J. For. Res. 5:195-199 (2000)
Participatory Forest Conservation in Southwest Lowland Rainforests of Sri Lanka
Wataru Yamamoto RECS INTERNATIONAL Inc., Tokyo 160-0023, Japan.
Natural forest in Sri Lanka has been decreased significantly in the last few decades. The remaining natural forests especially in floris- tic region seven have undergone less conservation efforts in the past. Considering the capacity of the government and dependence on forest resources by local villagers, the only way for conservation of these forests in the Southwest lowland is forest management through local participation. Management plans for community-based resource management have been completed. However promotion of such management requires integrated measures, which are beyond jurisdiction of Forest Department. A holistic approach with political commitment concerning buffer zone villages and economic incentives with income generation opportunities supported by external inputs are expected to be implemented as a matter of urgency.
Key words: biodiversity conservation, community-based resource management, participatory forestry, Sri Lanka
An exceptionally high level of endemic flora in Sri Lanka has been attracting researchers since the end of the last century (Peeris, 1975; NARESA, 1991). The increasing demand for land by agricultural development due to the increase of the population as well as economic interest in timber has result- ed in the rapid depletion of natural forests (Wijesinghe, et al., 1993). In effect, many endemic species are presently con- sidered to be in danger of extinction (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1991).
Southwest lowland rainforests cover the floristically richest area in Sri Lanka (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1990). How- ever, remaining natural forests have already become reduced to only small patches. National Forest Policy in 1995 focus- es on biodiversity conservation and forest management with local participation (FPU, 1995b). Management plans, aiming at community-based management for selected forests, were completed by IUCN in 1995 (IUCN, 1995a-e). The actual mechanisms for implementing the plans are being searched lbr by the government with local communities. In order to outline participatory forest management in Sri Lanka, its historical background and present status at the national level and on- going activities at local level are in need of study.
This paper first reviews the historical background of forest management in Sri Lanka and phytological status in Southwest lowland rainforests. The on-going participatory approaches lbr forest conservation in Southwest lowland rainforests by the government will be described and discussed with the aspects of political commitment and external inputs to support these efforts.
Brief History and Current Forest Policy in Sri Lanka Forest cover in Sri Lanka has been decreased significantly
since the beginning of this century (FPU, 1995a; Legg and Jewell, 1995). The first comprehensive aerial photographic survey, undertaken in 1956, showed a 44% forest cover (Andrews, 1961) most of which is considered to be natural. The inventory survey carried out in 1983 showed a 26.6% nat- ural forest cover (FAO, 1986). The latest forest map based on
1992 satellite remote sensing data supplemented by field sur- vey shows only a 23.9% cover of natural forest in Sri Lanka (Legg and Jewell, 1995). These data indicate that the rate of deforestation has been 42,000 ha/year from 1956 to 1983 and 54,000 ha/year since 1983 (Wijesinghe et al., 1993).
After the critique of the continuous massive timber harvest promoted by the Forest Master Plan in 1988 (Gunatilleke, 1988), the government imposed a logging moratorium from natural forests in the wet zone. Extensive biophysical surveys were undertaken under an Accelerated Conservation Review (ACR) in 1989-1990 and National Conservation Review (NCR) since 1992. Based on the results, 32 tbrests containing endemic flora and fauna have been selected as Conservation Forests for strict protection with a total extent of approximately 60,000 ha (Liyanage, 1995).
The National Forest Policy (NFP), 1995, shows clear direc- tions for the development of the tbrestry sector toward con- servation with the private sector's involvement. The policy acknowledges the limitation of government ability to manage all the forested area and shows a strong lbcus on the conser- vation of biodiversity, soil and water to avoid further heavy depletion of natural forests. In order to do so, the policy emphasizes the empowering and building of partnerships with local people and communities, NGOs, and the private sector in all the aspects of forest management. The policy is also directed at developing home gardens and other agro- forestry systems as one of the key strategies in order to meet the increasing demand in both subsistence and industrial sec- tor.
The Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP) in 1995 catego- rized four types of forests for different protection levels (Table 1). The application of the new classification is on- going. The difference between Class III and IV is confusing. It seems that Class III includes natural forests and Class IV only plantations. In Class III and IV forests it is likely that land can be leased on a long term basis to local villagers, local communities and companies to promote private reforesta- tion.
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Table 1 Classification for protected areas and production forest. Class Land use purpose Activities allowed Area covered
Strict protection for Research National heritage biodiversity, soils wilderness areas and water and his- strict nature
I torical, cultural, reli- reserves gions and esthetic values
Conservation with Scientific research Non-extractive uses Regulated nature-
based tourism Control collection
National parks sanctuaries conservation forests
Forests for multiple Sustainable wood Other forest uses buffer zones to production reserves for pro- protect Class I and NWFPs duction Class II forests
Forest plantations and Other forest IV agroforestry systems reserves for pro-
in state lands duction
Source: FPU (1995a).
Case Study 1 Biological diversity in Southwest Lowland rainforests
In Sri Lanka, 70% of forest comprises dry monsoon forest, and lowland rain forest occupies only 9% (Legg and Jewell, 1995). A large part of recent deforestation has occurred in the dry zone due to agricultural development. However, South- west lowland forests in the densely populated wet zone have also been shrinking to smaller patches by development of tea, coconut, and rubber plantations and home gardens. Illegal timber harvesting took place despite strict control by the For- est Department (FD). Because of dense human population, threats to biodiversity are greatest in the wet zone, particularly in the south-west (FPU, 1995a).
Sri Lanka can be divided into the 15 regions with distinct floristic elements (Fig. 1, Ashton and Gunatilleke, 1987). Southwest lowland rain forests in the wet zone (region 6 and 7) contain floristically the richest area in the island (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1990). Ninety-three percent of woody species studied in the wet zone are either endangered, vulnerable or rare according to the IUCN Red Data Book clas- sification (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1991). Floristic region 6 has a relatively large forest area (Sinharaja forest is well- known as a world heritage) with adequate protection (Ishwaran and Erdelen, 1990). However, floristic region 7 includes a few isolated forest fragments on lowland hills between the front edge of central highland and the coast (Fig. 2). These lbrests have been identified as Conservation Forests for Class II pro- tection allowing only non-extractive uses of forest resources. 2 Forest interaction with rural communities
The human population in the southwest lowland live most- ly by farming and have a relatively low income. Emigration is substantial and much of the income is derived from Colombo. Tea, rubber and coconut plantations are the major sources of employment opportunities. Rice is grown in the middle zone, however productivity is the lowest in the country. Trans-
Fig. 1 Floristic regions of Sri Lanka. Source: Ashton and Gunatillake, (1987). 1, Coastal and marine belt ; 2, Dry and arid lowlands; 3, North- ern intermediate lowlands; 4, Eastern intermediate lowlands; 5, North- ern wet lowlands; 6, Sinharaja and Ratnapura; 7, Southern lowland hills; 8, Wet zone freshwater bodies; 9, Foot hills of Adam's peak and Ambagamuwa; 10, Midmountains; 11, Kandy and upper Mahaweli; 12, Knuckles; 13, Central mountains, Ramboda; 14, Adam's peak; 15, Horton plain.
Region 7 .~ l Region ~ . _ ,
Fig. 2 Natural forest area in southwest lowland rainforests. Source: Legg and Jewell (1995). Note: This figure shows all natural forest blocks larger than 20 ha.
portation to Colombo is better on the coast with direct train connection and flat roads, but most of the villages in the buffer zones are rather isolated. Land holdings are small (mostly smaller than 0.5 ha in Matara district (IPID, 1996)), with a high component of slope land in the buffer zones.
Traditionally, forests have been utilized by local villagers for grazing live stock, collecting fuelwood, building materials (timber, rattan, bamboo), sticks to support planting betels and tea, medicinal plants, food (mushrooms, honey etc.), mining clay for brick making, hunting wild animals (hares, porcupines, mouse deer, samburs and wild boars) and shifting (chena) cultivation. The economic value of forest for local vil- lagers is significant. The study at the villages near Kan-
dawattegoda forest showed that the value of the forest resources of a household is more than three month average earnings per person employed (Table 2; IUCN, 1995a).
