your

    acceptance to learn a new language. Of course learning a new language is not easy,

    but with dedication you will make it and achieve your goals.

    This manual is competency based and contains useful expressions related to all

    training components such as technique, health, safety and security. This will build up

    your ability to communicate in local language and will bring you closer to the

    community with which you will work.

    This capacity will also enable you to know your community better. You will

    participate effectively and with increased personal satisfaction in the type of cultural

    and technical exchange that Peace Corps has been advocating for since its creation.

    Some suggestions for succeeding in this learning process is being receptive and taking

    risks. Use the new language, analyze it and be methodic. Search for new words with

    friends, host families, and counterparts.

    The training staff invites you to share your comments in the event that it becomes

    necessary to revise the material. Any kind of feedback would be most welcomed.

    Send it to:

    Peace Corps Togo Training Manager

    PO Box: 3194

    Lom, Togo

    Have fun and enjoy using this manual

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  • iii

    Table of Contents Page

    Acknowledgement .................................................................................................................... i

    To the learner .......................................................................................................................... ii

    EWE ALPHABET .................................................................................................................. 1

    Lesson 1 .................................................................................................................................... 4

    Greetings .................................................................................................................................. 4

    Lesson 2 Introduce oneself and someone else .................................................................... 12

    Lesson 3 Introduce ones family ........................................................................................ 19

    Lesson 4 Buying essential items ......................................................................................... 27

    Lesson 5 Talk about food habits of the host country ....................................................... 39

    Lesson 6 Invite someone, accept or decline an invitation ................................................ 46

    Lesson 7 Talk about daily activities .................................................................................. 51

    Lesson 8 Ask for and give direction and time .................................................................. 58

    Lesson 9 Talk about transportation ................................................................................... 66

    Lesson 10 Talk about ones state of health ........................................................................ 73

    Lesson 11 Express ones sympathy in a happy or sad event ............................................ 78

    Lesson 12 Ask for help in an emergency case.................................................................... 83

    Lesson 13 Talk about her/his work .................................................................................... 89

    Useful expressions ................................................................................................................. 96

    English to Ewe Glossary ....................................................................................................... 99

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  • 1


    The Ewe alphabet has 30 letters: 7 vowels and 23 consonants

    A B D E F f G H X

    a b d e f g h x

    I K L M N O P R S T

    I k l m n o p r s t

    U V W Y Z

    u v w y z

    The vowels ares:

    A E I O u Summary of ewe alphabet

    Letter Pronunciation

    (similar sound in English)

    Ewe Example English Translation

    a father ati Tree

    b boy aiba Papaya

    d Dog dodokp Exam

    leather (but made by flicking the

    tongue against the palate toward the

    back of the mouth)

    evi Kid

    e mate egbe Today

    red, bet ppp Exactly

    f fish fafa Coolness

    Pronounced as you blow air through

    your lips Ae House

    g go Togot Togolese

    pretend you are gargling and add a

    vowel at the end of the syllable leti

    Month, noon

    gb say ''egg-beater'' fast ; drop the ''-ter''

    then the first ''e'' gboma Spinach

    h hat aha Drink

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  • 2

    Letter Pronunciation

    (similar sound in English)

    Ewe Example English Translation

    x Like h in english. Example: how Xevi




    i feet fita Mecanic

    k kitten kpo Cup

    kp say pick-pocket fast;

    drop the ''-ket'' then the ''pi'' akpe Thank

    l lady ale Sheep

    m man Mawu God

    n net neti Coconut tree

    sing di

    Morning/ greeting

    ny French "peigner", Spanish "seor" nynu Woman

    o no Togo Togo

    paw, log; ball t Father

    p pick Peya Avocado.

    r Africa (but roll the "r" a little) Afrika Africa

    s sit suku School

    t tip ati Tree

    u loop suku School

    ts Like ch in english church tsitsa Teacher

    v vat eve Two

    Put the end of a pen in your mouth and

    try to pronounce the sound v, then try

    it without the pen and you will obtain

    the sound



    A door


    w wish woez Welcome

    y you eya Wind

    z zip az Feast

    dz Pronounced like J in the english

    word jogging dzo To leave

    Nasalized vowels

    The sign ~, slight sound of an, over the vowel indicates that it is nasalized.

    For example: el = meat

    l l nudwla = Volunteer


    Ewe is a tonal language as are most African languages. The major tones are:

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  • 3

    High (/) Low (\)

    For example: m = we

    m = you

    Word formation

    Ewe is a composite language, meaning that basic words are often rearranged and

    combined to make verbs into nouns or adjectives.

    For example: u (nu) to eat (something) Nuuu food, meal

    Nouns are combined with prepositions to form other words: For example:

    Ae house/city, village of ones birth -me inside of - Aeme home

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  • 4

    Lesson 1



    After studying this lesson on greetings, trainees will be able to:

    1) Use the specific vocabulary related to greetings to greet people at the different times

    of the day

    2) Use the specific verbs in the present tense 3) Discuss cultural notes related to greetings 4) Communicate, to build social relationship and friendship in Ewe communities in

    order to support their personal safety and security.

    5) Practice greeting in the community while respecting the culture of the Ewe community.

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  • 5


    Its seven a.m. Sara meets Kossi her neighbor and they greet.

    Sara: di fofovi

    Kossi: di Dadavi. Aemetwe?

    Sara: Wf

    Kossi: eviwe?

    Sara: Wf

    Kossi: Ets be d?

    Sara: D ts. Miagadgo

    Kossi: Yoo, miagadgo.

    Dialogue in English

    Sara: Good morning, young man

    Kossi: Good morning, young lady. How are the members of your family?

    (how is the family?)

    Sara: They are fine.

    Kossi: How are the kids?

    Sara: They are fine.

    Sara: See you again

    Kossi: Ok, see you again

    Cultural notes

    Greeting is a moral and social obligation that should not be neglected. Its a sign of respect.

    You greet people first before you talk about anything else. For an elder, a Chief or a notable you bend down or genuflect while greeting. You dont snap fingers with elders and women. You initiate greeting with elders but not hand shaking. Greeting is not only to ask about peoples health but also to show interest in a person

    or to engage in conversation.

    Greeting eases your integration and acceptance in the community. Therefore people are ready to help you whenever you have a problem or a safety and security issue.

    Proverb: Amedzro si af le (The stranger or a new comer to an area has the obligation to go visit people and greet


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  • 6

    Words and Useful expressions

    Different greetings

    di (06H00 11H00) Good morning d (11H00 16H00) Good day Woale (16H00 18H00) Good afternoon Fi (18H00 night) Good evening

    Periods of the day

    dime in the morning dme in the noon etrme in the afternoon Fi me in the evening Zme in the night


    Dadavi young lady/young sister Dag elder sister Dada mother, elder sister Fofovi young man Fofo father, elder brother Aet Mister Aen Madam Aenvi Miss Tgbui old man, grandfather, chief of a village Mama old woman, grandmother

    Noun + vi small/younger Noun + g big/elder

    Some verbs

    F To wake up d (al) To sleep Na asi To shake hand Do gbe Greet X gbe Answer greetings

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    Ametwoe? how is the family/what about the family ? A house Ame home(in the house) Amet someone living in the house Wle/wf / wli they are fine eviwe? how are the children ? , mef nyuie yes, I am fine f nyuie a? are you fine ? gb a? are you back ? Tsoetw (e)? the people of where you come from Miagadogo see you/we shall meet Dd nenyo sleep well Z nenyo good night kekea nenyo have a good day Mawu nef m see you tomorrow Elea/elia? Are you there?

    Wo marks the plural form e interrogative term

    Dame e? What about the office/job? Wh/wya And you? Mile edz Its going well Egbe be d when you meet a person you already greet

    during the day the day-literally means the work of


    Ets be d! when you saw the person the day before Nyits be d! when you saw the person more than two days


    Woez (loo) Welcome Grammar notes

    i. The subjet pronouns

    There are six subject pronouns in Ewe, the following are used for the present and past tense.

    * Me



    * M

    * M

    * W



    He, she, it




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    * Mef nyuie Im fine * Ef nyuie You are fine

    * Ena as Ksi He/she shakes Kossis hand.

    * Mi d nyui e We slept well

    * Mido gbe na aemetwo You greet people of the house

    * Wod nyuie They slept well

    You can also use mie in place of mi or me in place of m The verb doesnt change its form when its conjugated

    ii. The use of e

    e is an interrogative particle that added to a noun means where is/what about/how is


    * Kofi e ? Where is/what about/how is Kofi?

