Paintings, drawings and prints : the art of Goya : The Art institute of ...

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PAINTINGS DRA\VINGS AND PRINTS I 1. Self Portr a it. 1810 (or lat er ) . Oil , 26 x 20 in ches. Lent b y Th e Smith College Mu se um of Art, Northampton, Massa chu sett s . Lik e R embran dt, Goya depicte d him self at all periods duri ng hi s life-tim e. Here, at th e age of about sixty -five, he subj ect s th e tra gic ma sk of hi s face to th e scrutiny of str ong light. Ne ith er deafness, bodily sufferin g, nor mental strif e could imp ede hi s ind omit able will to live and creat e. T echni cally, th e portr ait show s Goya's redu ced sca le of colors: only a few pat ches of dull red va ry th e loomin g grays and blacks. Pi gment is thinl y applied , but du e to hi s mast erly comm and of light Goya 's forms appe ar solidly in space. PAINTINGS, DRAWINGS AND PRINTS Edited by DANIEL CATTON RrcH with a note on The Technique of Goya by F. ScHMID THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO COPYRIGHTED by The Art Institute of Chicago, 1941. Printed in the United States of America by R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company , The Lakeside Press, Chicago. LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION The Art Institute of Chicago gratefully acknow ledges the genero us cooperation of the following lenders to the ex-hibition: Mr. W. G. Ru ssell Allen, Boston; Mr. and Mrs. Paul M. Byk, New York; The Honorable Oscar B. Cintas, Havana; Mr s. Richard E. Danielson, Boston; The Charles Deering Collection; Mr. Henry S. Ferriss, Madison, New Jersey; Mrs. P.H. B. Frelinghuysen, Morristown, New Jersey; The Col-lection of the late J. Horace Harding, New York; Mrs. Ed-ward S. Harkness, New York; Miss Ethel Haven, New York; Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Mr . Samuel H. Kress, New York; Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey McCormick, Chicago; Mr . Robert W. Reford, Montreal; Mr. Godfrey S. Rockefeller, Greenwich, Connecticut; Mr. Frank Channing Smith, Jr., Worcester, Massachusetts; Mr. and Mrs. Michael M. van Beuren, New York; Miss Edith Wetmore, New York; Mrs. Felix Wildenstein, Rid gefield, Connecticut. Brooklyn Museum; Fine Arts Society of San Diego; Fogg Museum of Art, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mas-sachusetts; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Mu seum of Fine Arts, Boston; William Rockhill Nelson Gal-lery of Art, Kansas City; Phillips Memorial Gallery, Wash-ington, D. C.; Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of De sign, Providence; Smith College Mu seum of Art, North-ampton, Massachusetts; The Taft Museum, Cincinnati ; Wadsworth Atheneurn, Hartford, Connecticut; Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, Massachusett s. Paul Drey Gallery, New York; Durlacher Brothers, New York; F . Kleinberger and Company, In c., New York; Arnold Seligmann, Rey and Company, Inc., New York; E. and A. Silberman Galleries, Inc., New York; Julius H. Weitzner, Inc., New York; Mr. E. Weyhe, New York; Wilden stein and Company, Inc., New York. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We wish to express app reciation to th e following for the as-sistance which they rendered in assembling the exhibition: Mr. Francis Henry Taylor, Director, and Mr. Harry B. Wehle, Curator of Paintings, of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Mr. George Harold Edgell, Director, Mr. William George Constab le, Curator of Paintings, and Mr. Henry Preston Rossiter, Curator of Print s, of the Museum of Fine Arts , Boston; Mr. Laurance P . Robert s, Director, Mrs . Cecile B. Seiberling , and Miss Una John son of The Brooklyn Museum; Mr. Edward Forbes, Director, and Mr. Paul J. 7 Sachs, Associate Director, of the Fogg Museum of Art, H ar-vard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Mr. A. Everett Austin, Jr., Director of the Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut; Mr. Alexander Dorner, Dire ctor of the Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Pr ovidence; Mr. Charles H . Sawyer, Director of the Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, Massachusetts; Mr. Jere Abbott, Director of The Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, Massachusetts; Mr. Walter H. Siple, Director of the Taft Museum, Cincin-nati; Mr. Duncan Phillips, Dir ector, Phillips Memorial Gallery, Washington, D. C.; Mr. Paul Gardner, Dir ector of the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City; Mr. Reginald H. Poland, Director, Fine Arts Gallery, San Diego. Dr . Chandler R. Post of Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Mr. A. Hyatt Mayor, Associate Curator of Prints of The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Miss Ethelwyn Manning, Librarian of the Frick Art Reference Library; Mr. Henri Marceau, Assist ant Director of the Phil adelphi a Mu-seum of Art; Mr. Winslow Ames, Dir ector of the Lyman Allyn Museum, New London, Connecticut; Mrs. Adelyn D. Breeskin, Curator of Prints of The Baltimore Museum of Art; Mr. Martin Baldwin, Curator of The Art Gallery of Toronto; Mr. Max Epstein, Chicago; Mr. Alfred M. Frank-furter, New York; Mr. Jon ce I. McGurk, New York; Mr. Theodore Bolton, New York; Miss Elizabeth du Gue Trapier of The Hi span ic Society of America, New York; Mr. Jo se Gudiol, Visitin g Professor at The Toledo Museum of Art; Mr. Walter M. Walters, New York; Mr. Jose Lazaro, New York; Mr. William Sawitzky, Stamford, Conne cticut; Mr. Cleve-land F. Morgan, Montreal; Miss Inglis Griswold, New York. Mr. Charles R. Hen schel, New York; Miss Lelia Wittler, New York; Mr. Robert M. Levy, New York; Mr . J ames St. L. O'Toole, New York; Mr. C. M. de Hauke, New York; Mr. Felix Wildenstein, New York. Libr ary of Congress, Washington, D. C.; New York Public Library; Library of Th e Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Frick Art Reference Library, New York; The Public Library of the City of Boston ; Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Fogg Museum Library, Harvard Un iversity , Cambridge, Massachusetts; Yale University, School of the Fine Arts Library, New Haven, Connecticut; Princeton Univer sity Library, Princeton, New Jer sey; Uni-versity of Michigan General Library, Ann Arbor; Library of The University of Wisconsin, Madi son ; Chicago Public Li-brary; The University of Chicago Libraries; The Newberry Library, Chicago; The John Crerar Library, Chicago. STAFF FOR THE EXHIBITION Appreciation is due the following member s of the staff for their ass ist ance in assemb ling the exhibition and in the prep arat ion of the catalogue : Miss Etheldred Abbot and members of the Reference Staff, Mr. Lester B. Bridaham, Mr. Hugh Edwards, Mrs. Marion Rawl s Herzog , Miss Marie Hinkes, Miss Selma John son, Mr. G. E. Ka ltenbach, M iss Ruth Kellogg, Miss Petrone) Luk ens, Mi ss He len Mackenzie, Miss Daisy M . Meyer, Miss Dorothy Odenheimer, Mr. Meyric R. Roger s, Mrs. Nancy Sande rs, Mr . Car l 0. Schniewind, Mr. Walt er J. Sherwood, Mr. Frederick A. Sweet, Miss Marie Swift, Miss Margaret Wareing. TRUSTEES AND OFIFRANCISCO JOSE DE GOYA YLUCIENTES was born on March 30, 1746, in the miserable village of Fuendetodos, thirty-five miles from Saragossa. His father, Jose, a master gilder, and his mother, Dona Gracia Lucientes, a mem-ber of the Aragonese nobility, had left Saragossa to seek aid from the wife 's relatives. The young Francisco, whom the elders of Fuendetodos re-called as "wild and mischievous," must have early shown talent for at the age of twelve he is said to have painted a curtain and doors for a reliquary in the village church. (When shown this dubious work of art in 1807, Goya ex-claimed: "Don't tell anyone I painted that!") LIFE IN SARAGOSSA. EARLY TRAINING 2 In 1760 the family were back in Saragossa where the father's trade of gilding must have brought the son into contact with painters. Francisco attended the Escuela Pia of a certain Father Joaquin where he met Martin Zapater, destined to become his life-long friend and with whom he corresponded for more than twenty-five years. At fourteen he was apprenticed to Jose Luzan y Martinez, the best known artist in town. Luzan was the master of the three Bayeu brothers, all associated with Goya later on, and had himself studied in Naples with a pupil of Solimena. For a provincial capital Saragossa was remarkably up-to-date, boasting a drawing school with excellent teachers and even a collection of plaster casts sent from Italy. But Goya had his eyes on Madrid where Fran-cisco Bayeu had already won notable success. 9 2. St. Francis of Paula. 1770-1775. Etching, 51/4x3% inches. 2nd state (D.2). Inscribed (in reverse): Cari (for Caritas). Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. In December, 1763, at the age of seventeen, he competed with four other young men for a scholarship in the Academy of San Fernando-the first of a number of competitions which he was fated to lose. MADRID. THE TRIP TO ITALY In 1766 he once more entered a competition in Madrid sponsored by the Academy, this time for an historical subject. Again he failed to win a prize and we know nothing of his move-ments, until, suddenly in April, 1771, Goya submits, from Rome, a picture to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Parma for the compe-tition of that year. The subject assigned was Hannibal, Victorious, Looks for the First Time from the Alps on Italy. A mediocre Italian walked away with the honors and by July, 1771, Goya was back in Spain. EARLY ETCHINGS Abo:ut this time or a little later, Goya started etching. His head of St. Francis of Paula, the famous preaching saint (for whom Goya was named), recalls Domenico Tiepolo in subject and method. The delicate, broken line and flickering light show the artist's debt to the Venetian roco-co. The original study for the etching belongs to Don Eduardo Carderera Ponzan, Madrid. RELIGIOUS FRESCOES IN ARAGON. REMOVAL TO MADRID For the next few years Goya was constantly employed at decorating churches in and about Saragossa. Late in 1771 he was retained to fresco the small choir of the Chapel of the Virgin del Pilar in the Pilar Cathedral. In the Car-thusian Monastery of Aula Dei, near by, he covered enormous walls with rapidly executed murals, recalling, in their theatric lighting and ruddy shadows, the tradition of Luca Giordano, as interpreted by Luzan. By 1775 he had married Josefa Bayeu, sister of the painters, and a year later, on June 18, 1776, received his first state commission from Raphael Mengs (undoubtedly Francisco Bayeu proposed his name) to paint cartoons for the Royal Manu-facture of Tapestries in Madrid. CHARLES III AS A PATRON A patron of the arts, Charles called the two most famous fresco painters of Europe to deco-rate the new Royal Palace. Mengs, the cold neo-classicist, and Tiepolo, last of the great Venetians, were competitors from the start, but Mengs outlived his rival to become the absolute dictator of the period. Friend of Winckelmann and arch-academician, Mengs is not always given his due. He was a court painter of great ease and faci lit y; and his sitters, though por-trayed with a certain hard realism, are not de-void of spirit. The world owes him one tremen-dous debt for he persuaded Charles III not to burn the great nudes by Titian and Rubens in the Royal Collections which the prudish mon-arch feared to be detrimental to morality. The influence of Mengs, directly and through Fran-cisco Bayeu, is strongly imprinted on Goya's early portraits. THE TAPESTRY CARTOONS One of Charles Ill's projects was the revival of tapestry-weaving which since 1720 had been under the direction of a family of Flemish crafts-men at the Santa Barbara factory. Men gs was put in charge in 1762 and by 1776 when Goya received his commission a new, fresher type of subject had replaced dreary Spanish imitations of Teniers. Francisco Bayeu preceded Goya in choosing scenes from daily life, but Goya sur-passed his brother-in -law in decorative resource and delightful harmonies of color . From 1776 to 1791 he did over forty cartoons for tapestries in the Royal Palaces of Aranjuez, the Escurial, and the Prado . In them Goya translated the lively genre painting of eighteenth-century Venice into Spanish. Pietro Longhi and the Guardi brothers are often hinted at. Conven -tions of trees and sky recall Boucher and Fra-gonard. French influence was rampant in Ma-drid and Goya picked up certain traits from the most French of his contemporaries, Luis Paret y Alcazar (1747- 1799). But the tapestry cartoons show Goya's originality first. No Spanish painter before him had displayed such racy humor or such sympathy with the common people. No rococo artist drew with more gusto or juxtaposed color in just this inventive way . SPAIN UNDER CHARLES III When Charles III, "the best of the Bourbons," ascended the throne in 1759 he found a decaying Spain. The colonies were no longer pouring riches into the treasury. Nobles and clergy held vast lands and power. Roads were poor and food hard to get. Madrid was dubbed "the dirtiest capital in Europe." The whole country was living a half-medieval existence, sustained only by its enormous pride and feeling of invincibility. By a series of vigorous refor,;,~ the King brought Spain at least part way into the eighteenth century. The J eauita were banished in 1767. Trade was stimulated. Communications were improved. The unproduc-tive clergy was reduced. A puritan by habit, Charles I II frowned on dancing and the theatre, disliked bullfighting. But through his reign the new, liberal spirit of the French philosophers was abroad and the prosperity he achieved made possible the court commissions and career of Goya. 10 3. Confidences in a Park (A Maja and two Majos). 