All the periphery of the forests has been encroached by vil- lagers to enlarge their land for paddy, tea, cinnamon, cit- ronella and home gardens. A number of encroachments (69 in Kandawattegoda, 22 in Kekanadura, 345 in Vihalakele, and 106 in Kottawa forests) were recorded (IUCN, 1995a-e). The existence of irrigated reservoirs (tanks) located at the edges of the forests allows more severe encroachment to occur (IUCN, 1995e). Since tea cultivation can create a good income on present international markets due to the new markets in Iran and Russia, the expansion of smallholders and home gardens for tea planting is the main problem in the conservation forests located at higher elevations. 3 Conservation efforts with local participation
Conservation forests are managed for "the conservation of biodiversity (genes, species, and ecosystems), the mainte- nance of ecological processes and services and the preserva- tion of cultural traditions" (IUCN, 1995a-e). The manage- ment plans were completed by 1995 for the Kanneliya, Dediyagala, and Nakiyadeniya (KDN) forest complex, Kan- dawattegoda, Viharakele, Oliyagankele, Welihena, Kottawa- Kombara, Kekanadura forests (IUCN, 1995a-e). The man- agement plans aim at community-based resource manage-
Table 2 Total value of forest resources at villages near Kandawatte- goda Forest Reserve.
Villages Kandawatte- Puswalkada Haupe All goda villages
Average earnings 2290 t995 2730 2363 per month per person employed (Rs)
No. of sample 15 17 20 52 households
Roots 200 200 Mushrooms 450 450 Kitul treacle 3000 3000 Hunting/meat 11250 11250 Medical herbs 28 8 21 19 Fuelwood 62 145 172 126 Handles: tools 106 8 57 Branches: roofs 750 750 Round poles 90 29 24 47 Roofing poles 277 75 131 161 Rattan 220 346 800 455 Bamboo 875 86 92 351 Goraka 180 225 600 335 Sticks 925 108 1650 894
Total 14013 2430 6490 7333
Source: IUCN (1995a). Note: Data for the table were collected in 1994 by the socio-economic survey of three peripheral villages considered to be fairly typical (Kandawattegoda within forest and Puswalkada and Haupe on the periphery). Fifty two households were randomly selected in the three villages with stratification based on distance to the forest. The value of each product was calculated based on total amount and market prices of forest resources collected by the sample households. In 1994, US$1 ~ Rs 50.
ment adopting planning and management processes by local communities, the minimization of negative impacts on local communities, accommodation of traditional resource use, direct benefit for local communities and linkage with socio- economic development. Local villagers who are directly rel- evant to these forests are involved in a five stage process of for- est management, namely: gathering information, consulta- tion, decision making, initiating action and evaluation.
1) Zoning Since conservation survey data did not indicate any edge
effect, the management plans assumed that biodiversity and endemic species are distributed evenly throughout the natur- al forests. A large protected area is necessary for conserving species with low population densities because of their unequal distribution throughout the forests (Sinhakumara, 1994). However, considering the high dependence on forest resources by local villagers, excessive protection is not realistic. Since large parts of forests belong to cultural and transitional zones, the protected core zone is much smaller than the area of the conservation forests. This indicates the critical status of the protected core zone in the zoning of the management plans which can not be violated.
According to the management plans, conservation forests are zoned into 1) protected core zone for strict preservation of biophysical features, 2) traditional use zone for traditional har- vest of timber and non-timber forest products (NTFPs), 3) cul- tural zone with sites of cultural and religious importance, 4) recovery zone which requires restorative management intervention, 5) village integrating zone, extensively encroached and 6) buffer zone where socio-economic devel- opment can help achieve the conservation of the core zones. It should be noticed that the concept of buffer zone is for socio- economic development in the management. The existing definition of buffer zones according to the Fauna and Flora Act - one mile wide belt surrounding protected areas - is not realistic. Multiple-use trees like kitul palm (Karyota urens) which yields sap for treacle and raw sugar and pith for food and medicine as well as fodder are planned to be planted at boundaries as a visual and useful sign.