    * eviwo e ? how are the kids doing?

    * Fotoa e ? where is the picture?

    iii. The use of a

    a at the end of a sentence indicates a yes or no questions.

    Ef a? Ele a?


    1) Build a dialogue with the words below and practice it with a classmate.

    di, dadavi, egbe be d

    aemetwo e, f a, woh

    , mef , egbe be d,

    miagadogo, d gbe, yoo.

    2) Use the subject pronouns (me, , , mi, m, wo) to make sentences with the following


    a) F ____________________________________________________

    b) do gbe ________________________________________________

    c) d ____________________________________________________

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  • 9

    d) X gbe ________________________________________________

    e) na asi _________________________________________________

    3) Add e or a to the sentences below to ask questions:

    Example: Mili -------------------milia ?

    f) f nyuie _____________________________________________________

    g) eviw __________________________________________

    h) M li ____________________________________________

    i) Esi d nyuie ______________________________________

    j) Sara _____________________________________________

    k) Aemetw ________________________________________

    l) Nufiala le _________________________________________

    4) Rearrange the following words into sentences

    a) Do gbe /me ______________________________________

    b) F / nyuie /Adzo __________________________________

    c) a / d / e / nyuie? _________________________________

    d) Do gbe / a/ Ismal ________________________________

    e) e/ Aemetwo? ___________________________________

    f) nyuie /w / d ____________________________________

    g) mi / nyuie / f ____________________________________

    h) a / d / mi / nyuie? ________________________________

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  • 10

    5) Answer the following questions.

    a) eviwo e? ___________________________________________

    b) Esi e? ______________________________________________

    c) Mile a? ______________________________________________

    d) Adzo kple Afi f nyui e a? _______________________________

    e) Dometw e? ________________________________________

    f) Sukua e?____________________________________________

    6) Translate the following sentences into Ewe.

    a) See you tomorrow. ____________________________________

    b) Did you sleep well? ____________________________________

    c) Have a good day! _____________________________________

    d) Im fine, and you how are you? ___________________________

    e) Welcome ____________________________________________

    f) How is the family ______________________________________

    g) See you _____________________________________________

    h) Good night ___________________________________________

    i) Yes, the kids are doing well ______________________________

    j) The people in the house are fine __________________________

    Role play

    1) In the morning, you meet a woman near your house, greet her and say good bye.

    2) At noon, after class, you meet the Chief of your village, greet him appropriately and then leave.

    3) While going for a walk in the evening you see a young person, greet him/her and wish him/her a good night.

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    1) Your host brother comes back home from school in the evening. Greet him and ask him about his school.

    2) Imagine a dialogue between you and your host mother as you are leaving the house for your job in the morning. (Greeting, wishes for the day, expressions to take leave).


    Go to one of the trainers or a host family member, greet him/her and answer the

    greeting. Write down all new vocabulary you heard for next class.

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  • 12

    Lesson 2

    Introduce oneself and someone else


    After studying the lesson on introductions, trainees will be able to:

    1) Use the vocabulary related to introducing oneself and someone else 2) Ask questions to know someones identity 3) Use specific verbs related to introduction in the present tense 4) Discuss cultural notes related to introduction 5) Introduce oneself to a member of the host family and collect information about


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    Rachel a Peace Corps Volunteer introduces herself and his friend Shana to a counterpart

    Rachel: Fi, Aen

    Yawa: Fi, Dadavi. Mee kuku kwe?

    Rachel: knye enye Rachel.

    Yawa: Dukame netso?

    Rachel: Metso Washington le Amerika.

    Yawa: Dka wla nenye?

    Rachel: Menye l l nudwla yeye le Peace Corps.

    Dadavi sia nye xl nye, ek enye Shana, tso Montana le Amerika.

    Shana nye l l nudwla yeye le Atakpame.

    Yawa: Enyo. Mawoez loo.

    Rachel: Yoo, miagadogo.

    Dialogue in English

    Rachel: Good evening, Madam.

    Yawa: Good evening, young lady. Please whats your name?

    Rachel: My name is Rachel.

    Yawa: Where do you come from?

    Rachel: I come from Washington in the States.

    Yawa: Whats your profession?

    Rachel: Im a Volunteer in Peace Corps. This young lady is my friend, her name is

    Shana, she comes from Montana in America, she is a new Volunteer in


    Yawa: Well, welcome

    Rachel: Ok, see you later.

    Cultural notes:

    In general, presentation is not automatic to know someones name you have to ask for it.

    The first name, when its not a christian name corresponds to the day of the week on which you are born (see table below)

    A way to show respect is to avoid calling people directly by their name but you precede the name by words like Da (davi) or Fo (fovi).

    For Example Fo Simon, Da Sara

    You also use Ameg or Tgbui for old persons

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  • 14

    Days of the week and related names

    Day English Woman name Man name

    Dzoa (gbe) Monday Adz Kdz, Kudz

    Blaa (gbe) Tuesday Abla Kmla

    Kua (gbe) Wednesday Aku Kku

    Yawoa (gbe) Thursday Yawa Yawo, Ayawo

    Fia (gbe) Friday Afi, Afua Kofi

    Memlea (gbe) Saturday Ami, Ameyo Kmi

    Ksia (gbe) Sunday Ksiwa, Aksiwa, Esi Ksi


    k name l l nudwla Volunteer (A)Fika where Sukuvi pupil, student Agbledela farmer Nufiala/tsitsa teacher Asitsala/nusala/nudzrala seller/trader kita/dyla doctor/nurse Dreva/ukula driver Kapita carpenter Klake clerk Dkplavi apprentice Tela/awutla tailor Ddzikpla director Aet/Aen Mister/madam/head Xl friend Sr t married Ahivi girl/boy friend Tren bachelor/single ugbetsr fianc (e) Yeye new Xoxo old Du Town/country/village Amegbnvi/ bonne maid Aemedwla housewife

    T: added to a country, town or place name to mean:

    - who comes from Togot Togolese - the owner or the seller Kpnt bread seller

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    Togot Togolese Amerikat American Benint Beninese Afrikat African Kpalimet Who is from Kpalime Kaliforniat Who is from California


    knye eny my name is kw e ? whats your name? Dukame netso? from which town/village/country do you

    come from

    Fika (n)etso? where do you come from? Fika (n)ele? where are you/where do you live? Dukamet (n)enye? whats your nationality? Dkawla (n)enye? Whats your profession? n does not have a function, regional variation

    Some verbs

    Tso to come from Nye to be + (nationality, profession, marital status) Le to be (location)


    1) Answer a question or ask a question

    a) kw e? _______________________________________

    b) Metso Kalifornia le Amerika. __________________________


    c) (A)fika (n)tso? ____________________________________

    d) Menye kita le Sokode. _____________________________

    2) You are on the way to your friends house and you met a young person who greets you. Answer the greeting and ask questions to know him/her better

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    Grammar notes

    The use of the verb nye and le = to be

    i. Ny

    For example:

    Menye Amerikat Im American Joe nye llnudwla Joe is a Volunteer Abra nye tren Abra is a bachelor

    ii. Nye: possessive adjective knye my name

    w: possessive adjective kw your name

    NB: More information on the possessive will be discussed in lesson 3

    iii. Le = to be or to live

    For example:

    Mi le Agou fifia We are in Agou now.

    NB: Le is also used as a preposition meaning at or in.

    For example: Me tso Accra le Ghana I come from Accra in Ghana

    tso Boston le Amerika She/he comes from Boston in America


    1) Translate the following sentences into Ewe.

    a) Iam in Tabligbo ________________________________________

    b) Esi is a student __________________________________________

    c) She is a housewife in Cotonou _____________________________

    d) Jennifer is a Peace Corps Volunteer in Atakpame ______________


    e) Adzo is a single and she is an apprentice _____________________


    f) Blandine is Training Manager at Peace Corps _________________


    g) George is an American but he is in Togo now _________________

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    h) Trainees are in Agou now _________________________


    2) Ask or answer questions from the statements below a) knye eny Kmi ____________________________________ b) Menye asitsala _______________________________________

    c) Dukame (n)etso ______________________________________

    d) Dka wla (n)enye? ____________________________________

    e) Fika Dadavi sia tso? ________________________________________________

    f) Aku ny sr t a? , ____________________________________

    g) Steve nye l l nudwla ________________________________

    h) Mle Lome __________________________________________

    3) Text: knye enye Nancy. Metso Kalifornia le America, gake mele Togo fifia. Meny nusr la le

    Agou. Dadavi sia nye xlnye. Ekenye Akpn. Etso Gae le Togo. Eny tela le Kpalime. Text :.