1776-1778. Oil, 72 x 391/2 inches. Lent by Mr. Samuel H. Kress, New York. In his painted cartoons Goya did not always respect the tech-niqu e of tapestry. In the Palace Archives it is charged that he sent in '' dandies and girls with so much decoration of coifs, fal-lals, gauzes, etc., that much time is wasted on them and the work is unproductive." Majas and Majos were gay members of Madrid's lower classes who over -dressed in a fantastic manner. For such a cartoon Goya regu-larly received about 7,000 reals ($350). Most of these tapestry designs disappeared for a cen-tury. In 1869 a great bundle of them was discovered in storage in the Royal Palace. 11 3 DISCO"'ERV OF VELAZctUEZ In 1777 or 1778, Goya, now admitted to the Palaces on Royal service, discovered Velazquez and immediately projected a series of etchings, reproducing eighteen of his most famous can-vases. Perhaps Goya intended to bring out an illustrated gallery portfolio, of the type so pop-ular in his day. Though the etchings are dull, the study of his great predecessor had profound results. From now on he became increasingly interested in a unifying light and atmosphere. The crudity of his early handling was slowly replaced by subtler methods. Later Goya re-marked to a biographer that his three masters were "Nature, Velazquez, and Rembrandt." The tapestry cartoons and etchings seem to have pleased the Court. On January 9, 1779, Goya was presented to the Royal Family: "I was honored by the King, the Prince and Prin-cess (later Charles IV and Queen Maria Luisa), to whom, by the grace of God, I was able to show four pictures, and I kissed their hands, a good fortune which up till then I had never had. As to their liking my work, I tell you I could not wish for more." (Letter to Zapater.) Five months later he petitioned the King to become Court Painter, but was refused, having to be content with membership in the Academy of San Fernando. 6 4. The Drinkers (After Velaz-quez). 1778. Etching, 153/s x 113/s inches. 1st state (D.4). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 5. Margarita of Austria, Queen of Spain (After Velaz-quez). 1778. Etching, 14% x 121/4 inches. 2nd state (D.7). Owned by The Art Ins ti tu te of Chicago. 6. Aesop (After Velazquez). 1778. Etching, 11 % x 85/s inches. 3rd state (D.16). Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. A pen drawing in bistre and india ink for this plate is in the collection of Archibald Stirling at Keir, near Dunblane, Scotland. 8 7. The Dwarf, Sebastiano de Morra (After Velazquez ) . 1778. Etching, 81/4 x 5% inches. 3rd state (D.18) . Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 8. Garroted Man. 1779-1780. Etching, 12% x 81/4 inche s . 1st state (D.21 ) . Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. A pen drawin g (in reverse) for thi s plate is in the Briti sh Mus eum. Thi s etching-the most famou s print by Goya next to Th e Ca pri ces-is th e first app earance of the th eme of death and suffering, later to burst forth in th e Disast ers of War. Though carefully model ed, detail is subordinate to an effect of light, and th e whol e tr eatm ent reflect s Goya' s new study of Velazquez. 13 9 9. Ventura Rodriguez, the Architect. 1781. Oil, 42 x 313/,i inches. Lent anony-mously. The portrait is inscr ibed: "Original portrait of Don Ventura Rodriguez, Architect to His Most Serene Highness, Senor Infante Don Lui s, and State Architect of the City of Madrid , which was painted by Don Francisco Goya in the year 1781 by order of the most Illu str ious wife of His Highn ess ." In his hand is a plan for the Chapel of The Virgin del Pil ar in the Pilar Cathedra l in Saragossa where Goya painted murals. Rodriguez's chapel was begun in 1753 and is one of the most not able works of this neo-cl assica l architect. The wife of th e Infante, Don a Maria Teresa de Villabriga, came from a noble Aragone se family. Both she and her husband-brother of Charles III-wer e among Goya's first royal patr ons and were frequently portra yed by him. Rodriguez designed the Boadilla Palace where they lived and a painted sketch for a larg e canvas shows that Goya had int ended to execute a doubl e portrait of Don Luis and his architect. Goya's portrait styl e of this period was not without its note of harsh, Spanish realism. Gestures are stiff and obvious. Bri ght color is replaced by grays and blues, reminiscent of Bayeu and Meng s, but also hark ing back to Velazquez. 14 IO 10. Admiral Don Jose de Mazarredo (t1812). About 1783-85. Oil, 41 % x 33 inches. Signed: "Goya made it." Lent by the Honorable Oscar B. Cintas, Havana, Cuba. Goya portrayed the famous Admiral several times. Mazarredo defended Cadiz in 1797 against the English and was dismissed after incurring the wrath of Napoleon in 1800. Later he returned as Minister of Na val Affairs under Joseph Bonaparte. 11. Saint Ramondo de Penhaforte. About 1784. Oil, 34 x 25 inches. Lent by Julius H. Weitzner, Inc. New York. At this period Goya painted again in the Cathedral in Saragossa, during the course of which he quarreled bitterly with his brother-in-law, Bayeu. He entered a competition for the altarpiece of San Francisco el Grande in Madrid; in November, 1784, his Saint Bernardino of Siena Preaching was exhibited with much applause. The same year he painted four altarpieces for the Church of the Calatrava College in Salamanca by order of Jovellanos, the great statesman and author. All have disappeared but the present canvas seems associated with one of thes e. 15 13 12 12. Winter. 1786. Oil, 121/2 x 13 inches. Lent by E. and A. Silberman, New York. Thou gh connect ed with a tapes-try design, this is not a cartoon but one of a set of four littl e paint-ings of th e Seasons ordered by the Duke and Duch ess of Osuna, Goya's patrons for many years. Its brilliant touch recalls Ti epo lo. 13. Gossiping Women. About 1787-1791. Oil, 23 x 57 inches. Lent by the Wads-worth Atheneum, Hartford, Conn. As Goya progr essed, hi s cartoons grew less complicated. The format of this design sugge sts that it was meant for an overdoor and the artist has made brilli ant use of the reclining figures t o fit th e narrow spa ce. The liquid bru shwork and lively elegance show Goya's ro coco at it s height. 16 14 14. Boy on a Ram. 1791. Oil, 50 x 433/s inches. Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey McCor-mick, Chicago. One of the final tapestry cartoons destined for the Escurial. (The original tapestry is today in . the Prado.) These last designs stress a cooler gamut of color, replacing the reds and browns by blues and white. Though flooded with light and full of movement these elements never violate the flat demands of the loom. Compare the elaboration of background in Confidences in a Park (No. 2) with these bolder silhouettes. Not since Murillo had a Spaniard painted children with such under-standing . In spite of their fancy dress, Goya's boys and girls have a feeling of reality seldom dis-covered in the posturing and sentimental children of Reynolds, Hoppner, and Romney. 17 15. Self Portrait. 1790-2. Pen and bistre on white paper, 4Ys x 37/i.6 inches. Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. GOYA'S RISING FAME. COURT PAINTER, APRIL 25, 1789 As early as 1785 Goya had been named Assistant Director of the Academy of San Fer-nando; the salary was only twenty-five doub-loons , "little use and not much honor." More rewarding was his appointment in 1786 as official painter for the tapestry factory at an annual income of 15,000 reals (about $750). Much of his time was spent in decorations for the Alameda, the country house of the art-loving Duke and Duchess of Osuna. Aristocratic sitters for portraits were not lacking and it appears that during this period Goya was so rushed that he began to employ assistants. But he had his eye on the Court and when Charles III died in 1788 and was succeeded by Charles IV it was 15 only a few months later that he could write joyfully to Zapater: "I have just now received from a friend the news that they have made me Court Painter. (This is private.)" CHARLES IV AND DIS ctUEEN The new King was poorly equipped to govern S(Pain. He had a meagre mind, little interest in affairs of State and a tremendous enthusiasm for hunting. He had married Maria Luisa of Parma (see No. 52) whose rapacious and violent tempera-ment set the tone for the most dissolute court in Europe. The French Revolution terrified the Span-ish Bourbons and Charles did everything in his power to save the life of his cousin, Louis XVI. In 1791 all newspapers in Spain were suppressed save the Official Gazette; the borders were sealed against propaganda from France and a brutal decree, forcing every foreigner, resident or traveler, to swear allegiance to the King of Spain and the Catholic religion, thereby renouncing his own nationality, was put into force. DOW GOYA LOOKED. DIS ILLNESS "I have become old with many wrinkles so that you would not recognize me except by my snub nose and deepset eyes." So wrote Goya in 1787 to Zapater. The present drawing is prepara-tory to an etching and was so used by the French printer Loizelet as a frontispiece to the Tauro-machia in 1876. Goya portrays himself at about the age of forty-five . Early in 1792 he became seriously ill, suffering an attack (apoplexy?) which caused a grave nervous disorder and left him forever deaf. On January 19, 1793, Bayeu wrote: "As the nature of the illness is so terrible, I think with melancholy about his ever getting well." This sickness changed the course of Goya's art. Shut away from the world of music and the theatre (both of which he loved passionately) and cut off from conversation, his thoughts turned inward. Bitterness replaced the robust gaiety of his early work. The courtier became the castigator of society. He turned from paint-ing to drawing. 18 16 16. The Xlllth Duke of Alba. 1790-1792. Oil, 34 x 27 inches. Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey McCormick, Chicago. , History knows him chiefly as the husband of the Duchess of Alba, Goya's love and inspiration. But Don Jose, Xlth Marquis of Villafranca, (1756-1796) was a quiet, intelligent man, passionately fond of music and especially Haydn. When he married the Duchess he added the Alba title since she was the last of her line. In such portraits Goya penetrat es the thin mask of good breeding and portrays the person beneath. Skillful treatment of costume, formal pose and decorative pattern cannot hide the fact that the artist found the Duke both anemic and unimpressive. 19 / , 17 17. Self Portrait. About 1795. Brush and sepia on white paper, 6 x 3% inches. Signed: Goya. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Goya slowly regained health and in 1795 painted some of hi s most brilliant portraits. Thi s drawing shows him at fift y, deaf, but undef eate d, it s mood and handling full of a subjec-tivism new to hi s art. 18. Weeping Woman and Three Men. 1796-7. Brush and india ink on white paper, 9% x 5% inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Muse-um of Art, New York. From th e larger Sanluc ar not eboo k. (On the rev erse is a wash drawing of a M AJA AND Two COMPANIONS.) The patt ern of figures reca lls the tapestry designs , but with a new animation. Eight eenth- century grace and glitter continue. In 1796 the Duk e of Alba died and in the summer the Duchess left Ma-drid for a period of mourning at her Andalusian estate of Sanlucar. Goya accompanied her, commemorating his stay of half a year in two note-book s where he frequently sketched her, sur rounded by friend s and serv-ants. Thes e pag es, now scattered, show Goya as a swift, brilliant re-corder of figures in movement and are executed in rapid grey wash on green-ish white paper. 18 20 THE DUCHESS OF ALBA Dona Maria Teresa Caye t ana de Silva y Alvarez de Tol edo, Xlllth Duchess of Berwick and Alba (born 1762) was th e most important woman in Goya's life. The great est lady in Spain (with thirty-one name s and al-most as many residences), she was sp irited, r ec kl ess , brilliant and haughty-a fascinating bl end of Spanish passion and French elegance. "Utterly graceful and completely beautiful, th e Duchess is a prodigy," wrote a Parisian visitor. "A t the Prado, at the Retiro, at church, wherever she may be, people run after her, seeing only her. When she passes, everybody rushe s to th e win-dows and even the children leave their play to look at her ." Though many of th e legends are false (the Duchess did not pose for the Maja Nude and th e Maj a Clothed) there is no doubt that Goya loved her and for a time was loved in return. The Al-ba's type of vivid, capricious beauty obsessed him to the end of his life. 19. The Tantrum. Brush and india ink on white paper, 91;.. x 5% inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Inscribed: "She orders th em to leave th e carriage, rumples her hair, tears it, and stamps-all beca use Fath er Pichurris told her to her face that she was pale." From the larger Sanlucar not e-book. (On the reverse: MERCHANT BEATING MASQUERADERS, No. 23.) 20. Two Women Embracing. 1796-7. Brush and india ink on white paper, 8% x 5% inches. Lent by Mrs. Felix Wildenstein, Ridgefield, Connecticut. From the larg er Sanlucar notebook. (On the reverse, A DANCING MAJA AND COMPANIONS, No . 21.) 21. A Dancing Maja and Companions. 1796-7. Brush and india ink on white paper, 8% x 5% inches. Lent by Mrs. Felix Wildenstein, Ridgefield, Connecticut. From th e larger Sanlucar notebook. (On the obverse, Two WOMEN EMBRACING, No . 20.) 21 N:> N:> 20 20. Two Women Embracing. 1796-7. Brush and india ink on white paper, 8% x 5% inches. Lent by Mrs. Felix Wild-enstein, Ridgefield, Connecticut. 21 21. A Dancing Maja and Companions. 1796-7. Brush and india ink on white paper, 8% x 5% inches. Lent by Mrs, Felix Wildenstein, Ridgefield, Connecticut. N) (ill ,....~,,,,ff~"'22. To The Count Palatine. 1796-7. Brush and india ink on white paper, 9114 x 5% inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Inscribed: "Every word is a lie/ the charlatan that pulls out a jawbone and they believe it." From the larger San lucar notebook. (On the obverse, THEY ARE GETTING DRUNK.) A study for Caprice No. 33 (D. 70). Said to be an attack on the reactionary Foreign Minister, Urquijo. "A l Conde Pala-tino"-the Spanish title-is a complicated pun meaning, "Count of the Palatinate," "The Palace Count" or "The Palate Count." 23. Merchant Beating Masqueraders. 1796-7. Brush and india ink on white paper, 9% x 5% inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Inscribed: "Recognizing them, the oil vendor shouts 'ola' arid starts beating the masqueraders; they flee, crying out against the disrespect for their performance." From the larger Sanlucar note-book. (On the reverse, THE TANTRUM, No. 19.) Related to a series of plates in The Caprices where men are disguised as asses. THE CAPRICES Dining his illness and for the next five years, Goya made quantities of drawings, many of which he transferred to copper by a combina-tion of etching and a new process called aqua-tint. (Aquatint, perfected by Jean Baptiste Le Prince, consists of coating the plate with a grainy resin, which, when bitten in acid, pro-duces tones not unlike those of a wash drawing.) Gathering together seventy-two of these plates under the title, The Caprices (imitated from Tiepolo's set, I Vari Capricci [17491 ?) he an-nounced publication in 1797. Actually th e volume did not appear until February 6, 1799, and then consisted of eighty plates. For twelve days it was on sale for the high price of an ounce of gold a copy . Then Goya suddenly withdrew it, apparently afraid of the Inquisition. In 1803 he diplomatically presented the plates and un-sold copies to the King in exchange for a pension for his son. THEIR FAME Th e Caprices contain bitter attacks on social and political customs, romantic literature and the Church. They expose superstition and witch-craft, and though Goya denied it, they un-doubtedly lampoon the highest figures at court. Keys were immediately circulated to the real identities and Goya wrote an explanation of his own, full of carefu l moralizing and generalities . But though the purpose of the prints is didactic -on the origina l frontispiece Goya wrote the words "universal language" -th eir fame rests on transcending imagination and brilliant de-signing . "The artist (wrote Goya in an unprinted introduction) who has completely withdrawn himself from nature and has succeeded in placing before our eyes forms and movements which have existed heretofore only in our fancy de-serves praise" and every generat ion since has enthusiastically agreed with him. The Caprices are the most celebrated Spanish work of art since Don Quixote. Delacroix and Gericault imitated them. Gautier, Victor Hugo, and Baudelaire record their influence. Manet borrowed openly . Toulouse-Lautrec collected the plates along with Japanese prints. The Victorian Ruskin burned a beautiful copy in 1872, upset by their "ug li-ness." In our day Picasso and Orozco have come under their spel l. They are Goya's first modern work. In them rebel replaces courtier, to emerge as one of the world's greatest graphic artists. The massing of darks and lights, the dramatic sil-houette, the expressive line are united with passionate emotion and cruel humor. Certain plates hav e the elegance of a wash drawing by Fragonard but a Fragonard with force. In others the fantastic inventions of Bosch are reborn and enlarged. Though often reprinted, The Caprices are at their best in early impres-sions before the delicate aquat int has worn away. The proofs and first states in Mr. Hofer's collection and extrao rdin ary impressions from a copy in The Brooklyn Museum (a presentation set before the first edition with mis-spellings in the captions) show the brilliant luminosity which Goya himself achieved. 24 27 32 24. Self Portrait. Aqua tint and etc hing , 53/s x 43/s inches; 2nd state (D.38). Lent by Th e Brooklyn Museum. (Illustrated on the cover.) Goya at a littl e over fifty. Compar e th e drawin g, N o. 15. 25. Here Comes the Bogyman. Aquatint and etching, 75/s x 53/s inches; 2nd state (D.40). Lent by The Brookl yn Museum. 26. The Old Spoiled Child. Aquatint and etching, 71/4 x 5Vs inches; 1st state (D.41 ) . Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. Taken by cont empor ar ies as an attack on Cha rles IV. Goya 's -manuscript: "Ca relessness, undu e want of st rictne ss and spoiling makes childr en capricious, naughty, vain, greedy; lazy and in-suffera ble. Th ey grow up and yet rema in children. That is the big, spoiled child." 27. "Birds of a Feather Flock Together." Aquatint and etching, 6Ys x 41/4 inches; 2nd state (D.42). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. Said t o lampoon Qu een Maria Luisa and her lover, Godoy. Whenever th e Qu een app eared alone with th e former guard sman, th e people murmured at this tr emendous br each of et iqu ette. 28. No One Knows Himself. Aqua tint and etching, 7% x 43,4 inches. 1st state, undescribed (D.43). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer , Cambridge, Mass. 29. Even So, He Can't Recognize Her. Aquatint and etching, 7 x 4% inches. 1st state (D.44). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 30. They Have Kidnapped Her. Aquatint and etching, 71/4 x 5% inches. 2nd state (D.45 ) . Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. 25 31. Tantalus. Aqua tint and etching, 7114 x 5 inches. 1st state (D.46). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. Goya's manuscript: "If he were more gallant and less of a bore she would come to life again." Apparently directed against romantic excesses in literature, particularly of the type of Jose Cadalso's Naches Lugubres . 32. Hunting for Teeth. Aquatint and etching, 71/s x 4% inches. 2nd state (D.49). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. Goya's manuscript : "Teeth of a hanged man are very helpful in sorceries, without which ingre-dient nothing will succeed. What a pity that people should believe such nonsense!" 33. It's Hot. Aquatint and etching, 711,i x 4% inches. 2nd state (D.50). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. Typical of Goya's attack on corrupt church life. At the close of the eighteenth century a wave of anti-clerical thought broke over Europe. Diderot's La Religieuse and Lewis' Monk were but two of the most famous examples. Such Caprices brought Goya under the suspicion of the Inquisition and he was careful in his manuscript to write: "Even in pleasure, temperance and discretion are neces-sary." 34. God Forgive Her! It Was Her Own Mother! Aquatint and etching, 6% x 4% inches. 2nd state (D.53). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. 35. She Is Well Dressed. Aquatint and etching, 711,i x 5 inches. 1st state (D.54). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 36. There Go the Plucked Ones. Aquatint and etching, 7% x 5114 inches. 1st state (D.57). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. Said to allude to the lovers of Maria Luisa. 37. At Last They Have a Place to Sit. Aqua tint and etching, 7% x 51/2 inches. 1st state, undescribed. (D.63). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 38. She Prays for Her. Aquatint and etching, 811,i x 5% inches. 1st state (D.68). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 39. She Was Too Easily Influenced. Aquatint, 7 x 4% inches. 2nd state (D.69). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. 40. A Bad Night. Aquatint and etching, 7% x 511,i inches. 2nd state (D.73). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. 41. Neither More nor Less. Aqua tint, etching and drypoint, 71/s x 51/s inches. 2nd state. (D.78). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. Said to represent the servile court painter, Don Antonio Carnicero, and Godoy. The original inscription read: "You will not die of hunger." Monkeys painting are not new in art; David Teniers and Chardin had both used them. Goya's manuscript:" It is fortunate he had his portrait painted. Now those who have not seen him will know what he is like." 42. The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters. Aquatint and etching, 7114 x 4'l's inches, 1st state (D. 80). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. Goya originally intended this plate as a frontispiece for the whole series. Now it serves as a chapter-heading for the section on witches and goblins. Goya's manuscript: "Imagination, deserted by reason, begets impossible monsters. United with reason she is the mother of all art and the source of its wonders." 43. Little Goblins. Aquatint and etching, 73/s x 5114 inches. 1st state (D.86). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. 26 44. What a Tailor Can Do. Aqua tint and etching, 7% x 4fs inches. 1st state, undescribed, with pencil additions by Goya (D.89). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 45. What a Golden Beak! Aquatint and etching, 7o/s x 53/s inches. 2nd state (D.90). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. Goya's manuscript: "Many a doctor, while talking, has a golden beak but is useless when writing prescriptions. He can discuss diseases most ably but can't cure them. He makes fools out of sick people and fills the churchyard with skulls." 46. They Still Remain, for All That! Aquatint and etching, 7% x 5114 inches. 1st state, undescribed (D. 96). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. This plate was greatly admired by the French romantics. Gautier (1842) declared that even Dante had not arrived at such an effect of "suffocating terror." 47. They Fly. Aquatint and etching, 73/s x 51/s inches. 1st state (D.98). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. Goya's manuscript: "The group of witches serving as a base for our lady of fashion are orna-mental, rather than useful. There are heads so full of gas that they need neither balloons nor witches to make them fly ." Almost certainly referring to the Duchess of Alba. The butterfly wings appear elsewhere in The Caprices as a sign of her fickleness. 48. We Must Be Off at Dawn. Aquatint and etching, 6% x 5 inches. 1st state (D.108). Lent by The Brooklyn Museum. 47 42 27 49 49. Marques de Sofraga, (1729-1813 ). About 1795. Oil, 42o/s x 32% inches. Lent by the Fine Arts Society of San Diego, San Diego, California. The Marques wears the cour t uniform of Captain General of the Spanish Arm ies and glitters with official decoration s. In portraits done after his illn ess, Goya shows new express iveness in the handling of paint. Hi s grays and whites grow brilliant and are balanced by stron g notes of vermil-ion, gold, and blue. A new tension is felt in the model's pose and han ds begin to play an imp ortant role. In comprehension of th e narrow soul of the Marques and in unr elenting dignity of presentation this canvas rivals Goya 's well-known portrait of Francisco Bayeu don e about the same time. 28 50 50. Don Bernardo Y riarte. 1797. Oil, 33% x 42% inches. Lent by Mrs. Edward S. Harkness, New York. Inscribed: "Don Bernardo Yriarte, Vice-Protector of the Royal Academy of the Three Noble Arts, painted by Goya in testimony of mutual esteem and affection in the year 1796." Don Bernardo was an understanding art collector and patron with whom Goya corresponded. A descendant, Char les Yriarte, published an important monograph on the artist in Paris in 1867. When this portrait was presented to the Academy on November 1, 1797, it was praised "not only for its resemblance but also for the talent with which it was painted." 29 52 30 QUEEN MARIA LUISA Maria Luisa, one of the most vicious queens ever to rule Spain, was a Princess of Parma. Betrothed to the stupid, well-meaning Charles at the age of thirteen, she led a life of reckless pleasure. For twenty-five years she carried on a liai son with Manuel Godoy, whom she raised from a humble guardsman to a Serene Highness of the Realm. Sinovier, the Russian Ambassador, wrote of her: ''Ill-health and frequent child-birth, possibly even the germs of a disease that people believe to be inherited, have aged her before her time. Her complexion has a greenish tinge and that, together with the loss of nearly all her teeth, which are replaced by a false set, completely removed any trace of physical attrac-tion she may have possessed." Napoleon re-marked of her appearance: "Maria Luisa has her past and her character written on her face; it surpasses anything you dare imagine." GODOY This half-educated country lad became Prime Minister at twenty-five and for some sixteen years ruled Spain through intrigues and diplo-macy. During that time an infatuated Queen and her hoodwinked husband showered him with every honor and title at their command . Vain and complacent, Godoy was not without ability; Napoleon admired him as the first modern dic-tator and at St. Helena exclaimed: "That man was a genius!" Godoy was a friend and patron of Goya's and did much to encourage Spanish learning and art. 51. Don Manuel Godoy, Duke of Alcudia, Prince of the Peace. 1801. Oil, 241/2 x 19 inches. A study for the large seated portrait in the Academy of San Fernando. Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey McCormick, Chi-cago. 52. Qu een Maria Luisa. 1800. Oil, 32% x 263/s inches. Lent by The Taft Museum, Cin-cinnati. At the very end of the eight eenth century Goya's fame was at it s height. In 1798 he had decorated the little church of San Antonio de la Florida with murals which, in their daring foreshortenings and liv ely play of color, bring the rococo tradition of Tiep olo to a triumphant close. In 1799 he won the long-coveted post of First Court Painter and the next spring was engaged in depicting the whole royal family in an enormous canvas that consciously set out to rival Velazquez's "L ittl e Maids of Honor." At the same time he painted other single portraits of their majesties. This, of the v_ulturine Queen, is full of Goya's new impressionism. The brush moves freely and liquidly, capturing the shimmer of light, suggesting rather than depicting textures and space. No wonder Renoir appreciated this side of Goya. 81 51 53 53. Bullfighter. 1798-1800. Oil, 25 x 20 inches. Lent by Mr. Robert W. Reford, Mon-treal, Canada. Goya lived in the golden age of bullfighting and knew and painted the great toreadors of his day: the Romeros, Costillares, Pepe Hillos, etc. He was a passionate fan; confessed to having fought in the ring as a youth and signed one of his letters to Zapater, "Francisco de los Toros." 32 54. Don Ascencio Julia (1767-1816). After 1800. Oil, 21% x 17% inches. Signed: Goya. Lent anonymously. Juli a was a disciple and assistant of Goy a . Born in Valencia , he was seve ral tim es portr ayed by the arti st. In th e spirit ed little painting in th e Arthur and Alice Sach s Collection, Paris, we see him st anding before a scaffolding; a later portrait (dat ed 1814) in a tall hat sh ows him seat ed. 33 54 55 55. Geronima. 1805. Oil on copper, 3 inches in diameter. Signed: Goya. Lent by the Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, R. I. Inscribed, on the reverse: "1805. Gero-nima at the age of 15 by Goya." 56 56. Cesarea. 1806. Oil on copper, 3 in-ches in diameter. Signed: Goya. Lent by the Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, R. I. Inscribed, on the reverse: "1806. Goya. Cesarea at the age of 12." 57. The Marquesa de Casa Flores. 1795-1800. Oil, 45 x 31% inches. Lent by the Paul Drey Gallery, New York. Costume and technique suggest the period of the Maja Nude and Maja Clothed. Delicacy of touch and thinness of paint show Goya responding to French influence. Typical are the touches of mauve-pink against the gown's whiteness and the pervading silvery tone. 34 58 36 58. An Allegor y : Spain, Time and Hi s tor y . Aft er 1800. Oil, 120 x 97 inches. Lent anonymously. One of a pair of mural- sized paintin gs, pr esumably execut ed not long aft er th e decorati ons in San Antoni o de la F lorid a . (See No. 60 for th e pendant. ) Th e subj ect has been called , "Time Pre sentin g Spain t o Hi st ory " and "Tim e. Truth and Hi st ory ." Th ough Goya ret ains a few of th e deco-rati ve elements of Ti epolo , thi s unu sual composition suggests a work in th e neo-clas sical ve in somewhat cold and official in spirit . Th e art ist is not at hi s best in following th e idealized tradition. Th e figures seem acad emic-ally realiz ed and even th e striking diag onal mov ement of Tim e and th e chord of silver and yellow in which the work is enveloped cannot hid e it s somewhat stilted char act er. Mu ch m ore lively is th e pr eliminary sket ch, a wash, and tw o sanguine dr awings in th e Pr ado. It is int erestin g t o not e th at Goya's first idea was to includ e a cloud of bats and owls simil ar t o th e nightmar e figure s of th e Ca pri ce, Th e Sleep of R eason (No . 42) . In th e final ver sion th ese are eliminat ed as perh aps unw orth y of th e exalted mood. 59 59. An Allegory: Spain, Time and History (sketch for the large version ) . After 1800. Oil, 16% x 12 inches. Lent b y the Museum of Fine Art s , Bo s ton (Beque s t of Mrs. Horatio G. Curti s) . 37 38 " ~ 60. An Allegory: Music. After 1800. Oil, 119 x 92 inches. Lent anonymously. Much more in Goya's personal style than its pendant, No. 58. The vigorous, late baroque design, and gran-diose female figure of the Muse are close to the mundane charms of the Florida murals. Like them it has a sketchy, improvised look, partly caused, no doubt, by the ravages of time. Certain heads in the foreground are in Goya's most expressive vein. 61. Commerce (Sketch). About 1797 (?). Oil, 121/2 inches in diameter. Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Michael M. van Beuren, New York. A first study, with changes, for one of the four roundels in the former Palace of Godoy, now the Marine Ministry. The other subjects were Science, Industry, and Agriculture. The sketch is preferable to the finished works which as enlarged easel paintings do not suit the elaborate Empire decoration. TROUBLED SPAIN During the last ten years of the eighteenth century Spafrt started on her downward path to wars and revolution. The King's threats and blusters against France brought on a disastrous campaign. Only Godoy emerged a hero, awarded the pompous title of "Prince of the Peace." Two years later a hoodwinked Spain joined with France against England. After 1799, she was but a slave to Napoleon's deep-laid ambitions. The Spanish found themselves forced to attack Portugal while French troops poured over the border-an omen of evil days to come. In 1803, the First Consul extorted 6,000,000 francs a month from the poverty-stricken country, under threat of instant attack and dis-missal of Godoy. Open war between England and Spain became inevitable in 1804 and on October fl, 1805, Nelson at Trafalgar practically destroyed the French and Spanish navies. Napoleon -now Emperor-determined to get rid of the Bourbons since his vast plans called for French domination of the whole peninsula. A GROUP OF DRAWINGS (ABOUT 1805) Goya's draughtsmanship of this period undergoes a dis-tinct change. The light, flat washes, the silhouetting, the elegant eighteenth-century proportions are replaced by rougher, shorter strokes (often with dry brush) and there is an increased feeling of density and weight. He turns to worker and peasant themes, varied by picturesque scenes of banditry. Many of these drawings are framed in painted ~ black borders. 62 62. You Make a Mistake if You Seek to Get Married. About 1805. Brush and india ink on white paper, 10% x 71/s inches. Inscribed: "You make a mistake if you seek to get married." Lent by the Paul J. Sachs Collection, Fogg Museum of Art, Harvard University. ~ .... 63. You Don't Get Anywhere by Howling. About 1805. Brush and india ink on white paper, 9 x 61,4 inches. Inscribed: "You don't get anywhere by howling." This drawing once belonged to Victor Hugo. Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 63 "64 64. She Leaves All to Providence. About 1805. Brush and india ink on white paper, 10 x 7 inches. Inscribed: "She leaves all to Providence." In striking contrast to the courtly subjects of the Sanlucar series. Lent by Miss Edith Wetmore, New York. 65 ; .,J J .,.. 1r 65. You'll See Later. About 1805. Brush and india ink on white paper, 101/2 x 73/s inches. Inscribed: "You'll see later." Such drawings suggest that Goya contemplated a new set of realistic Caprices. Lent by The Metropolitan tti Museum of Art, New York. , Gt; 1,i 66. God Spare Us Such Bitter Fortune. About 1805. Brush and india ink on white paper, 101/2 x 73/s inches. Inscribed: "God spare us such bitter fortune." Typical of the brigand series. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. .... (.,0 87 67. He Doesn't Wake Up. About 1805. Brush and india ink on white paper about 10 x 7 inches. Goya's drawings are usually numbered twice; by the artist with a brush, and by a later collector in pen. Lent by Miss Ethel Haven, New York. 88 68. This Poor Woman Makes the Most of Her Time. About 1805. Brush and india ink on white paper about 10 x 7 inches. Inscribed: "This poor woman makes the most of her time." Lent by Miss Ethel Haven, New York. 69 69. The Marquesa de Fontana. 1800-05. Oil, 371h x 291/4 inches. Signed: F.G. on the ring worn by the Marquesa. Lent anonymously. Th e portraits don e after 1800 have a new, rich, som bern ess. Black is used mor e freely -but always as a "co lor." Goya continues his impressioni sm but th ese streaked and light ed planes are conceived in stronger tension. H ere the Marquesa is dr essed in the Maja mod e. Thi s style, which began with the lower class es, was taken up by the court, large ly in opposition to Fr ench fashions. Today we think of it as th e national costume of Spain. 44 70 70. Don Antonio Nortega . 