2) Institutional development The viability of voluntary participatory management by
local villagers is questionable unless they are properly con- stituted and realize tangible early benefits for their members (IUCN, 1995a-e). The first step, therefore, is to establish and identify reliable local organizations which co-operate with the Forest Department (FD). Provision of economic incentives to maintain forests for their own benefit and the capability build- ing on both FD officers and local villagers through the plan- ning process of conservation forest management are vital.
In the management plans two-level committees are pro- posed to be established: Village Forest Participatory Man- agement Committee (VFPMC) and Divisional Forest Partic- ipatory Management Committee (DFPMC). The VFPMC in each village is composed of elected representatives tom the community's forest user groups, the political leaders of the vil- lage (Grama Nildhari), local monks and other local repre-
198 J. For. Res.5 (3) 2000:
sentatives. DFPMC co-ordinates all planning, reviews devel- opment proposals from the communities, and actually funds and implements interventions in the buffer zones of all con- servation forests within the division. Community-based Orga- nizations (CBOs) particularly working for forest conservation were established as VFPMCs with the support by the FD in each village in the buffer zones. The CBOs work closely with the FD having regular meetings with forest officers at differ- ent levels. In addition, local villagers are hired as social mobilizers, particularly for the community management work for forests larger than 500 ha.
3) Incentive formulation Since the FD restricts land use in forest reserves, villagers
are worse off for biodiversity conservation. In order to make villagers voluntarily co-operate in conservation activities, the FD started special programs with selected villages locat- ed at critical areas in the buffer zones. In 1997, 42 commu- nities were selected from buffer zones of 8 conservation forests for these programs. Activities proposed by the FD for local villages include 1) health camps to bring doctors to the villages for better health care, 2) an awareness program with school education materials, 3) clay cookers to efficiently make use of fuel, 4) road construction with community vol- untary work, 5) renting tractors to farmers who perform heavy earth work, 6) development of recreational facilities for villagers, and 7) seedling planting (kitul palms) along the boundary of conservation forests for living fences.
4) Measures against encroachment Villagers who have encroached conservation forests will be
dealt with in two ways by the FD. Villagers who have encroached less than 0.5 acre will be given a land lease with annual permit. Villagers who have encroached without con- structing their own houses to live in the encroached land will have to leave the land eventually with a grace period of five years. The FD will provide seedlings of multiple-use indige- nous trees such as dipterocarps (Shorea spp.), jak (Artocarpus integrifolia) to the encroachers to establish permanent tree cover. After the 5 year lease expires such encroached land reverts to the FD and the encroached villagers will be forced to leave. The land will be expected to be regenerated and become a part of conservation Forests.
5) Socio-eeonomic development in the buffer zones The programs offered by the FD are only temporary mea-
sures to mitigate forest exploitation. Socio-economic devel- opment with income generating, sustainable resource use is essential to avoid further encroachment in the long run. With the significant level of dependence on forest resources by local villagers, optimal conservation is realized only by opti- mal production and vice versa. The potential for income gen- eration is searched for by three ways, namely, direct income generation by resin tapping, improvement of productivity by agroforestry techniques and nature-based tourism develop- ment. In order to support small community activities, a Community Trust Fund (CTF) is proposed as a revolving fund in the management plan. The fund can be used as col- lateral to secure group credit.
Regulated harvesting of non-timber forest products is allowed by villagers in the buffer zones. Resin tapping from kitul palms and pine (Pinus caribaera) has potential for income generation. While pine has been excessively planted in the forest reserves by the FD, kitul palms are planted only on an individual basis in home gardens. Pines were originally planted for pulpwood supply, however, presently they do not contribute much to the national economy due to pulp imports. The FD encourages local villagers to tap pine resin with a con- tract to a Colombo-based company for export. The pine has potential as sawlogs and panelling wood as an alternative to rubber and coconut wood. Combining resin tapping with timber production will increase the financial return of the plantations. On the other hand, planting kitul palms in home gardens as living fences will help create income. However, at present kitul tapping is not well organized. Organizing groups to make kitul treacle at local level will increase the financial return to local villages.