    My name is Nancy. I come from California in the States, but now Im in Togo. Im a trainee

    in Agou. This lady is my friend. Her name is Akpne. She comes from Gae in Togo. She is

    a mistress in Kpalime.


    Dukame Nancy tso?______________________________________

    Dukamet Nancy nye? ____________________________________

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    Dkawla Nancy nye? _____________________________________

    Fika Akpne tso? ________________________________________ Akpne nye tela a? _______________________________________


    In your neigborhood, meet two people; greet them, introduce yourself to them and ask

    questions to know them better (name-origin-profession-where they live). Write down the

    information for next class.

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    Lesson 3

    Introduce ones family


    After studying the lesson on Introduce ones family, trainees will be able to:

    1) Use the vocabulary related to family relationships and the numbers from 1 to 20 to introduce their family

    2) Use the possessive adjectives and their negative structure to introduce their family members

    3) Discuss cultural notes related to the family 4) Talk about their own family to a member of the community.

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    Sara e ome Saras family


    knye enye Sara, ame ade le onyeme : tnye, nnye, nviutsu eve kple nvinynu eka.

    Tnye k eny Yawo, ny nufiala le Adeta, tso Sevagan. Nnye k eny Mas. Eny

    asitsala. Etso Keta le Ghana.

    Nvinyeutsuwo k eny Yema kple Kdzo. Wle Lome. Nvinyenynu k eny Esi, enye

    kita le Tsevie. Mel onyeme ut.


    My name is Sara there are six persons in my family: my father, my mother, my two brothers

    and my sister.

    My fathers name is Yawo, he is a teacher in Adeta, he comes from Sevagan.

    My mothers name is Mas. She is a trader; she comes from Keta in Ghana.

    My brothers names are Yema and Kdzo. They are in Lome. My sisters name is Esi, she is

    a nurse in Tsevie. I like my family so much.

    Cultural notes

    Polygamy is a reality in Togolese community Cousins and sisters are considered just like sisters and brothers Family links and community solidarity are strong Thus acceptance in your family or in your community is very important

    Proverb: Nvitikpl me ena o (Nothing can break family links)


    Kdzo Sara




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    Members of the family

    ome Family

    Dzila Parent

    T Father

    N Mother

    Vi Nvi



    Nviutsu Brother

    Nvinynu Sister

    Fofo Elder brother

    Dada Sr

    Elder sister


    Sr utsu Husband

    Sr nynu Wife

    Sr t Married

    Ng Maternal aunt (elder)

    Ni Maternal aunt (younger)

    Nyr/nyin/ wfa Maternal uncle

    Tga Parternal uncle (elder)

    Ti Parternal uncle (younger)

    Tasi Parternal aunt

    utsu sia/ ya This man

    Nynu sia/ ya This woman

    evi Child (in general)

    Tgbe Grandfather

    Mama Grandmother

    Nyr/ tasiyvi utsu Nephew

    Ni/ng/nyr/ tasi/yvi utsu Niece

    Tgbe yvi Grandson/granddaughter Expressions

    Tnye k eny.. My fathers name is .

    Nw k e? Whats the name of your mother?

    Dzilanyew le Amerika My parents are in the States

    Sr le asinye I have a spouse

    Nviutsu Son/daughter

    Nviutsu eka kple nvinynu eve le asinye I have a brother and two sisters

    Nvi nenie le asiw? How many sisters and brothers have

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    Dka wla nw nye? Whats your mothers profession?

    Nnye ny asitsala My mother is a trader

    Tnye tso Vogan My father comes from Vogan

    Egbe Today

    e Year Some verbs

    Le asi To have

    Do ome kple To be related to

    For example: Medo ome kple Esi Im related to Esi

    esr To marry/to get married

    Gbe atsu To divorce

    L ame To love someone

    Dzi vi To give birth (to have a child) Numbers

    1. eka 11. wuieke 2. eve 12. wuieve 3. et 13. wuiet 4. ene 14. wuiene 5. at 15. wuiat 6. ade 16. wuiade 7. dre 17. wuidre 8. enyi 18. wuienyi 9. asieke 19. wuiasideke 10. ewo 20. bla eve


    1) Give five words you associate with the word family and make a sentence with each of the words.

    Example: t----tnye k enye Frank

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    2) Complete this identity card






    Place of residence:





    Place of residence:


    Brothers and sisters


    Place of residence:


    Grammar notes

    i. The possessive adjective has two forms: the normal form and the contracted one.

    These are the contracted forms that mostly used with nouns related to family members.

    Ewe English Example

    ------nye my tnye My father

    -----w your nw Your mother

    e-----(a) his/her/its evia


    his son

    her name

    mia---- our mia nyr our maternal uncle

    ma---- your ma sr your husband/wife

    W(a)---- their W(a) tasi Their paternal aunt

    These are the normal forms

    Ewe English Example

    -----nye my agbalenye My book

    -----w your aew Your house

    Ee----- his/her/its Ee suku


    his school

    her name

    miae---- our Miae nufiala our teacher

    mae---- your Mae tela your tailor


    their W(a)e fiase Their shop

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    ii. The plural in Ewe is made by adding w to the end of a word


    Nufialaw teachers Nviw sisters/brothers Miae nusrlaw our students

    iii. The verb le---asi to have The affirmative structure is: subject + verbal form + complet

    sr le asinye I have a husband/wife Fofo le asiwo you have an elder brother Vi le esi he/she has a child Ni le miasi we have a younger maternal aunt Tg le miasi we have an elder paternal uncle Tasi le wsi they have a paternal aunt The negative structure is : subject + me + verbal form + compl + o

    Sr me le sinye o I dont have a husband/wife Fofo me le asiwo o you dont have an elder brother Vi me le esi o he/she doesnt have a child Ni me le miasi o we dont have a younger maternal aunt Tg me le miasi o we dont have an elder paternal uncle Tasi me le wsi o they dont have a paternal aunt Exercises

    1) Use the correct possessive adjective that corresponds to the English word in parenthesis:

    Example: vi (my) vinye

    a) T (his) _________________________________ b) Nyr (our)________________________________

    c) Nufiala (your, singular)________________________

    d) Ae (his) _________________________________

    e) N (your, singular) __________________________

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    f) Tasi (their) ___________________________

    g) Nviutsu (your, plural)______________________

    h) Ddzikpla (our)________________________

    i) Suku (her) _______________________________ 2) Rearrange the following words into sentences:

    a) eka / le / Nviutsu / asinye _______________________ b) tw / enye / k / kofi ________________________ c) nynuvi / si / eve / tnye /le _________________________ d) k / tasiwo / e? _________________________________ e) nviutsu / le / nenie / asiw? ________________________ f) fofo / asinye /me / le/ o ____________________________


    1) Answer these questions.

    a) Nw k e? ____________________________________________

    b) Nvi nenie le asiw? _______________________________________

    c) Tw k e? ____________________________________________

    d) Dka wla tw nye? ______________________________________

    e) Dukame nw tso? ________________________________________

    f) Nynu nenie le tw si? _____________________________________

    g) Nyrw k e? _________________________________________

    h) Dka wla tasiw nye? ______________________________________

    i) x k e? ___________________________________________

    j) Vi le ngw si a? __________________________________________

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    2) Translate into Ewe:

    There are 12 persons in my family: my father, my mother, my sisters, my brothers, my

    paternal aunt and my maternal uncle. Our father comes from Tsevie and our mother is from

    Keta. They have 3 sons and 5 daughters.

    3) Ask questions from the following statements:

    a) Vi eve le asinye _____________________________________________ b) Tinye k eny Kmla ______________________________________

    c) Nynu ene le tnye si ________________________________________

    d) Mia ni k eny Kafui ______________________________________

    e) e wuieve le vinye si _________________________________________

    Role play:

    You are meeting your host fathers friend for the first time. Introduce your family to

    him and ask questions about his family.


    Your host family would like to know more about the members of your family in the

    States. Give them information and ask questions to know more than what you actually know.

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    Lesson 4

    Buying essential items


    After studying the lesson on buying essential items trainees will be able to:

    1) Count the CFA in Ewe 2) Name some essential items found at the market 3) Use expressions and verbs related to shopping 4) Use some interrogative terms (nenie, nuka ) the definite article a and the

    present progressive form to purchase items

    5) Discuss cultural notes related to market 6) Develop strategies for their personal security in the market 7) Buy an essential item at the market price

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    Evangeline a PCV went to the market in Azahoun to buy cloth.