1801. Oil, 405/s x 311/2 inches. Signed: F. Goya, 1801. Lent by Wildenstein and Company, Inc., New York. The inscription tells of the many orders and titl es which Don Antonio -wh o was Spanish High Tr easurer in 1801-enjoy ed. Th e model is rend ered with th e naturalne ss found in the royal family group. For his military and court portraits we find Goya adopting a black background, against which he contrasts bright colors. Manet was later to imitate this device. 45 THE TOTTERING THRONE Disaster was soon to overtake Goya's royal pa-trons. The scheming Infante Ferdinand plotted against his father, while Napoleon, always ready to profit by family intrigues, encouraged him secretly and at the same time sent French troops across the border on the pretext of subduing Portugal. Godoy became increasingly hated-a fact that Ferdinand exploited to the full-and with 100,000 French soldiers on Spanish soil (supposedly sent to help the Infante) Charles IV was forced to abdi-cate on March 19, 1808, while Godoy barely escaped with his life. Ferdinand. now ascended the throne. THE MARGATO SERIES About 1806- 7 Goya painted the spirited series of small panels which tell of the capture of the bandit, Margato, by the brav .e monk, Pedro de Zaldivia. The story swept over Spain and ballads and tales were quickly written, some of them illustrated with woodcuts made after the paint-ings. The series is unusual in Goya's work. For one thing it depicts a specific current event, while he usually prefers a highly generalized treatment. For another its vivid narrative style, with the movement of one panel leading into the next, makes it a precursor of the comic strip and motion picture. In ingenious cmpposition, vigor of brushwork, command of subject, Goya never surpassed it. Only Daumier could build on such invention. Today much admired, the whole series in 1861 brought but 590 francs ($158) at auction in Paris. 71. Margato Robs a Fat Purser. About 1806- 7. Oil on panel, 111/z x 151/s inches. Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago (Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson Collection.) 72. Margato Points a Gun at Fray Pedro de Zaldivia. About 1806-7. Oil on panel, 11% x 151/z inches. Owned by The Art Insti-tute of Chicago (Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson Collection.) 73. Fray Pedro Wrests the Gun froJP,; tp.e Bandit. About 1806-7. Oil on panel, il% x 151/z inches. Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago (Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson Collection). 74. Fray Pedro Clubs Margato. About 1806-7. Oil on panel, 111/2 x 151/s inches. Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago (Mr . and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson Collec-tion). 75. Margato Shot. About 1806-7. Oil on panel, 111/z x 151/s inches. Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. (Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson Collection ) . 76. Margato Bound. About 1806-7. Oil on panel, 111/z x 151/s inches. Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago (Mr . and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson Collection). 46 71 71. Margato Robs a Fat Purser. 72. Margato Points a Gun at Fray Pedro de Zaldivia. 72 47 73 73. Fray Pedro Wrests the Gun from the Bandit. 74. Fray Pedro Clubs Margalo. 74 48 75 75. Margalo Shot. 76. Margalo Bound. 76 49 77 77. Don Isidro Gonzalez. 1807 (?) Oil, 36% x 261/,i inches. Inscribed on the scroll in the sitter's right hand: "D. Ysidro Gonzalez by Goya, 1801 [or 1807]." Lent anonymously. Such a portrait shows the spirit of the new age. Easy and unposed, it speaks for the nineteenth century. Whistler, who often consulted Spanish art, would have approved of its tonal harmonies. 50 78. The Condesa de Gondomar. About 1805. Oil, 35 x 26 inches. Lent by Arnold Seligmann, Rey and Company, Inc., New York. From 1800- 10, Goya painted some of his finest portraits. The delicate, liquid technique of the last decade of the eighteenth century disappears in favor of a richly textured and plastic surface. The painting of the gloved hand beneath the lace would have delighted Manet. 51 78 79 79. The Bullfight. 1810 (or later). Oil, 385/s x 495/s inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York. Goya often drew and et ched the bullfight, seldom paint ed it. Thi s remar kabl e canvas, which comp ress es into small format the vari ed rich pageantry of two combats in a divid ed ring, is a triumph of impr essionist seeing. It s unfinish ed st at e allows us t o appr eciat e Goya's expr essive drawing an d to see how he balanced the whole picture with t ouches of bri ght color, ap plied over a reddish-b rown gr oun d. 80. Th e Majas on the Balcon y . 1810 (or later ) . Oil, 76% x 491/z inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York . Goya returned t o this th eme three tim es. Th e earlie st (privat e collection , Madrid ) is associated with the brilli ant, shimmerin g figures in the Fl orid a mur als. At least ten years later Goya paint ed thi s mor e forceful ve rsion, where bro ad , bru sh drawing an d pal ette knife technique reach a new height. Th e charmin g mod els of the 1800 canva s have become obvi ous coqu ett es. Th e color is rich, heavy, full of black s and bro wns and in the und efined space above, loom th e mysteriou sly cloak ed figur es of th e Majo compani ons. Thi s picture once belonged to the Spanish Gall ery of Louis-Philipp e. 81. Don Isidro Maiquez, the Actor (1768-1820 ) . About 1807. Oil, 39 x 279/i6 inch es. Owned b y The Art Institute of Chicago (Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson Collection) . 52 80 53 82 82. Victor Gu ye . 1810. Oil, 333/s x 41% inches. Lent from the collection of the late J. Horace Harding, New York. He wears the costume of a Court Page to King J oseph Bonaparte. On the back is an inscript ion calling the picture a pendant to the portrait of the boy 's uncle, General Nico las Guye (now in a private collection, New York). The latter was stationed at Madrid for severa l years along with Gen eral Hu go, whose son Victor was in Spa in at th e same time. 54 EXIT THE BOURBONS Napoleon, meanwhile, failed to recognize Ferdi-nand, while secretly advising Charles to repudiate his abdication. The Emperor lured the new King to Bayonne where he confronted him with his father and mother. Bitter scenes fallowed until Napoleon informed the whole family that they would have to renounce the throne inf avor of a king of his own choosing (May 6, 1808). Charles and Ferdinand received ( along with Godoy) rich pensions and Spain was without a ruler. THE SECOND OF MAY Meanwhile in Madrid on the second of May a terrible riot had taken place. Goya, from his window on the Puerta del Sol, probably witnessed the French troops (there were 25,000 of them in and about the city) led by General Murat, firing on the civilian population. The uprising was brutally put down and deep into the night French firing squads disposed of the "traitors." ( Goya immortalized these events in two fiery paintings done in 1814 and now in the Prado.) JOSEPH BONAPARTE Napoleon ordered his brother Joseph, who was quietly ruling Naples, to proceed to Spain and set him on the throne. But King Joseph, full of reforms and good intentions, was no match for a rising nationalism which swept the country in a blaze of guerrilla warfare. After ten days the Spanish drove " The Intruder King" ( as he was named) from Mad rid and it took the generalship and powerful presence of Napoleon himself to put him back. In vain the Emperor thundered (in words that Hitler has frequently imitated): "Span-iards, you have been misled by traitors .. . (but) if you do not respond to my confidence, I shall have no alternative but to treat you as conquered provinces. In that case I shall set the crown of Spain on my head and I shall know how to make evildoers respect it, for God has given me the force and the will to surmount all obstacles." Joseph was hated by a whole nation and his rule precariously main-tained by French bayonets. Meanwhile the pro-55 visional Spanish government, amid many quarrels, drafted the first liberal constitution at Cadiz. GOYA DURING THE FRENCH OCCUPATION Goya has been sharply criticized for remaining in Madrid and painting the French. But there are extenuations. He undoubtedly believed Fer-dinand preferable to the stupid Charles IV, and began by welcoming the French as saviours of his country. He was a man over sixty, deaf as a post, with no commissions except those of court and nobility. No serious doubt can be cast upon Goya's patriotism after studying the terrible record of the war immortalized in his prints, paintings, and drawings. Moreover he visited General Palafox and made trips to the war zones, taking notes at the very time he was painting the French King (and refusing, in secret, to wear the decoration conferred upon him). He did not become Court Painter to Joseph, though it would have been easy _for him to have secured this ippointment. KING JOSEPH AND ABT It is interesting that the first idea for the Prado Museum came from the French King. He sought to rival the Musee Napoleon where his brother had gathered the booty from his various campaigns. The Royal Decree of Decemoer 20, 1809, stated that pictures should be taken from all public buildings and even from the palaces. But after a number had been rounded up, they were presented to French generals or put aside to send to Paris. Finally, Joseph appointed "three of the best professors of the Royal Academy of Painting," Goya, Manuel Napoli, and Mariano Maella, to select fifty masterpieces for his brother. After many delays (one suspects sabotage) these finally reached the Musee Na-poleon in 1813. The Director was much dis-appointed, declaring that only six could be exhibited. "One can easily see by this cho ice how much His Majesty the King of Spain has been deceived by those persons whom he had charged with the care of selecting them," he wrote. 83 83. The Duke of Wellington (1769-1852 ) . 1812. Oil, 401/2 x 32 inches. Inscribed: "A. W. Terror Gallorum." Lent by Mr s . P. H. B. Frelinghuysen, Morristown, N. J. Arthur Wellesley, the ''Iron Duk e," is best remembe red as th e hero of Waterloo, but th e Spanish know him as their liberato r. By expert genera lship he expe lled J oseph and the French from the penin sula, helping to bring about the abd icati on of Napo leon and the return of Ferdinand "the Desir ed ." Goya dr ew and painted him severa l times, once on horsebac k. Where Lawrence, Beechy, Haydon, and Wint erh alter romanti cized him, Goya give s an honest portray al, not omitting the Duk e's slight ly protrudin g teeth. 56 84 84. Don Jose Manuel Romero. 1809-10 . Oil, 411/i x 341/i inches. Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey McCormick, Chicago. He was Secretary of State and Minister of the Inte rior to King Jo seph and wears the Ribbon of the Ord er of Spa in, inv ented by "the Intrud er" to capture Spanish fancy. Black and red run throu gh many of th e har sh, melancholy portraits of these years of the War of Independence. In such a conception Goya stresses th e symbo l of the costume; behind its rich faTHE DISASTERS OF WAR Liberated from portrait painting and burning with indignation at events in Spain, Goya next etched a series of plates dealing with the horrors of the Peninsular War. Due to their inflamma-tory character (and also to the unheroic manner in which he showed both French and Spanish) they remained unpublished during his life and were not issued until 1863. In that year the Academy of San Fernando brought out the series in eighty plates. (An additional impression of an eighty-first etching has recently been dis-covered.) Those treating the bloody episodes of the war date from 1810; others record the Madrid famine; still others attack French rule and the loss of liberty after the return of the reactionary Ferdinand. The whole series, along with a wealth of preliminary drawings, probably occupied him off and on for ten years. Suggested by Ca llot's "Miseries of War," Goya goes far beyond his picturesque forerunner . His attack is on war in general, a terrific outcry against man's inhumanity to man. Mercilessly he debunks the heroic tradition. Here are the 85 . first pictures to show the war's effect upon the individual. Sma ll groups of men and women attack, murder, mutilate one another. "For what?" Goya asks. "For nothing," replies the skeleton who writes the final score. The cruel vividness of The Disasters comes straight out of Goya's own experience. "I saw this," he writes beneath one plate, and under another, "One can't bear to see such things." From drawings made on the spot and from his own amazing memory he recreates an endless nightmare of war. The style is far more free and masterful than in the Caprices . Goya has consulted Rem-brandt's last prints, and though etching is again combined with aquatint, there is none of the decorative flatness that gives the earlier series its charm. Space plays a new role and landscape reinforces the mood . Now here is Goya's imagination more dramatic, his draughts-manship more powerful. His ever active line knits figures into telling mass; accented by white areas of paper and dark washes of ,aquatint, these unforgettable plates constitute the first great pictorial indictment of war. Beside them, much nineteenth-century printmaking on this theme seems journalistic and Otto Dix's trench scenes chiefly clinical. Only Picasso-another Spaniard-was able to equal Goya's union of fury and art in his Dreams and Lies of Franco and the great mural of Guernica. 