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Paper Reference(s) Edexcel GCE - eiewebvip.edexcel… Documents... · ©2005 Edexcel Limited. ... 6104/03 Edexcel GCE Biology Biology (Human) Advanced Unit 4C Core and Option Human

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  • This publication may be reproduced only in accordance with Edexcel Limited copyright policy. 2005 Edexcel Limited.

    Printers Log. No.

    N21431AW850/R6104/57570 8/8/7/7/6900

    Paper Reference(s)

    6104/03Edexcel GCEBiologyBiology (Human)AdvancedUnit 4C Core and OptionHuman Health and FitnessTuesday 21 June 2005 MorningTime: 1 hour 30 minutes

    Materials required for examination Items included with question papersRuler Nil

    Instructions to CandidatesIn the boxes above, write your centre number, candidate number, your surname, initial(s) andsignature.The paper reference is shown above. Check that you have the correct question paper.Answer ALL questions in the spaces provided in this booklet.Show all the steps in any calculations and state the units. Calculators may be used.Include diagrams in your answers where these are helpful.

    Information for CandidatesThe marks for the individual questions and parts of questions are shown in round brackets: e.g. (2).The total mark for this question paper is 70.

    Advice to CandidatesYou will be assessed on your ability to organise and present information, ideas, descriptions andarguments clearly and logically, taking into account your use of grammar, punctuation and spelling.

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    Answer ALL questions in the spaces provided.

    1. (a) The table below compares three features of nervous and hormonal coordination.Complete the table to show the differences between the two types of coordination.

    (3)

    (b) Give one similarity between the methods of transmission involved in nervous andhormonal coordination.

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    Q1

    (Total 4 marks)

    Feature Nervous coordination Hormonal coordination

    Method of transmission

    Speed of transmission

    Duration of the response

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    2. In humans, physical exercise results in the breakdown of glycogen in muscle tissue.

    (a) Name the hormone that is secreted in response to the anticipation of physicalexercise.

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    (b) This hormone causes the breakdown of glycogen which is stored in the cells of theliver and the muscles. Some scientists think that the effect of the hormone may begreater in the muscles than in the liver.

    Suggest why this effect would be advantageous to someone who is about to undergosome exercise.

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    (c) Name the hormone that will lower the blood glucose level, if it is too high after theexercise.

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    Q2

    (Total 6 marks)

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    3. The flow diagram below shows some of the steps involved in glycolysis and the Krebscycle. Some ATP is made directly. Hydrogen is also released and this can result in theproduction of more ATP.

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    Glucose

    Triose phosphate Triose phosphate

    Pyruvate

    Acetyl CoA

    Krebs cycle

    2H 3ATP

    2ATP

    2H 3ATP

    8H 11ATP1ATP

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    (a) Describe how the hydrogen released during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle results inthe production of ATP.

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    (b) Using the information in the diagram, state the number of ATP molecules producedfrom one triose phosphate molecule.

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    (c) As well as carbohydrates, triglycerides can be respired. The first step is to breakdown each triglyceride molecule into glycerol and three fatty acids.

    Each fatty acid is broken down into acetyl CoA molecules. The acetyl CoAmolecules then enter the Krebs cycle.

    (i) Using the information in the diagram, state the number of ATP moleculesproduced from one acetyl CoA molecule.

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    (ii) Suggest why fatty acids can only be respired under aerobic conditions.

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    Q3

    (Total 9 marks)

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    4. An investigation was carried out into the effect of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) on urineproduction in a mammal. The rate of urine production was measured over a period of 30 minutes. Five minutes after measurements began, ADH was injected into a vein of themammal. The results are shown in the graph below.

    (a) Name the gland that releases ADH.

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    (b) Describe the effect of the injection of ADH on the rate of urine production in themammal in this investigation.

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    Rate ofurineproduction/ cm3 min1

    5

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    Injection of ADH

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30

    Time / min

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    (c) Describe the mechanism by which ADH produces the effect seen in this investigation.

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    (d) In a similar investigation, an injection of sodium chloride (salt) solution was givenafter five minutes instead of ADH. This injection was observed to affect urineproduction in a similar way to ADH. Suggest how the sodium chloride brought aboutthis effect.

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    Q4

    (Total 11 marks)

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    5. Give an account of the location and functions of each of the following areas of themammalian brain: cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and medulla.

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    Q5

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    Option C: Human health and fitness.

    6. The electron micrograph below shows a longitudinal section of a muscle fibre.

    Dr Don Fawcett /Science Photo Library

    (a) (i) State the number of myofibrils shown in the electron micrograph.

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    (ii) Name part A.

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    (b) Calculate the magnification if the section labelled B is actually 1.6 m wide. Showyour working.

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    B

    A

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    (c) Describe a practical procedure to demonstrate that ATP causes muscle contraction.

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    Q6

    (Total 7 marks)

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    7. The diagram below shows the possibility of developing tuberculosis (TB) when peopleare exposed to the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    (a) Name the organ which is the most commonly infected by M. tuberculosis.

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    (b) Suggest why 90% of people who are infected by M. tuberculosis never develop TB.

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    Exposure tobacterium

    Not infected(7090%)

    Infected(1030%)

    Dormant TB (90%) never develop TB not infectious

    Active TB (10%) half develop TB within 2 years half develop TB more than 2 years later

    Untreated half die within 2 years

    Treated most survive

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    (c) Outline the treatment for those people with active TB.

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    Q7

    (Total 6 marks)

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    8. (a) Ventilation rate changes in response to different levels of physical activity. Explainhow these changes are brought about.

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    (b) The graph below shows changes in the ventilation rate of an athlete before, duringand after a 10 minute period of strenuous exercise.

    Describe the changes in the ventilation rate in the two minutes before exercise andduring the period of exercise.

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    (c) Suggest how the ventilation rate, during and after exercise, would differ in anuntrained individual completing the same type of exercise for the same length oftime.

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    Q8

    (Total 9 marks)

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    9. The diagram below illustrates some aspects of the regulation of heart rate.

    (a) Complete the flow diagram by naming the part of the heart that receives impulsesfrom the two nerves.

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    (b) Strenuous physical activity will increase the volume of blood flowing through thevenae cavae and into the right atrium. This will trigger a reflex action.

    (i) Name the reflex that will be initiated.

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    Chemoreceptors Baroreceptors

    Cardiovascular centresin the brain

    Increase heart rate Decrease heart rate

    Sympathetic(accelerator) nerve

    Parasympathetic(vagus) nerve

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    (ii) Using your own knowledge and the information provided, explain how thisincrease in blood volume in the venae cavae and right atrium causes a change inheart rate.

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    (c) The coordination of the heart beat is disrupted when the conducting systems of theheart are damaged. This type of disease is called heart block. Describe how anartificial pacemaker can be used to treat this condition.

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    TOTAL FOR PAPER: 70 MARKS

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    Q9

    (Total 8 marks)

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