    Afi: Dadavi woez. Nuka dim (n)ele?

    Evangeline: Mele av di(m)

    Afi: Av sgb le asiny. ka dim nele?

    Evangeline: Tsiviv dim mele. Nenie ny y?

    Afi: Ab eka kotoku eka kple af.

    Evangeline: Oh x asi akpa, mee kuku e dzi nam

    Afi: Nenie le asiw?

    Evangeline: Male biyedz enyi.

    Afi: Oh mesu o. Godogodo kotoku eka

    Evangeline: Yoo, xga.

    Afi: X ava kple tsedzia

    Evangeline: Yoo, akpe kaka

    Afi: Mesu akp o. Magadgo

    Dialogue in English

    Afi: Welcome young lady! What are you looking for?

    Evangeline: Im looking for cloth

    Afi: I have a lot of cloths. Which one are you looking for?

    Evangeline: Im looking for tsivi, the lower quality. How much is this?

    Afi: One thousand five hundred CFA for two yards.

    Evangeline: Oh. It is too expensive, reduce the price, please!

    Afi: How much do you have?

    Evangeline: I want to buy it at eight hundred.

    Afi: Oh. It is not enough. The last price is one thousand CFA.

    Evangeline: Ok, take the money.

    Afi: Take the cloth and the change.

    Evangeline: Ok, thank you very much

    Afi: You are welcome. See you again.

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    Cultural and safety and security notes

    The market day is not only for trading but is also a great opportunity to meet friends Its necessary to bargain in the market and sometimes in shops. Exchanging things is not automatic; you need to discuss the case with the seller before. You dont use your left hand in the market. You dont bargain early in the morning without buying the item. Its not safe to go to the market with too much money on you or just after banking. Its important to be careful about people who ask for help in the market. When buying food you can ask the seller to add you some as a gift.

    Proverb: Asigbe y asi i na (there is time for everything) Vocabulary

    Numbers from 21 to 100

    Bla eve v eke 21 Bla eve v eve 22 Bla eve v asike 29 Bla t 30 Bla t v ek 31 Bla t v eve 32 Bla ene 40 Bla ene v ke 41 Bla at 50 Bla asike 90 Alfa/alafa eka 100 Alafa eka kpl eka 101 Alafa eka bla eve v eve 122

    Expressions to count money


    Biye eka 5F Biye ve 10F Kpon 25F Biye ad 30F Biye ew 50F Kpon t 75F

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    Biye dz (eka)/alafa (eka) 100F Biye dz eve 200F Biye dz eve kple af/ 250F

    Biye dz eve by w

    Biye dz at 500F

    Bank notes/bills

    Kotoku eka/akp eka 1000F Kotoku eve 2000F Kotoku at 5000F Kotoku ew 10.000F

    Words and expressions related to the use of the money

    Ga/ho money Ga lili lime money Ga o dirty money/note Ga yy new coin/note Ga vv teared note Tsdzi/gagbagba change Womaga/ppaga bill/note Ga wli coin Af half

    Essential items

    Afkpa shoes/sandals

    Ttsi flash light

    Ttsikp battery Azale/ai soap Kuku hat (E) xa broom Akutsa sponge Tka bucket

    Kpn bread

    Skl sugar Edze salt Skl Kpn sugar bread

    Edze Kpn salt bread

    Atd pepper Timti tomato Sabala onion

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    Att pineapple

    Ak banana

    Aib papaya ut orange Pya avocado Av material/pagne/cloth

    N thing (in general) Expressions

    Nka d(m) nle? What are you looking for?

    (present progressive)

    Mele afkpa d(m) Im looking for sandals

    Male t Ill buy/I want to buy orange

    Nenie/nene ny ut a? How much is the orange?

    x asi akpa/ ut Its too expensive

    e dzi nam Reduce the price for me

    Nk dzra (m) (n)le? What are you selling?

    Biye ew ko le asinye I only have 50F

    Nlela Customer/client

    Ndzrala Seller

    Asigbe Market

    Mex asi o Its not expensive

    kp Its cheap

    u agba To go bankrupt

    Hamehame/vovovo Different kind of

    Tee eka/oo eka Pile of

    Kpnt Bread seller

    e dzi nam Add me some (its normal to ask for a gift if you buy food at the market)

    Godogodo Cant go lower than that/last price

    Sgb A lot of

    Mana kotoku et Ill/l want to give 3000F


    Dzra/sa to sell le to buy X to receive Ts to take X asi to cost e dzi to reduce it (the price)

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    Bia nta to ask for a price Bia ga to ask for money Do ga to borrow Li fe to ask for the money back Di to look for/to desire Yi asm to go to market Na to give Noun + t seller/owner of


    1) Make at least five sentences using the expression male

    Example: male ttsi

    2) Imagine yourself in the market; ask questions about the price of some items you see by

    a seller.

    Grammar notes

    i) The present progressive form

    Its expressed by le and m, but sometime the m is not pronounced.

    Subject + le + compl + verb + m

    For example :

    * Me le afkpa dim Im looking for sandals * le kuku lem youre buying hat * le ttsi dim youre looking for a flashlight * M le t dzra(m) Were selling orange * M le kpn dzra(m) youre selling bread * W le ak le(m) theyre buying banana

    N.B: the m is a regional variation, and here it doesnt change the meaning of the sentence.

    The same thing for ne and e = you, singular. (nle asime yi / le asime yi = youre going to the market)

    ii) The present progressive and the interrogative terms

    The structure is:

    Interrogative term + verb + (m) +subject +le

    * Nka what

    Nka di(m) (n)le? what are you looking for?

    * Eka which one?

    ka lem w le? which one are they buying?

    Afkpaka le(m) w le? which sandal are they buying?

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    * Fika where

    Fika yim w le? Where are they going? Fika nw tso where does your mother come from

    * Nenie (nene) how much Nene (n) le afkpaka sa(m)? How much are selling the sandal?

    * ( A)meka who

    Meka dim m le? Who are you looking for?

    N.B: with the interrogative form the subject pronoun (he/she) becomesw.

    (you sing) becomes n with n regional variation.

    For example: Nuka dim w le? what is he looking for? Eka dim n le? Which one are you looking for?

    i. The definite article la or the contracted form a that the commonly used.

    For example:

    utla/uta the orange Afkpaa the sandal Fika uta le? where is the orange?


    1) Below is a list of verbs. With these verbs make sentences in the present progressive tense using

    a) the affirmative structure b) the interrogative structure (either with an interrogative term or not)

    List of verbs: le, d, x , dzra, yi

    Example: a) Nufiala le uti le(m) b) Nufiala le uti lem a? or Nuka lem nufiala le?

    2) Use the following interrogative terms to ask questions: Nene, nuka, ka, noun + ka

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    3) Use nene (nenie) and the definite article a to ask the price of the following

    items and give the price in Ewe.

    Example: nene enye aia? Biye dz eka

    ai (100F) _____________________________________________________ av (2000F) ____________________________________________________ ut (75F) _____________________________________________________ aiba (250F) ___________________________________________________ ttsikp (150 F) ________________________________________________ sklkpn (300F) _______________________________________________ papau (1500F) _________________________________________________ akutsa (500F) ___________________________________________________ kuku (600F) ____________________________________________________ edze (25F) _____________________________________________________

    4) Answer the following questions a) Nka le(m) w le? atadi . le atadi le c) Ameka di(m) Ksi le? valentine _____________________________ d) Nka dzram ne le? sabala ________________________________

    e) Fika d dzikpla tso? Amrika______________________________

    f) Nka xm Afi le? tsdz _________________________________

    g) Dka wla nw nye? asitsala ______________________________

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    5) Dialogue: Katy the PCV goes to market to buy onions

    Katy: Gue, an.

    Abla: Gue Dadavi, nka dim nle?

    Katy: Mele sabala dim. Nenie neo sabala siaw (yaw)?

    Abla: Te vovovowo li: biye wo, biyedz, biyedz eve. Nenet dim ne le?

    Katy: Bydzt ya? Ex as t, mee kuku e dzi vi/vi.

    Abla: Ao, Dadavi sabala le asi x (m) fifia.

    Katy: Yoo, gake mee kuku e dzi nam.

    Abla: Enyo, x eka.