85. Officer on Horseback. About 1812-14 (?). Oil, 371/i x 30 inches. Lent by The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 58 86 59 86. Hanging of the Monk. About 1810. Oil on panel, 123/IG x 157/is inches. Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago (Robert Alexander Waller Memorial). Few paintings of this period exist, most of Goya's energy having gone into drawing or etching the horrors of war. This sketch shows that when he came to depict such a subject, he went back of the rococo to the baroque style of the seven-teenth century. Only in that highly charged dramatic mode could he find a structure strong enough to hold his emotion. The pushing of the motif to the side, the impact of light on dark, the agitated draughtsmanship link him to Rembrandt. Goya's modernity comes out in his summary, expressionist drawing which comple_tely ignores academic standards for visual force. 95 60 87. The Disasters of War. Before the 1st edition of 1863 which was is sued in Madrid b y The Royal Society of Fine Arts of San Fernando. Before the plates were beveled and before additional work and aqua tint on some of the plates. Befor e title s but with the numbers. Copy mention ed by Hofmann, p. 95, from the Mrs. Jay, Destailleur and Paul de Saint-Victor Collection s . On paper with a watermark consisting of a letter J or F. Lent by Mr. E. Weyhe, New York. 88. The Women Give Courage. Aquatint and etching, 5% x 7% inches. 4th state (D. 123) . Owned b y The Art Institute of Chicago. 89. And They Are Like Wild Beasts. Aquatint, etching and drypoint, 5% x 7% inches. 2nd state (D. 124) . Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 90. That Serves You Right. Aquatint and etching, 4% x 73/s inche s . 2nd state (D. 125) . Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 91. What Courage! Aquatint and etching, 53/s x 73/s inches. 4th state (D. 126). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. Refers to th e heroic conduct of one Agostina who during the siege of Saragossa seized and fired a cannon after the death of the gunners. 92. It Is Bitter to Witness Such Things. Aquatint and etching, 5 x 6% inch es. 2nd state (D. 132). Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 93. And There Is No Remedy. Aquatint and etching, 5 x 6 inche s . 1st state (D. 134). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 94. It's All the Same. Aquatint and etching, 4% x 7% inches. 2nd state (D. 140). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 95. One Can't Bear to See Such Things. Aquatint and etching, 43,4 x 7% inches. 2nd state (D. 145). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mas s . 96. Ravages of War. Aquatint, etching, and drypoint, 5 x 61,4 inches. 1st state with pencil additions by Goya (D. 149) . Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 97. One Doesn't Know Why. Aquatint and etching, 5 x 7 inches. 4th state (D. 154). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 98. Fle eing through the Flames. Aquatint and etching, 5% x 7% inches. 1st state, retouched by Goya, (D. 160). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. This plate may refer to the fire in the hospital at Saragossa during th e siege. An eyewitness wrote: "The evacuation of th e hospital offered th e most frightful spectacle. To escape the fire th e patients threw themselves out of windows onto the bayonet s of th e soldiers; th e wounded, wrapped in long, bloody rags, were forced to drag along th eir mutilated arms or legs; in the midst of thes e horrors, th e insane, who had managed to open the prison cells, sang, laugh ed , and shrieked." (D on Manuel Cavallero, Def ense of Saragossa, 1815.) 61 99. Thanks for the Mess of Indian Corn. Aquatint and etching, 5 x 6% inches. 1st state (D. 170). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. A terrible famine visited -Madrid from September, 1811, until August, 1812, during the course of which over 20,000 peopie died. "Men, women, and children lay dying in the streets; they begged for a scrap of green stuff, for a potato, a drop of soup, however thin and bad. It was a scene of despair and pain. Terrible to see numberless human beings lying in the death agony in the open street; by broad daylight to hear the lamentations of women, the crying of children standing beside the bodies of their fathers and mothers." (Mesonero Romanos, Memories of a Man of Seventy.) 100. Strange Worship. Aquatint and etching, 6 x 75/s inches. 4th state (D. 185). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. "The metropolis has more churches than houses, more priests than citizens, more shrines than churches ... One cannot go a step without running into a procession, a brotherhood, or a rosary ... There is no street corner without its church notices and accounts of false miracles for sale." (From Bread and Bulls, a contemporary pamphlet.) 101. Nothing! He Will Tell You So Himself. Aqua tint, etching and drypoint, 5% x 7% inches. 5th state (D. 188). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 102. Truth Died. Etching, 5% x 71/s inches. 3rd state (D. 198). Owned by The Art Insti-tute of Chicago. An obvious attack on the reactionary policies of the restored Ferdinand. 103. This Is the Truth. Aquatint and etching, 6 x 71h inches. 2nd state (D. 201). Lent by Mr. W. G. Russell Allen, Boston. The final plate in The Disasters, ending on an optimistic note: the glorification of the worker. 99 62 102 THE TAUROMACHIA Ferdinand , "th e De sired ," had restor ed th e anci ent regime with a vengeance and during this period of black reaction, Goy a turn ed to the bullfight, pr eparin g a pictur e book on th e history of th e sport , followed by plat es showing th e great est bullfight ers of the mom ent executing their mo st famou s suertes. Etch ~9"g and aquatint ar e again combined to expr ess viv acious mov ement and atm osph ere. D oubtl ess it s impr essionism app ealed more to th e generation of Man et and Deg as than to us. 104. Another Wa y of Bullfighting on Foot. Before 1815. Red chalk on white paper, 7 x 113/s inche s . Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mas s . Pr elimin ary dr awings for Goya' s print s ar e rar ely found out side of th e Prado, which contain s th e greatest collection of such studi es. F or th e Taur omachia th e drawing s are chiefly in red chalk. Thi s one is for Pl at e 2. 105. Another Way of Bullfighting on Foot. Aquatint and etching, 7% x 121,4 inches. 3rd state (D. 225) . Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 106. A Spanish Nobleman Killing a Bull after Having Lo st His Horse. Etching, 81/s x 12114 inches. 1st state (D. 232). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer , Cambridge, Mass. 107. The Crowd, with Lances and Other Arms, Hamstring a Bull. Aquatint and etch-ing, 81,4 x 121,4 inches. 3rd state (D. 235). Own ed by The Art Institute of Chicago. 108. The Way the Moors Used Asses to Protect Themselves from a Bull Whose Horns Had Been Blunted with Balls at the End. Etching, 7% x 1i114 inches. 1st state (D. 240). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 63 104 104. Another Way of Bullfighting on Foot. Before 1815. Red chalk on white paper, 7 x 113/s inches. Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 105. Another Way of Bullfighting on Foot. Aquatint and etching made from the preliminary drawing above. Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 105 64 109. Another Daring Feat of Martincho in the Arena of Saragossa. Aquatint, etching and drypoint, 81/s x 121/z inches. 3rd state (D. 242). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. Martin Barcaiztegui, a Basque bullfighter and friend of Goya, retired in 1800. Goya saw him at Sarago ssa as well as in Madrid. H e is here shown on a table, wearing leg irons. 110. Lightness and Daring of Juanito Apiiiani in the Ring at Madrid. Aquatint and etching 8 x 121/s inches. 3rd state (D. 243). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. He belonged to the quadrilla of Rom ero and Martincho. One of the most agile of banderillas at the end of the eighteenth century. 111. Accident Which Occurred in the Place Reserved for the Audience in the Arena at Madrid and the Death of the Alcalde of Torrejon. Aquatint and etching, 83/s x 121/z inches. 3rd state (D. 244). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. This accident occurr ed at a bullfight in honor of Charles IV's accession in 1789. 112. A Horse Thrown by a Bull. Aquatint and etching, 83/s x 12% inches. 2nd state (D. 258). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 113. They Set Dogs on the Bull. Aquatint and etching, 81/s x 121/z inches. 1st state (D. 259). Lent by Mr. W. G. Russell Allen, Boston. 114. The Tragic Death of Pepe lllo. Aquatint and etching, 81/s x 12% inches. 2nd state (D. 262). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. Goya probably witn essed this event in the bull ring in Madrid in 1801. He made two variants on the theme. 111 65 115 115. Don Fr. Miguel Fernandez, Bishop of Marcopolis. 1815. Oil, 38 x 33 inches. In-scribed: "The Most Illustrious Senor Don Fr. (probably for Francisco) Miguel Fernandez, Bishop of Marcopolis, Apostolic Administrator of Quito, by Goya, 1815." Lent by the Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, Mass. At this late period Goya begins to study El Greco, as shown by the emphasis on blue, scarlet, and white. The formal decorative note has wholly disappeared and there is a new feeling for the monu-mental. Brushwork is broad and made up of expressive strokes laid next to one another. Remarkable is the treatment of the Bishop's hands. 66 116 116. Don lgn.acio Omulryan y Rourera. 1815. Oil, 331/4 x 251/4 inches. Inscribed (on the hack): "The Most Illustrious Seiior Don Y gnacio Omulryan y Rourera, Minister of the Council and Assembly of the Indies, by Goya, 1815." Lent by the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Such portraits have something of the ghostly intensity of El Gr eco's courtiers and are almost wholly expressionist in treatment. Goya's son informs us: "He painted in one session only, sometimes ten hours long, but never in the afternoon, and to get the best effect in a picture he gave it the last strokes at night under artificial light." One of the artist's self portraits shows him wearing a strange hat, crowned by an iron ring into which lighted candles were set. 67 118 68 117 117. He Wakes up Kicking. About 1815. Brush and india ink on white paper, 91,4 x 5% inch es . Inscribed: "He wakes up kicking." Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Goya seems constantly to have had the idea of bringing together a new series of Caprices. Certain drawings of this time -executed in a broad, painterly style-depict the foibles of the aged. /3 118. Encampment Outside of a Town. 1815-18(?). Oil, 42 x 34 inches. Lent by F. Kleinberger and Company, New York. Associated in size and treatment with the Ascension of the Balloon in the Museum of Agen, France, and technically with the painting of the Colossus in the Prado (Duran bequest). The relation to El Greco's View of Toledo is sugg~stive. It may have been executed with those small wooden spoons (or knives) which Goya's grandson mentions; the effect is similar to that of paint laid on with a palette knife. 