The small patches of remaining forests have been sur- rounded by tea, rubber plantations and home gardens (e.g., Kandawattegoda: Fig. 3). Tea is the main economic product from home gardens. Improving productivity of home gardens and tea plantations is important in order to avoid further pressure on forest resources. In order to improve productiv- ity, several interventions by agroforestry techniques have been used in home gardens: e.g., planting Albizzia (Albizzia lebbeck) for shading tea, Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) for hedgerows.
It is possible to diversify the products in home gardens. Multiple-use trees such as papaya, citrus (lime/orange) have been disseminated at home gardens. At present Colombo- based herbal medicine manufacturers face a shortage of their raw materials, however marketing information does not reach local villages due to the insufficient transportation system. Improving transportation and distributing marketing infor- mation through CBOs would enable them to diversify their products in home gardens.
In order to maximize the financial returns to local villages, the forests need to be managed voluntarily by local villagers. External funds like CTFs play an important role in stimulat- ing local villagers to initiate their own business. Technical assistance to improve productivity with marketing information
Kombala Proposed +
Fig, 3 Land use pattern around Kandawanegoda forest reserve. Source: IUCN, (1995a). ~ Paddy; , Road. FR, Forest reserve; G, home gar- den: T, tea; R, rubber; CIT, citrus; C, coconut.
and financial assistance for seed money are expected to be implemented, particularly in order to promote small scale projects initiated by local villagers for income generation.
There is no major tourism spot in southwest lowland rain- forest. Increasing visitors to Sinharaja forest, well known as a world heritage, designated only lbr strict protection, research and education, indicates a strong demand of nature-based tourism. Tourism facilities with conservation centers and tourist lodges are proposed in the KDN forest complex and local tourism with water related recreational facilities are proposed in the Kekanadura forest where there is a large reservoir (IUCN, 1995b,c). However, funding for these facil- ities is not yet finalized. Development of nature-based tourism in the southwest lowland will reduce pressure on Sinharaja as well as generating income for the local community. In any case, it should be remembered that conservation is the primary concern for conservation forest.
Conclusions Conservation in protected areas requires sustainable
resource management in the buffer zones. While monitor- ing tbr strict protection is important, socio-economic devel- opment lbr income generation is essential to maintain the zoning in the management plans. Income generation through forest management practices can be optimized by combining political commitments to use the forests in multiple ways (dissemination of NTFPs), technical support to improve pro- ductivity by agroforestry techniques and financial support for innovative economic activities (tourism development).
Since the way to protect natural forests with local partici- pation is already beyond the jurisdiction of FD, further coop- eration with other agencies is required. Although national for- est policy emphasizes local people's participation, actual implementation needs to work with other sector agencies and local government. In order to introduce holistic and horizontal approaches to facilitate government agencies and local communities toward community-based resource man- agement, a new political system with both protected areas and buffer zone villages to enable the provision of special incen- tives to local villagers in bufl%r zones for supporting conser- vation is necessary.
Participatory forestry to provide for the short term daily needs tbr local villagers must fulfill the long term requirements for forest management. It should be noticed that the role of government has been changed from direct involvement in forest management practices to arrangement between short- term socio-economic needs of the local people and long term bio-physical requirements of natural tbrests. Sustainable socio-economic development lbr income generation through forest resources and capability building of local villagers who actually manage the lorests will be the key for the success
of community-based resource management in the long run.
The author would like to thank Mr. Dayananda Kariyawasam, addi- tional conservator of forests and Mr. Sunil Liyanage, deputy conserva- tor of forests and other Forest Officers of Forest Department and Dr. B.M.P.Sinhakumara, University of Sri Jayawardenepura for their sup- port in his field survey.
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(Accepted April 7, 2000)