    Katy: Akp, x gaa. Kotoku eka le asinye, gagbagba li a?

    Abla: , li.

    Katy: Nam tsedzi.

    Abla: Tsedzia ya/ tsedzi ny sia.

    Katy: Akpe, miagadogo.

    Some words

    ny si/ya here is. Neniet/nenet for how much Nam give me (in the dialogue) but also means: to me/for me Vi/vi a little Questions

    a) Nka dim Katy le?

    b) Nenie nudzrala o sabala?

    c) Nenet dim Katy le?

    d) Sabalaa x asi a?

    e) Ameyo e sabala dzi na Katia?

    f) Nene le Katy si?

    g) Tsedzi nene Katy x?

    6) Translate into Ewe

    a) What are you looking for? ___________________________________________

    b) Im looking for batteries


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    c) For how much? ___________________________________________

    d) Its too expensive, please reduce the price for me ___________________________________________

    e) Who are you looking for?


    f) I only have 2650F


    g) No, I dont have any change


    h) Where are the sandals? _____________________________________

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    7) Write a conservation between the seller and the customer based on

    this picture.

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    Go to the market, identify an article of your choice, ask for the price, bargain and buy it

    and ask for the change.

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    Lesson 5

    Talk about food habits of the host country


    After studying this lesson, trainees will be able to:

    1) Name some foods in Ewe areas 2) Use expressions and verbs related to food preparation in order to talk about meals 3) Discuss cultural points related to food habits 4) Talk about what to eat in order to stay healthy 5) Give a recipe

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    Laura tells her friend Yawa about her lunch

    Yawa: Davi Laura, la?

    Laura: , ts be d.

    Yawa: Nka u ets dme?

    Laura: Meu mlu kple etsi viviae, gake nye me

    nya ek o.

    Yawa: Enyo, nyeya meu tek kple gbomadetsi.

    Laura: Ooh! Nye h melna gboma detsi ut.

    Dialogue in English

    Yawa: Young lady, are you all right?

    Laura: Yes,

    Yawa: What did you eat at noon yesterday?

    Laura: I ate rice and a delicious sauce, but I dont know the name.

    Yawa: Well, (me) I ate boiled yam and spinach sauce.

    Laura: I also like spinach sauce.

    Cultural notes

    When you eat you invite people near you to share your meal using the expression va mu n or mu n, but this doesnt mean that they will necessarily eat. The

    answer to this invitation is ne z Enjoy your meal or go ahead. When you

    get that invitation and you feel like eating say akpe = thank you and eat.

    The left hand is seen like dirty and is not acceptable at table when youre with peole. You dont smell food in order to appreciate it and you should not step over the meal. Kitchen utensils should not be used for other purpose such as taking shower or

    hiting someone.

    Foods taboos are specific to families, communities or ethnical groups Traditional restaurants, streets food restaurants or fufu bars serve cheap but

    good food and the service is quick. However be careful, they are not always clean

    and healthy. Consequently, PCTs and PCVs are not advised to eat salads in those


    Proverb: detsivivi ye hea zikpi (a delicious sauce brings you closer to the table: When the thing becomes interesting people pay more attention to it).

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    Nuu Food

    Akple Dough (of maize, millet)

    Mlu rice

    Ete Yam

    Agbeli Cassava

    Etek /agbelik Boiled yam/boiled cassava

    Eteba Ragout/stew (yam)

    Ayimlu Rice and beans prepared together

    Dz kpl Red paste, made with palm nut oil

    Koliko Fried yam

    (A)bladzo tt Fried plantain

    (A)bladzoaa bioled plantain

    (A)bladzomeme Roasted plantain

    (Ete) fufu Pounded yam

    (Agbeli) fufu Pounded cassava

    Gawu Fried bean doughnut

    Gali Cassava flour

    Galift Mixed gali and tomato stew

    Galidetsi Mixed gali, sugar and water

    Ablo Steam-cook paste made of corn porridge

    Dzogb/dzogba Porridge

    Aha Drink

    (E) tsi Water

    Aha sese Alcoholic drink

    (E) deha Palm wine

    Soabi Local alcoholic drink (like gin) Some of the foods are called by their french name such as:

    Chou Cabbage Carotte Carot Haricots verts French bean Pomme de terre Potato Salade/saladagbe Salad/lettuce Petit pois Garden peas

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    Some sauces

    Dts Sauce Dtsuui/agbamedts Tomato sauce Gbomadts Spinach sauce (E)dedts Palm nut sauce Fufutsi/dtsxl Slight sauce Gusidts Sesame sauce Kotobritadi Cocoyam leaves sauce Azidts Peanut sauce Ademedts Ademe sauce (Ademe is a vegetable) Fetrsidts Okra sauce

    There are many other vegetables used for the sauce such as: soboe, yovogbama, aloma


    Edze Salt

    Sabala Onion

    Ayo Garlic

    Atikali Black pepper

    Atadi Hot pepper

    Am Oil

    Amdz Palm nut oil

    Azm Vegetable oil (made of peanut)

    (E)l Meat

    Koklol Chicken (meat)

    (E)nyil Beef

    Gbl Goat

    Hal Pork

    Akpa/akp Fish

    Akpameme Smoked fish

    Akpamumu/ l mumu Fresh fish

    Kanam Fried fish Utensils

    Agb Plate

    Agbgobo Bowl

    Gatsi Spoon

    Gafo Fork

    Kakla/eh knife

    Kpo/kpu cup

    Eze Cooking pot

    Siliva Sauce pan

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    u (n) To eat (something)

    a (n) To cook

    No (n) To drink

    To (fufu) To pound (fufu)

    Tso (sabala) To cut (onion)

    Tu (atadi) To crash (pepper)

    o (dzogb) To prepare (porridge)


    Nye me una l o I dont eat meat

    Nye me nona ah sese o I dont drink alcohol

    Nye me una akpl o I dont eat paste

    Evivi t Its very delicious/good

    Nuuua vivi t The food is very delicious

    Edze v detsia There is too much salt in the sauce

    Atadi v detsia The sauce is spicy

    (A)leke w ana teba? How does one cook yam stew?

    (A)leke (n)e ana azidetsi How you prepare peanut sauce? Other words

    Gb First

    Evelia Second

    Emegb After that

    Dog/hafi Before

    Alo Or

    Eye Then

    Gake But

    (E)kema So

    Ne If/to/for


    1) Add a maximum of three words to each word below to make complete sentences. Example:

    u mu mlu

    mu mlu kpl gbomadetsi

    Nye kpl Afi mu mlu kpl gboma detsi

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    Suggested words :



    a nu


    2) You meet your friend after dinner. Ask questions to know what he/she ate and tell him/her about your dinner.

    Text: (A)leke wotna koliko?

    Gba, kpa te, fli lblb alo gbadzgbadz Evelia, kl tefliflia nyuie eye na k e

    edzetsime. Emegbe, o ami dzodzi. Ne amia x dzo la, k tea e eme, asi ne fie nyuie hafi

    na blu eme. Ne ega fie vie ko lo. Ekema esgbe ne uu.

    How to make koliko

    First peel the yam, cut it in long or small pieces. Second wash the pieces and steep them into

    salt water. After that heat oil in a pan and put the pieces in the oil, let it fry for a while and

    turn it. Wait a few minutes more and remove it: your koliko is ready to eat.

    3) Read this sentence: me le nu am.

    Now suggest substitutes: one, two or three words that could be replaced to make new


    You get something like:

    Me le n am le dzodoe

    Me le fufu tom le dzodoe

    Adzo le galidetsi nom le xme.

    Suggested sentences:

    Sewa le ahavivi nom.

    Kmi u aple.

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    You invited a togolese friend to share your lunch with you. After the meal, she/he asks you

    for the recipe. So give her/him the recipe.


    Ask your host mother or sister the recipe for a meal you choose. Bring the information to

    class and share it with your classmates.

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    Lesson 6

    Invite someone, accept or decline an invitation


    After studying this lesson trainees will be able to:

    1) Use specific vocabulary and verbs to invite someone 2) Accept or decline an invitation in a polite way to maintain a good relationship with

    people, which will support their personal safety and security.

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    Akuvi invites her neighbor, the PCV Maro to a local and popular danse named Akpese.

    Akuvi: Dadavi Maro, f a?

    Maro: wya ?

    Akuvi: Nye h mef. Medi be ma kpewo yi eue fime, mee kuku l a?

    Maro : Oh, dzdzi nam, akpekaka.

    Akuvi: Enyo, eyi fime

    Maro: Yoo.

