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Passive smoking and lung cancer among Japanese women

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had a mortality rate roughly half that for U.S. males over the entire period. In contrast, U.S. white female mortality rates, though roughly equal to those for Swedish females in 1950-51, experienced a relatively more rapid increase; their rates were double the Swedish rates by 1980. The factors contributing to these patterns, such as marked cohort dif- ferences in risk, are identified by the various stages of analysis.

Personal and Family History of Respiratory Disease and Lung Cancer Risk. Samet, J.M., Humble, C.G., Pathak, D.R.

Department of Medicine, The New Mexico Tumor Registry, Albuquerque, NM 87131, U.S.A. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 134: 466- 470, 1986.

Lung cancer risk associated with family and personal history of respiratory diseases was assessed in a population-based, case-control study that included incident cases in New Mexico, 1980 to 1982. The study questionnaire as- certained previous diagnoses of major chronic respiratory diseases in the index subjects, their parents, and their grandparents and of lung and other respiratory cancers in the parents and grandparents. Physician diagnoses of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and other chest illnesses were reported significantly more often for cases than for control subjects. For 6.9% of the cases, at least 1 parent had a diagnosis of lung cancer, whereas only 2.2% of the control subjects' parents were similarly affected (p < 0.001). In multiple logis- tic regression models that excluded never smokers and included variables to control for the effects of cigarette smoking, we found significantly increased risks for a personal history of chronic bronchitis or emphysema (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% cc - fidence interval, 1.4 to 2.8) and a parental history of lung cancer (odds ratio = 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 12.8). The present study complements the results of previous investigations, which demonstrated that lung cancer risk in smokers is modified by characteristics of-the smoker and by family history.

Passive Smoking and Lung Cancer Among Japanese Women. Akiba, S., Kato, H., Blot, W.J. Depart- ment of Epidemiology and Statistics, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima 730, Japan. Cancer Res. 46: 4804-4807, 1986.

A case-control study conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, revealed a 50% increased risk of lung cancer among nonsmoking women whose husbands smoked. The risks tended to increase with amount smoked by the husband, being highest among women who worked outside the home and whose husbands were heavy smokers,

and to decrease with cessation of exposure. The findings provide incentive for further evaluation of the relation- ship between passive smoking and cancer among nonsmokers.

Lung Cancer Risk Associated with Cigar and Pipe Smoking. Benhamou, S., Benhamou, E., Flamant, R. Unite de Recherches en Epidemiologie des Cancers de I'INSERM, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France. Int. J. Cancer 37: 825-829, 1986.

A case-control study of 1,529 his- tologically confirmed male lung cancer cases and 2,899 controls matched for sex, age, hospital of admission and inter- viewer was conducted in France between 1976 and 1980. The results presented con- cern the effects of smoking habits, espe- cially cigar and pipe use, on the occur- rence of lung cancer, in a total of 38 exclusive cigar smokers, 61 exclusive pipe smokers and 586 mixed tobacco smokers. Exclusive cigar or pipe use (RR = 5.6 and 1.6 respectively) has been shown less harmful than exclusive cigarette smoking (RR = 13.3), mixed cigar and cigarette smoking (RR = 8.5) and mixed pipe and cigarette smoking (RR = 8.0). Different inhalation practices were observed according to smoking habits: while among exclusive cigarette smokers 29.8% never inhaled the smoke, among exclusive cigar and exclusive pipe users these percentages were 89.5% and 86.9% respectively. No significant in- crease with greater exposure to cigar was found among mixed cigar and cigarette smokers after adjustment for exposure to cigarettes, defined by duration and daily consumption of cigarettes (RR = 1.20), and by type of cigarettes smoked - light or dark, filter or nonfilter (RR = 1.13). Similar results were observed among mixed pipe and cigarette smokers after adjust- ment for cigarette exposure (RR = 0.95 and 1.04).

The Relation of Passive Smoking to Lung Cancer. Dalager, N.A., Pickle, L.W., Mason, T.J. et al. Epidemiology and Biostatistics Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, U.S.A. Cancer Res. 46: 4808-4811, 1986.

To evaluate the role of passive smok- ing in the development of lung cancer among nonsmokers, data were pooled from three large incident case-control inter- view studies. Ninety-nine lung cancer cases and 736 controls never used any form of tobacco. Overall the adjusted odds ratio for lung cancer among non- smokers ever living with a smoker was 0.8 (95% confidence interval, 0.5-1.3) rising to 1.2 among those exposed for 40 or more years. Persons living with a spouse who smoked cigarettes were at increased risk (adjusted odds ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-2.8). When adjusted for age