    Dialogue in English

    Akuvi: Young sister Maro, how are you?

    Maro: Im fine, and you?

    Akuvi: Im also fine. I would like to invite you to Akpese dance tonight. Would

    you like it?

    Maro : Oh yes! I would like it, thank you very much.

    Akuvi: Well, see you tonight.

    Maro: Ok.

    Cultural notes

    In general, friends or members of the same family visit each other without any previous invitation.

    You are always welcome to share a meal or a drink or to spend time together even if it was not planned before.

    You are responsible for guests food or drink. Its necessary to express your limits during an invitation where people will be

    offering you food and drink again and again.

    Proverb: Nuvi namet me nye dzouamet o: (he who gives or offers a little is not an enemy, so no matter how little a gift is, enjoy it and be grateful).

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    Medibe ma kpw I would like to invite you

    Medibe ma kpm I would like to invite you (plu)

    El be yead kplm a/ would you like to go out with me?

    El be mad a?

    di be yeadgo a? would he/she like going out?

    dzdzi na w be aunu kplm a? would you like to eat with me?

    Yoo, enyo, akp ok, thats great, thanks

    , edzdzi nam yes, I like it/its a pleasure.

    , mel be Yes, I accept to

    nyo, mava well, I will come

    Ao, akp no, thank you

    Mee kk, vovo mele utiny o. Im sorry ,Im not free

    Nye ma t va o I cannot come

    Nye ma t yi o Icant go

    D sugb le dziny Im too busy

    Occasions to be invited

    Evieto naming ceremony/ outdooring Ceremony/traditional baptism

    Sr e wedding ceremony

    Dzigbez birthday

    Etsxme/kut funerals

    Tsdtaknu baptism ceremony

    Knu ceremony

    Dezu traditional feast/ celebration

    Az feast

    Krismas(i) Christmas

    Ista easter

    e yy new years

    Tsa a walk

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    Tabaski, ramadan Tabaski, ramadan Verbs

    Kpe ame to invite someone

    Di to look for/to want/to desire

    L to like/ to love

    Dzdzi to please


    Give an affirmative or a negative answer to these questions in Ewe

    a) Would you like to come to my birthday celebration? _____________________________________________________________

    b) Would you like going out with me to night? _____________________________________________________________

    c) Will you be pleased to have dinner with me? _____________________________________________________________

    d) Would you go to the funerals with my family?


    Grammar notes

    The conditional tense used to express politeness, a wish or to soften a demand or an order is meant in Ewe: medi

    be+ future

    Example: Medi be makpe w le krsitmas dzi I would like to invite you for Christmas

    Subj+be+future subj+verb+object

    di be yakpm you would like to invite me

    di be yakpw he/she would like to invite you

    Mdi be makpw we would like to invite them

    Mdi be makpew you would like to invite her/him

    Wdi be yewoakp m they would like to invite us.


    Your host sister/brother seems bored at home. Discuss plans to make for the evening.

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    Ask two or three people in your host family or in your neighorhood how they accept or

    decline an invitation without frustating your host . Come back to class with your findings.

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    Lesson 7

    Talk about daily activities

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    After studying this lesson, trainees will be able to:

    1. Name different daily activities 2. Use the appropriate vocabulary and the present habitual to talk about daily activities in

    their community

    3. Discuss cultural notes and safety and security issues related to the competence 4. Talk about their daily activities in the community for their good integration.

    Text: Aku e gbesiagbe dwww.

    disiadi. Aku f na kaba. funa kume y una alo. lena ts.

    dna awu, vuna a y yina suk. Le suk megba, ei tna u y gbna e me. Le

    zme la, me mlna anyi kba o.

    Akus daily activities.

    Every day Aku wakes up early. She washes her face and chewes stick, she takes her

    bath, gets dressed, combs her hair and goes to school. After class, she is tired and she relaxes.

    At night, she doesnt go to bed early.

    Cultural notes

    In the morning people wash their face before they greet or start their activities. Activities are shared according to gender and age In general, women take care of household chores. Its better to wear appropriate shoes to go to farm.

    Proverb: Ed enye ame (work makes life value)

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    Some places

    Xme in the room

    xdme in the bed room

    Dzod kitchen

    Tsle bathroom

    Tme in the river

    Suk school

    Dme at the office

    Agble field

    Asime in the market

    Daily activities

    D al to sleep

    Ny /f to raise

    Tsite/tso to wake up

    Fu kume to wash face

    Lu ge/l ge to shave

    Vu a to comb hair

    D awu to get dressed

    e awu to take off clothes

    u alo/kl nume to chew stick and clean teeth/wash mouth

    Ml anyi to go to bed

    i tsa to take a walk

    dzudz/gbme/ime to rest

    Kpl nu to sweep the floor

    Kl agb to wash dishes

    Nya n to do laundry

    a n to cook

    D dz to light a fire

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    u n to eat

    ku ts to fetch water

    Yi agbl to go to farm

    Yi suk to go to school

    Yi dme to go to the office

    Xle n to read

    Fe to play

    Ku keke to ride a bicycle

    Expressions of time

    di sia di everyday

    d sia d everynoon

    Z sia z every night

    etr sia etr every afternoon

    Ksia sia Ksia every week

    Gasiagame evey time

    (E)e sia e every year

    Kb early/quickly

    dzidzi often

    ea wy/gawme sometimes

    hafi before

    megb after

    y and

    Mlba finally

    Kptea last

    Nka wna di sia di? What do you do every morning?

    Dka wna gbesiagbe? What do you do everyday?

    Nuka (n) e wna/dka newna+ period what do you use to do at that period?

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    1. Guessing: the teacher performs an action and the learner guesses the verb (activity)

    that corresponds to the action.

    2. Give the activities that correspond to these periods of the day:





    Example: dime

    F , lu ge

    Grammar notes

    na is attached to the verb to indicate habit or regularity of the activity.

    The contracted word is a

    Subject+verb+na or a+compl.


    Aku f na kb Aku wakes up early (she used to)

    ana nu di sia di she cooks every morning. kuatsi dzidzi often, she (used to fetch) fetches water Mena ak o I eat bananas Me yia suk gbesiagbe I go to school every day Wla nuu ksia sia ksia they buy food every week

    The negative form:

    Subject+me+verb+na or a+compl.+o Aku me fna kaba o Aku doesnt wake up early (she doesnt used to...)

    Me ana nu di sia di o she doesnt cook every morning. Me kuatsi dzidzi o she doent fetch water Nye me una aku o I dont play football often.

    M me ona bl dzidzi o you dont play football often.

    M me yia suku gbsiagbe o we dont go to school every day.

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    1) Say what you do at these different periods of the day:

    di sia di, ________________________________________________________

    d sia d

    ________________________________________________________ fi sia fi,


    Example: di sia di me melena tsi. 2) Change the sentences in exercise 1 into the negative form

    Example: Ny me lena tsi di sia di o 3) Use na or a and change the following sentences according to this Example:

    Blandine le nu fiam_______Blandine fiana nu_______

    a) Mi le asime yim__________________________________________ b) Nusr lawo le ewgbe sr m.________________________________ c) Mi le d wm____________________________________________ d) Me le akpl am ________________________________________ e) Me le fufu tom __________________________________________ f) Nufiala le agbal xlm ____________________________________ g) Sukuviw le nusr m a ? ____________________________________ h) Amerikatw le kk kum _________________________________

    i) Jenifer le du um ________________________________________ j) Amy le xme kplm ______________________________________

    4) Tell a story about someones daily activities. The trainer begins the story and trainees

    continue the story in turn.

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    di sia di, mekplna nu hafi le na tsi. Ne mele tsi v la, meuna nu y medzrana o.

    megba, me yina dme. Mewna d sgb le kekeame gake nye me dzudzna o. ei

    tena unye t. Mlebala, melena tsi, me mlna anyi y medna al.

    Ne mele tsi v la = when I finish to take bath i tena uny = I get tired kekeame = in the day


    a) Nuka Abla wna hafi le na ts ? b) Nuka wwna ne le tsi v? c) Emegbe ? d) Nuka Abla wna le dme? e) ei tena Abla ua? f) Nuka wwna le ame fime

    5) Change the paragraph di sia diyina dme into the negative form.


    During your post visit, your counterpart will ask you about your plan for the week.

    Role play

    You want to plan a happy hour with your friend over the weekend. Imagine a

    conversation with him when you discuss your schedule for the weekend and find the right

    moment for your happy hour


    Observe the members of your host family and ask them questions about their daily

    activities. Write a paragraph on that for next class.

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    Lesson 8

    Ask for and give direction and time


    After studyng this lesson, trainees will be able to:

    1) Use appropriate vocabulary to ask for and give directions and the time 2) Use the imperative form and prepositions to ask for and give directions 3) Discuss cultural notes and safety and security issues related to orientation 4) Give and follow directions in the community.

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    Jane a PCV in Afagnan arrives in Pagala for a workshop and she asks Kudzo to indicate

    her the road from the center to the village market.

    Jane: di Aet

    Kudzo: di, dAdavi, f a?

    Jane: , mef . Mee kk mka mto ayi asime?

    Kudzo: Me ss o, z yi g t, ne eo amdzila nato nuusime,

    megba, z t vase mdzkplia nu, xa kna nuusime y naz vi,

    akp asia le gw

    Jane: Akp kk

    Kudzo: Me su akp o.

    Dialogue in Englsih

    Jane: Good morning, sir.

    Kudzo: Good morning young lady. How are you?

    Jane: Im fine. Please how do I get to the market?

    Kudzo: Its not difficult, go straight to the paved road and turn right. After that

    go straight to the crossroads, turn right and walk for a few minutes, you will see

    the market in front of you (the market is in front of you).

    Jane: Thank you very much.

    Kudzo: Youre welcome.

    Cultural notes

    In general, indications about distance are not precise Sometimes with illiterate people, time is related to the activities of the day (like children

    going to school, muslems morning prayer)

    Some people will come late for meetings People would prefer to lead you to the place by themselves or by having a child accompagn


    Keep asking people for directions until you arrive at your destination.

    Proverb: mtabiala me bu na o (He who asks for direction never gets lost)

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    Some places

    Asime In the market

    K dzi Hospital, health center

    Fiame In the Chiefs house

    Suk School

    Fiase (me) (in the) shop

    uoe Taxi station

    Ahanoe Bar

    Nue Restaurant

    M Way, road

    Am Paved road

    Afm Path

    Mdzekpli Crossroads

    Dzodz Traffic light

    Ablme Traditional public place

    Auta Beach

    Posu Post office


    Fia m To indicate

    Fia To indicate

    Yi To go

    Yi miame To go left

    Yi usime To go right

    Va Come

    Dzo To leave

    Z To walk

    Do g To arrive in advance

    To/yi miame To go left

    Tso mme To cross the road

    Tte To stop

    Xa kna To turn

    Tr To go back/to return

    Tr va To come back

    Tr yi To go back

    o Fia

    To arrive

    To show

    Fiam Show me

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    Bu m/tra m To get lost

    Kpl yi To go with

    kpl va To come with


    Miame Left

    Nu (usime) Right

    didi Its far

    Medidi o Its not far

    tskpoe Its close

    megb After

    Tso afisia/tso fiya From here

    (A)fima There

    Fika uoea le? Where is the taxi station?

    Vasee To/until

    Ne la If , Expressions related to time

    Ga Hour/time

    Ga nen o le gbw? What time is it?

    o ga eve Its two oclock

    o ga et kple miniti blaeve Its three twenty

    o ga eka kple af Its one and half

    o di ga ade Its six a.m.

    sus/kpt miniti at ne ga dre Its five to seven

    Metsi megb Im late

    Medo g I m in advance/ I come early

    Gakame makpa? When will we close?

    Gakame madogo? When will we meet?

    Tsi megbe To be late

    N gamedzi To be on time


    1) Make sentences with these words:

    Example: k dzi___Nnye le k dzi__

    a) Nuue


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    b) Ahanoe ______________________________________________________

    c) Fiaeme

    ______________________________________________________ d) ue

    ______________________________________________________ e) Auta___________________________________________________

    2) Make sentences with these expressions:

    a) To nuusime _____________________________________________________

    b) Vasee

    ______________________________________________________ c) Fika

    ______________________________________________________ d) Fiam


    3) Read the time on these pictures:

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    Grammar notes

    i) Prepositions in general the follow the noun. Here are some:

    Prepositions(ewe) English Example

    -me in Nusrlaw le ume.

    Trainees are in the vehicle

    -dzi on Agbala le kpldzi The book is on the table

    -uti at, against Ele kpl uti He is at the table

    -kume, -g in front of, face Kdzia le sukua kume

    The hospital faces the school.

    -gb near, close to, to Fiasea le uoea gb The shop is near the station

    -xa near, nearby Sukua le asia xa The school is near the market



    behind Aea le nuuea gb The house is behind the restaurant



    middle, center Fiaeme le dua e titina/dodome The chiefs house is in the center of the village

    -dome betwen K dzia le asia kple sukua dome The hospital is betwen the market and the school

    ii) Imperative: the formation and utilization are the same as in English, except that the plural personal

    pronouns (m, m) are not dropped out.

    Example: yi g t go straight

    z t vasee go straight to the m yi g vi lets continue a little m xa kna e miame (let you) turn left


    1) Trainees execute orders from trainer and then they do the same thing one by one

    between themselves.

    2) Practice question and answer: to be done among trainees

    a) Ga nenie o? (15h00)


    b) Ga nenie madzo? (10h20)


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    c) Gakame Adzo va? (18h35)


    d) Ganeneme sukviwo gbna etrme? (15h00)


    3) Give indications based on the map below:


    a) kdzi to bank

    b) uoe to bloe

    c) Ahanoe to posu

    d) Asime to nuue

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    You are inviting your classmates to your host familys house. Give them directions from the

    tech house to your house.


    Go to your host father, ask him how to get to a place you want to go to, write down the

    information in ewe and come back with it to class.

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    Lesson 9

    Talk about transportation


    After studying this lesson trainees will be able to:

    1) Use the present progressive, interrogative words and the future tense 2) Ask questions about the coast, travel time and destinations to be able to travel


    3) Discuss travel conditions and strategies to travel safely

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    The PCV Michele goes to her post Nyassive

    Buka: Dadavi woez

    Michele: Yoo, ef a?

    Buka: , me f . Fika yim nele ?

    Michele : Me le Nyassive yim.

    Buka : Nyassive uoea le (a)fima aa

    Michele: Yoo, akpe. (She goes to the place)

    Dreva: Nyassive ame eka, Nyassive ameeka!

    Dadavi Nyassive a?

    Michele: , nene nye uoga a?

    Dreva: Biye dz enyi koe, va n anyi mi dzo.

    Michele: Yoo, gakame miadzo?

    Dreva: Madzo fifia.

    Dialogue in English

    Buka: Welcome young lady

    Michele: Ok, how are you?

    Buka: Im fine, where are you going?

    Michele: Im going to Nyassive.

    Buka: The vehicles to Nyassive are over there

    Michele: Well, thank you. (She goes to the place)

    Dreva: One person for Nyassive, young lady are you going to Nyassive?

    Michele: Yes, whats the travel fee?

    Dreva: Only eight hundred. Come take a seat for departure.

    Michele: Ok, when are we leaving?

    Dreva: We will leave soon.

    Cultural notes

    Travelers need to be patient enough because drivers will try to have as many passengers as possible before they depart and they are often overloaded.

    In some remote villages, you can be waiting the whole day, or vehicles are available only on market days.

    Its important to have your valuables on you, not packed in your bags... You should check your luggage whenever a passenger is getting off along the way.

    Proverb: evi matsadukp egblna be yen e detsi koe vivina (A kid that has never

    visited other countries thinks her mother is the best cook)

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    Means of transportation

    Af foot/feet Keke bicycle Kekevi handcar Em/dzokeke/zemidz motocycle (E)u vehicle/car ug truck Aklo pirogue Yameu airplane

    Words and expressions

    uoe car station Dreva driver uoga travel fee Agba luggage Agbaga/agbatsi luggage charge


    o u To take a car/vehicle

    o m To take a moto

    o yameu To take an air plane

    Ku keke To bike

    Ku u To drive

    i To get down

    Dzo To leave

    Dzo yi To leave for

    Gb To come back

    Yi udoe To go to the station

    Tte/nte To stop

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    Mai e kuma I will get off in Kuma

    Mai e fiya I will get off here

    Nenie wo ona u tso yi?/ Nenie nye udoga tso yi ?

    How much do you pay from to ?

    udoga enye /wotuna You pay

    ukawoe li? Which vehicle are available

    ukawoe yina ? Which vehicles are going ?

    Gakame miadzo? When are we leaving?

    Miadzo ga et We will leave at three

    Gakame miao? When will we arrive?

    Miao ga ene Well get there at four.

    Edidia? Is it far?

    , edidi/ao, medidi o Yes, its far/no, its not far miao fifia Well arrive soon

    Dreva, mai Driver, Ill stop there

    Dreva, tte mai/nte mai Stop driver, I will get down here

    Mayi mava Im going and I will be back

    Mayi Lome mava Im going to Lome and I will be back

    Gaoo nene miaw hafi ao?

    How long does it take to reach there?


    1) What will you say in Ewe in these situations:

    a) To know the tariff from Kpalime to Atakpame


    b) To know what time you are departing?


    c) To know when you will get there?


    d) To tell the driver youll get down at Govie


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    2) Make sentences with the verbs below:

    a) o u _____________________________________________________

    b) ku keke ___________________________________________________

    c) dzo yi ____________________________________________________

    d) gb tso ___________________________________________________

    e) i e+place ________________________________________________

    f) tte _______________________________________________________

    Grammar notes

    i Review interrogative terms (nenie, fika, gakame)

    * Nenie woo na ua? How much is the tariff?

    * Fika uoea le ? where is the car station ?

    *Gakame miadzo ? when/what time are we leaving? ii. Review present progessive

    Mele keke ku (m) Im riding bicycle

    Mele uoe yi(m) Im going to the station

    iii. Future tense

    To have the future tense you change the e in the subject pronoun into a whereas the verb remains


    Ma Mayi suku. I will go to school o u. You will take a vehicle

    a Ale u. He will buy a car Mia Miai e fiya. Well get down here Ma Mai e fiya. Youll get down here Woa Woadzo ets. Theyll leave tomorrow


    1) Answer these questions:

    a) Gakame mia dzo? ______________________________________________

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    b) Gakame (n)a ku keke? ______________________________________________

    c) Gbekagbe miadzo le Adeta? ______________________________________________

    d) Drevakae ayi Lome ets? _______________________________________________

    e) (A)fika miayi ksiagbe? _______________________________________________

    f) Dka aw ets dime hafi ava suku? _______________________________________________

    1) Read the dialogue and answer the questions

    Bob goes to the station in Tomegbe

    Dreva: Woez loo!

    Bob: Yoo, mee kuku ukawoe le Lome yim?

    Dreva: Woawoe ya. Ele yi a?

    Bob: , nenie nye uoga ?

    Dreva: Kotoku eka kple af. Yi x tike na va

    Bob: Gakame ua adzo

    Dreva: Fifia

    Bob: Enyo, gaoo nene miaw le mdzi?

    Dreva: Gaoo et

    Bob: Dreva, midzoe

    Dreva: Nte vie, ekpt ameeka


    Woawoe ya here they are

    Tike ticket

    Ameeka kpt there is one person left


    a) Fika yi Bob le? b) Nenie nye udoga? c) Gaoo nenie woa w le dzi?

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    d) Gakame ua adzo

    2) Translate into Ewe the following sentences

    a) Which vehicle is going to Atakpame? _________________________________________________

    b) Im going to Heheatro. _________________________________________________

    c) I will go to Batume tomorrow morning ________________________________________________

    d) My father will take the plane to Senegal ________________________________________________

    e) We will take the canoe to Togoville _______________________________________________

    f) I will bike to Bodze tomorrow? _______________________________________________

    g) Where will you go tomorrow? _______________________________________________

    h) How long will we be traveling? _______________________________________________


    You want to go Badou. Try to find the right vehicle at the station, ask for the tariff,



    Go to the station in Adeta. Get information about these tariffs:

    Adeta Danyi

    Adeta Notse

    Adeta Atakpame

    Adeta Bodze

    Ask about vehicles and travel conditions. Come back to class with the information.

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    Lesson 10

    Talk about ones state of health


    After studying this lesson, trainees will be able to:

    a) Name different parts of the human body b) Talk about their state of health or ask for someones state of health c) Use the direct complement personal pronouns d) Discuss Togolese ideas and behaviors regarding sickness

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    Tanya meets Aku on her way to her friends house.

    Tanya: Dadavi Aku, ef a?

    Aku: , mef . Fika yi ele?

    Tanya: Meyi xl nye gb, woya e?

    Aku: Meyi fiaseme male atike

    Tanya: Oh, nukua ele ww?

    Aku: Mele d le, eta le vem eye dme h le dum

    Tanya: Woele kpe(m)

    Aku: Yoo, akpe

    Dialogue in English

    Tanya: Young lady Aku, how are you?

    Aku: Im fine, where are you going?

    Tanya: Im going to my riends house, and you?

    Aku: Im going to buy medicine in the store

    Tanya: Oh, what wrong with you?

    Aku: Im sick, my head and my stomach hurt

    Tanya: Im sorry for you

    Aku: Ok, thank you

    Cultural notes

    People are not direct in saying whats wrong. They will first say everything is ok before they mention any sickness or sad new

    Sickness is seen like a punishment from God or ancestors or caused by sorcery People will not necessary go to the hospital or to a health center when they are

    sick, but they will try different treatments by themselves with medicine or

    traditional infusions

    People believe a lot in traditional healers

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    Human body

    (E)ta Head

    dme Stomach

    ku Eye

    Au Tooth

    Nume Mouth

    (E)to Ear

    ti Nose

    Af Foot

    Eno Breast

    Ali Waist

    (E)veme Throat

    Akta Chest

    Dzime Back


    Ve/u To hurt/ache

    Yi kdzi To go to hospital

    Do abiui To have a shot

    No atike To take medicine

    le atike To buy medicine

    le d To get sick

    Sra dme To have diarrhea

    Kpe(e)kpe To cough


    Nuka ele wwo(m)? whats wrong with you? Dme le unyem/ dme le um my stomach aches Eta le vem/um I have headaches ku le Esi ve. Esi has eye infection Tome le vem I have ear infection Me le (yi) kodzi yi(m) Im going to hospital Male atike Im going to buy/I will buy a medecine Vevesese pain Avlkui worms Avlkui le fu e(m) nam I have worms Abi le dme na evia the kid has stomach infection Mele atike nom Im taking a medecine kita do abui nam the doctor/nurse give me a shot

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    Mele ekpe kpe(m)/ekpe om Im coughing Atiketsi malaria Atiketsi le lem/atiketsi le fu e nam I have malaria Dmesasra diarrhea Sida dlele/ikanaku AIDS Vuv cold


    Make sentences with these verbs by using u or ve

    Au Eta





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    Grammar notes

    i. The complement personal pronouns. They are:

    Eta le venye(m) my head aches Eta le vewo(m) your head aches Dme le eu(m) her/his stomach aches Au le mia ve(m) our teeth hurts

    Au le ma ve(m) your teeth hurts

    Au le wo ve(m) their teeth hurts

    Note: People also say: eta le vem instead of eta le venyem.


    Translate into Ewe :

    a) Whats wrong with you?

    b) I have stomachaches.

    c) My head aches.

    d) The kids are coughing.

    e) He is going to the traditional healer.

    f) You have malaria. TDA

    Talk with Mister X, ask him the common diseases in the area and their treatment.

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    Lesson 11

    Express ones sympathy in a happy or sad event


    After studying this lesson trainees will be able to:

    1) Talk about the culturally accepted behavior during a happy or sad event 2) Use correct words and expressions to express ones sympathy in those events.

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    Ami: Oh, Yawa, nye me ga kpw kp o!

    Yawa: , (e)tnye va ku ta meyi vaw Ksia eka le ae.

    Ami: Aoo, nye me se o, baba nawo sea!

    Yawa: Yoo, akpe.

    Ami: Mawu ut aw esiae!

    Yawa: Yoo, enyo, miadogo.

    Dialogue in English

    Ami: Oh, Yawa, I havent seen you for a long time!

    Yawa: Yes. My father died and I spent a week in my village.

    Ami: Oh! I didnt hear that, Im sorry for you

    Yawa: Ok, thank you.

    Ami: God will take care of every thing!

    Yawa: Ok, well, see you.

    Cultural notes

    Its very important to express ones sympathy to a friend, a collegue, your neighbor during a sad event (sickness, accident, death) by visiting or making

    a symbolic gift of money, food or anything else depending on your relationship.

    You do the same for happy events and you congratulate. Failing to give a moral support (especially to pay a simple visit) would make

    people think that you have no regard toward people or you are not interested in

    the community in which you are living.

    Proverb: Amelam