69 --:i 0 !Y 119. Crowd in a Park. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81/1s x 5% inches. Lent by The Metro-politan Museum of Art, New York. 119 THE RESTORATION OF FERDINAND Ferdinand VII, who had spent his exile in France at sport and dancing, was returned to an adoring Spain, early in 1814. At first the King pretended to accept the liberal Constitution of Cadiz but by cabal and intrigue soon set it aside and decreed the death penalty against anyone who even dared speak in favor of it. To Goya, Ferdinand is supposed to have said: "You have deserved banishment, you have merited the garrote but you are a great artist and we will forgive you everything." By the end of the summer he was First Court Painter again, turning out official portraits which reveal in frankest terms the monarch's bigoted and false character. Ferdinand had little to do with the aging artist. Goya never painted any of his queens (he had four) and seldom appeared at court. Many of his republican friends were exiled or imprisoned by Ferdinand who quickly undid all the reforms of the popular government. -;i .... 32 V' 120. Three Men Digging. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81/16 x 55/s inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. A first idea for the painting of The Forge in the Frick Collection. 120 THE DECORATIONS OF THE qUINTA Goya retired to a little villa on the other side of the Man-zanares, nicknamed the "Quinta del Sordo," the "House of the Deaf Man." There, in these black years, he decorated the walls with black subjects: strange fantasies of cruelty and witchcraft, foretelling in their sweep of brush and tor-tured forms the most advanced painting of Munch, Nolde, and Orozco. The Duchess of Alba had died long ago; his faithful wife had passed away and he lived alone save for a housekeeper-relative, Leocadia Weiss, and her small daugh-ter, Rosario, whom he tutored in art. For a man of seventy, Goya was astonishingly vigorous. During this time he drew and etched many of the plates for The Disasters, The Tauromachia and the Disparates, his last set of prints. A GROUP OF DRAWINGS DONE ABOUT 1819 The late drawings of Goya take their place with the greatest. Those in sepia suggest a whole color range within the limits of a few washed-in tones. They are free, broad, pictorial, wholly released from a strict rendering of nature. Goya re-creates his subjects by the simplest and most in-tense means. At their best these drawings may be set next to Rembrandt's final sheets which they equal in dramatic fervor and sometimes excel in force of pattern. At times, Goya's balance of flowing wash suggests the abstract power of Chinese painting. 121 --Cl ~ 121. Man and Woman on a Mule. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81/16 x 55/s inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. ~lt ,, 'lit .('r, i I % I t I 122. Hunting Lice. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81/16 x 55/s inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 122 -1 ~ 123 '), ,,, 123. Crowd in a Circle. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81 fi6 x 5% inches. Lent by The Metro-politan Museum of Art, New York. 124. Construction in Progress. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81/16 x 5% inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 124 125 -'l ~ 125. The Stabbing. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81/.6 x 5% inches. Lent by The Metro-politan Museum of Art, New York. 6J :'.fG, ~f\~ey:M!i_@~1js~~,J;-~~-&U:~.......,,,.J1fo,,._.,,, 126. Man Drinking from a Wineskin. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81/16 x 5% inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 126 ~ 127 J' ~c~ 127. Man Holding Back a Horse. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, about 7'l's x 55 /1& inches. Lent by Mr. Frank Channing Smith, Jr., Worcester. 128. A Woman Murdering a Sleeping Man. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81115 x 5% inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 128 129 -1 0:, 129. Beggar Holding Stick in His Right Hand. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81/i6 x 55/s inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. ,--- -0-~-~---- liin 130. Beggar Holding Stick in His Left Hand. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81/16 x 5% inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 130 -:i -:i 131 ;, < I $ 131. Group with a Disheveled Woman. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81/16 x 5% inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. ' /,4' 132. Two Prisoners in Irons. About 1819. Brush and sepia on white paper, 81/16 x 5% inches. Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 132 133 134. Prisoner in Chains. About 1820. Etching, 3% x 2% inches 2nd State (D. 31). The Art In-stitute of Chicago (Bernard F. Rogers Loan Collection). On one proof occurs this legend by Goya: "The punishment 1s as barbarous as the crime." 133. Tortured Prisoner. About 1820. Etching 41/s x 3 inches. (D. 32). Lent by Mr. W. G. Russell Allen, Boston. Goya projected a series of etchings on cruel and inhuman treatment of prisoners. A number of drawings were made on which he wrote such cap-tions as: "Guilty of descent from the Jews," "Guilty of wagging their tongues in a different way," '' Guilty of being born differently," etc. On one proof of the present etching he wrote: "You ought to be able to hold a prisoner without needing to torture him." (See the preliminary drawing for this plate, No. 135). 134 78 135. Tortured Prisoner. About 1820. Brush, sepia and red chalk on white paper, 4 x 2% inches. Lent by Mr. W. G. Russell Allen, Boston. Preliminary drawing for the etching. (See No. 133) . The style of this series is monumental despite the small format . Goya must have known the Prisons of Piranesi but refused Piranesi's fantastic and grandiose side. In breadth of expression and deep humanity these plates link Rembrandt and Daumier. 136 79 136. Tortured Prisoner in Pro-file. About 1820. Etching, 41/4 x 2% inches. 2nd state (D. 33). Lent by Mr. W. G. Russell Allen, Bos-ton. On one proof Goya wrote: "Why don't you execute him at once if he's guilty?" 135 137 137. Don Juan Antonio Cuervo. 1819. Oil, 503/s x 341/4 inches. Inscribed: "Don Juan Antonio Cuerb(v)o, Director of the Royal Academy of San Fernando, by his friend, Goya, in the year 1819." Lent by Mr. Godfrey S. Rockefeller, Greenwich, Conn. He wears the uniform of Director of the Academy. Goya knew and portrayed many architects. He made several sketches for architectural projects, including one which is thought to refer to a monument com-memorating the dead of the Second of May. Though an official portrait, Goya's rendering is now far removed from the exterior, finished style of the eighteenth century. The figure powerfully fills the canvas, and the paint is app lied with direct, liquid stroke. 80 138 138. Don Tiburcio Perez. 1820. Oil, 401/4 x 32 inches. Inscribed: "To Tiburcio Perez, Goya, 1820." Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The architect, another friend of Goya's, is portrayed in shirt-sleeves, a symptom of the new republican age. When Goya went to France in 1824 he commended to Perez's care the ingtruction of little Rosario Weiss. The free, easy attitude is in striking contrast to the court portraits. In part Goya resorts to the old, liquid technique, rediscovered in the whites of El Greco. These final portraits, in psychology and execution, lead on to Gericault and even to Courbet . 81 LATE ETCHINGS Two single plates made about 1819- 20: 139. God Bless You! Etching, 53/s x 71,4 inches. 1st state (D. 24). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. A grim piece of humor. A blind man believes he is being led across a street by a charitable person and says, "God bless you!" while he has really been seized by a bull . 140. Maja (Turned to the Right). Original copper plate for the etching 79/i 6 x 415/ 16 inches (See No. 141). On the reverse the plate for the Maja (Turned to the Left) (D. 29). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 141. Maja (Turned to the Right). Modern impression of the above plate. 71h x 4% inches (See D. 28). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. THE DISPARATES Goya's final series of prints was called by him, Disparates, meaning "strange things," "un-canny experiences, devoid of sense, like dreams and visions." Though various early proofs are known, the suite of eighteen was not issued until 1864 by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando in an edition of 250 copies. At that time they were entitled Proverbs, a name which has clung to them ever since. Four additional plates were discovered and printed in 1877 in the French magazine , L' Art. In a sense the Disparates are new Caprices, but extremely unlike the early series. In mood and extravagant fantasy they are related, rather, to the wall paintings of the Quinta de! Sordo. Full of bitter paradox, the symbols spring directly from Goya's subconscious mind which explains their influence on later artists like Rops, Redon, and Ensor, and the surrealists of our day. Goya foregoes all grace; the drawing is elliptical, and the dark pervading aquatint creates sinister and mysterious moods. A new, romantic sense of space is everywhere. Various attempts (none of them successful) have been made to explain their subject matter which lies locked in the arti st's mind . 142. Feminine Disparate. Aquatiut and etching, 83/s x 12% inches. 1st state (D. 202). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 143. Disparate of Fear. Aquatint and etching, 8% x 121h inches. 2nd state (D. 203). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago . 144. Ridiculous Disparate. Aquatint and etching, 83/s x 12% inches. 2nd state (D . 204). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 145. Furious Disparate. Aquatint and etching, 81h x 121/2 inches. 2nd state (D. 207). Lent by Mr. W. G. Russell Allen, Boston. 146. Runners in Sacks . Aquatint and etching, 83/s x 121h inches. 1st state (D. 209). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 82 143 83 143. Disparate of Fear. Aqua tint and etching. Owned by the Art Institute of Chicago . 144. Ridiculous Disparate. Aquatint and etching. Owned by The Art In-stitute of Chicago. 144 147 147. Ways of Flying. Aquatint and etching. Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 149. Clear Disparate. Aquatint and etching. Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 149 84 147. Ways of Flying. Aquatint and etching, 8% x 12% inches. 2nd state (D. 214). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 148. Carnival Disparate. Aquatint and etching, 81/4 x 12% inches. 1st state (D. 215). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 149. Clear Disparate. Aquatint and etching, 83/s x 123/s inches. 2nd state (D. 216). With caption in Goya's handwriting. Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. 150. Loyalty. Aquatint and etching, 8o/s x 12% inches. 2nd state (D. 218). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 151. Disparate of Murder(?) Aqua tint and etching, 3114 x 123/s inches. 1st state (D. 219). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 152. Recognized Disparate. Aquatint and etching, 8% x 12% inches. 1st state, but before L'Art (D. 220). Lent by Mr. W. G. Russell Allen, Boston. 153. Exact Disparate. Aquatint and etching, 8% x 12% inches. 2nd state from L'Art de Luxe (D. 221). Lent by Mr. Henry S. Ferriss, Madison, N. J. 154. Animal Disparate. Aquatint and etching, 83/s x 12% inches. 1st state from L'Art de Luxe (D. 222). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. 155. Rain of Bulls. Aquatint and etching, 81/4 x 12% inches. 1st state, but before L'Art (D. 223). Lent by Mr. W. G. Russell Allen, Boston. 85 153. Exact Disparate. Aquatint and etching. Lent by Mr. Henry S. Ferriss, Madison, N. J. 153 154 154. Animal Disparate. Aqua tint and etching. Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. SPAIN IN TURMOIL. DEPARTURE FOR FRANCE Meanwhile, Ferdinand VII had been fighting civil uprisings, now forced to recognize the lib-erals, now ruling with absolute authority. In 1823 a French army again crossed the border and established the old order. Reprisals were cruel, thousands of constitutionalists were thrown into prison and many fled the country. The seventy-seven year old painter went into hiding during the autumn and in the following May applied for a leave of absence, ostensibly to take the cure at Plombieres in France. Instead he stopped three days in Bordeaux and then went on to Paris "eager to see the world." There he visited the Salon, with its English pictures by Constable and Bonington; looked upon the ro-mantic canvas by Delacroix, The Massacre at Chios, and met Horace Vernet. In the fall he returned to Bordeaux, to a house kept by Leo-cadia Weiss who had fled Madrid the year before. There, among a circle of Spanish exiles, he spent the rest of his days, save for a trip back home in 1826 to renew his leave. To the end he drew and painted and explored the possibilities of the new lithographic medium. His days were spent in in-structing Rosario (whose talent he greatly over-rated); in walking the streets of this provincial town with Dona Leocadia, where he visited the circus and the art academy. (In the latter place he was a well-known figure and it is recorded that he passed slowly among the pupils at work, muttering under his breath, "No, that's not it, that's not it," before their anemic exercises.) On April 2, 1828, while joyfully awaiting a visit from his only son, he had a stroke of apo-plexy, and died on April 16. 86 MINIATURES In 1825, Goya, always active and experimenting, did a series of miniatures. "Last winter," he wrote to a friend in Paris, "I painted on ivory and I have a collec-tion of about forty examples, but it's a type of original miniature that I've never seen before, resembling the brushwork of Velazquez rather than Mengs." This example, one of the forty, shows how the artist, in this tiny format, recaptured the visionary quality of the walls in the Quinta del Sordo. Such expressionism re-sembles the most advanced works Daumier painted forty years later. 156. Old Man Looking for Fleas. 1825. Minia-ture on ivory, 23/s x 23/8 inches. Lent by Durlacher Brothers, New York. 157 87 156 157. Woman with Blowing Skirt. 1825. Miniature on ivory, 33/s x 3% inches. Len thy Durlacher Brothers, New York. These are the most unusual "minia-tures" in the whole history of that form. Instead of carefully stippled detail, Goya paints broadly and with only the vaguest reference to nature. The de-sign is monumental and the great plas-tic figure with drapery blowing in the wind might be a mural, rather than a small sketch. There is a grandeur and a fantasy in these final expressions of his art matched only by the late Titian or Rembrandt. 158. St. Peter Repentant. Between 1818-25. Oil, 29 x 251/i inches. Signed: Goya. Lent by the Phillips Memorial Gallery, Washington, D.C. Round the year 1819, Goya, who had painted many religious subjects in the conventional manner, did a few canvases full of a deep emotionalism. Thi s remarkable work, with its huge, bulking figur e and its bar oque int ensity of mood, foretells certa in canvases of Cezanne. The luminou s st ructure , the feeling for space, th e untramm eled brushwork remind one of Goya's remark, "I can see only masses in light and masses in shadow, planes which advance, or planes which recede, reliefs or background. " 88 158 159 GOYA~ LITHOGRAPHER At seventy-three years of age Goya took up lithography. He learned the new process from a friend, Cardano, who brought the discovery back from Paris. In all he produced about twenty lithographs, among them Reading and the Bulls of Bordeaux. 159. Reading. 1820-25. Lithograph, 51/s x 5114 inches. (D. 276). Lent by Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Mass. In 1825 Goya had printed in Bordeaux one hundred sets of four lithographs of the bullfight which are among his greatest works. Most critics have compared them to the etchings of The Tauromachia, failing to note that they are fantasies rather than impressions of things seen. Touched by creative imagination of the highest order, these four prints, with their rhythmic interplay of form, light, and atmosphere, are Goya's final bequest to the artists of the nineteenth century. An eyewitness describes their making: "He executed them on an easel, the stone set up like a canvas, holding his crayons like brushes without ever sharpening them. He remained standing, moving away or coming close to observe an effect. As was customary, he covered the entire stone with a uniform gray tone, next picking out with a scraper the parts which were to appear lighter. Finally, the crayon was used to deepen the shadows or to indicate the figures, giving them movement." 89 160. The Celebrated American, Mariano Ceballos. Lithograph, 121/i x 16 inches. 2nd state (D. 286). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago (The Clarence Buckingham Collection). 160 161. Picador Gored by a Bull. Lithograph, 12114 x 161/s inches. 1st state (D. 287). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago (The Clarence Buckingham Collection). 161 90 162 162. Spanish Entertainment. Lithograph, ll% x 16% inches. 2nd state (D. 288). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago (The Clarence Buckingham Collection). 163 91 163. Bullfight in a Divided Ring. Lithograph, ll% x 163/s inches. Only state (D. 289). Owned by The Art Institute of Chicago (The Clarence Buckingham Collection). GOYA painted his pictures mostly on a red-orange (bolus) or tanned-leather ground (brown ochre, flake white and light red mixed with the palette-knife). The outline of the head or the composition he sketched in with ivory black. Probably he first began the head with a flesh tint, a mixture of -! terre verte and i, light red plus plenty of flake white (mixed with palette-knife); to this general flesh-color sometimes a very little yellow ochre, or raw umber, or burnt umber, or burnt sienna or vermilion was added to match the complexion of the sitter or the object to be represented. This flesh tint he put on with rather a stiff color directly on the red-dish or orange ground. The modeling is done with ivory black or raw umber. It is known that Goya painted very quickly; in fact, the freshness of the coloring can only be achieved when the mask of the face is finished in one and one-half to two hours' painting while still wet. He put in the greenish shadows and half-shadows rather thinly, using hog-bristle brushes for dead coloring and sable hairs for the finer details. He did not use any medium but mixed the tints from the single colors with the knife upon the palette to a clean and nice paste exactly matching the colors observed from na-ture. The fresh, clean paste is applied upon the reddish ground which gives to the light flesh as well the grayish or greenish ( or very seldom bluish) half-tint the brilliancy and beauty pecu-liar to his work. Never touched, this paste be-comes hard after months; the oil of the colors sinks into the ground and a mastic varnish coat, applied only after a year, restored the original beauty of the painting. The immense softness of Goya's brushwork can be explained only because he painted his pictures at once and while wet. The mask of the face is smoothed at its edges (near the hair) with grayish or greenish tints (-! terre verte and i, yellow ochre and little flake white), worked into each other with sable-hair brushes. Generally it may be said that Goya used three tints: (1) a light flesh tint com-posed of -! terre verte and t light red plus t of flake white, adding sometimes vermilion, an opaque color, to give strength (2) a medium tint of a greenish hue and (3) pure ivory black for the deepest shadows. This is especially to be noticed in his big compositions where the faces very often are only sketched in. In some pic-tures which are painted in haste he models, for instance, the arms only with the light flesh tint directly into the dark reddish ground without using a greenish or grayish middle tint. Very often he reduces the general conception to three tints: a light, middle, and shade tint; the back-ground is usually a middle tint of a greenish color; later he uses very often completely dark backgrounds (dark brown or black) giving the face a pale and flat appearance. The palette of Goya may be described as follows : The single colors placed at the upper edge of the palette are: flake white, Naples yel-low, yellow ochre, brown ochre, light red, ver-milion, burnt sienna, crimson lake, cobalt blue, raw umber, burnt umber, ivory black. (This is confirmed in a contemporary art book dated 179.5.) The light flesh tint and the greenish middle tint are painted in separate spots with 92 hog-bristle brushes and sometimes united at the edges with clean sable-hair brushes. When work-ing over an unfinished painting he varnished it with mastic after it was completely dry and covered thinly parts of the shadows with glazing colors like asphaltum, crimson lake, yellow lake, by means of a sponge, then painting into this wet varnish. This is noticeabl e in the portrait of the Duk e of Wellington in London. The portrait of his wife at th e Prado is also paint ed this way and in spite of being much labored and over-worked, it is a great and successful picture. It seems to me that he used sometimes Venetian turp entine as a varnish which makes the pictur e very glossy (Wellington). The portrait of Goya by Lopez shows the following arrangement of the palette: besides the single colors already mentioned placed at th e upp er end, he has a great bulk of flesh tint in th e middle of the pal ette; the ivory black, burnt or raw umber and perhaps crimson lake on the left for the shades and vermilion-separated as by most of the eighteenth-century painters-on the right; vermilion is used for lips, deepest shade of nostril, cheeks, etc. A greenish and grayish tint for the half-shades is placed beside th e light flesh tint as already mentioned. F. SCHMID burnt sienna vermilion venetian red 93 raw umber ivory hlack .. --... ,,: ~~~-t-~~~_,,. , ... -... , ' . . . ' ' , ..... _ ... ,5 ,,--,/ ' /', ~ ,' ,,- ... .. ,_~ :' : Flesh tint (; venetian red + \. ... __ ... ,, i Terre verte + .P._lenty of 3 yellow ochre :', ... -.... Naples yellow ._ ' ... __ .. , Flake whi1e '.. ..... _ .. ,~ 0 Flake 1v,hi1ef ;,,/;ed"wi{h the palftte knife : ~~:) 2 ...... -- ..... ..... ______ .......... ,' hrownish-Mackish vermilion for lips & \ ,: cheeks -- ll tllztS .,---~ ~yellow ochre + ~ Terre verte + lutl e Flake whue ,-----.: - ----.,' (greenish half tint) 0 ( ___ ~ ivo,y Mack 16.12.1939 *To wl1ich may be added a littl e yellow ochre or vermilion or burnl sienna or crimson lake or raw umber to match the complex ion of the sitter @tJ-ya a g{,~/k (18 2 7) INTERPRETING GOVA-DIS ART AND ITS INFLUENCE The attention of visitors is called to this important exhibition arranged by Miss Helen F. Maclcenzie, Curator, The Gallery of Art Int erpretation. This corollary presentation, made up of photographs, documents, enlarged details, and stylistic analyses of Goya's art will be found in Gallery 1, First Floor. /\ AIC1941ArtofGoya001AIC1941ArtofGoya002AIC1941ArtofGoya003AIC1941ArtofGoya004AIC1941ArtofGoya005AIC1941ArtofGoya006AIC1941ArtofGoya007AIC1941ArtofGoya008AIC1941ArtofGoya009AIC1941ArtofGoya010AIC1941ArtofGoya011AIC1941ArtofGoya012AIC1941ArtofGoya013AIC1941ArtofGoya014AIC1941ArtofGoya015AIC1941ArtofGoya016AIC1941ArtofGoya017AIC1941ArtofGoya018AIC1941ArtofGoya019AIC1941ArtofGoya020AIC1941ArtofGoya021AIC1941ArtofGoya022AIC1941ArtofGoya023AIC1941ArtofGoya024AIC1941ArtofGoya025AIC1941ArtofGoya026AIC1941ArtofGoya027AIC1941ArtofGoya028AIC1941ArtofGoya029AIC1941ArtofGoya030AIC1941ArtofGoya031AIC1941ArtofGoya032AIC1941ArtofGoya033AIC1941ArtofGoya034AIC1941ArtofGoya035AIC1941ArtofGoya036AIC1941ArtofGoya037AIC1941ArtofGoya038AIC1941ArtofGoya039AIC1941ArtofGoya040AIC1941ArtofGoya041AIC1941ArtofGoya042AIC1941ArtofGoya043AIC1941ArtofGoya044AIC1941ArtofGoya045AIC1941ArtofGoya046AIC1941ArtofGoya047AIC1941ArtofGoya048AIC1941ArtofGoya049AIC1941ArtofGoya050AIC1941ArtofGoya051AIC1941ArtofGoya052AIC1941ArtofGoya053AIC1941ArtofGoya054AIC1941ArtofGoya055AIC1941ArtofGoya056AIC1941ArtofGoya057AIC1941ArtofGoya058AIC1941ArtofGoya059AIC1941ArtofGoya060AIC1941ArtofGoya061AIC1941ArtofGoya062AIC1941ArtofGoya063AIC1941ArtofGoya064AIC1941ArtofGoya065AIC1941ArtofGoya066AIC1941ArtofGoya067AIC1941ArtofGoya068AIC1941ArtofGoya069AIC1941ArtofGoya070AIC1941ArtofGoya071AIC1941ArtofGoya072AIC1941ArtofGoya073AIC1941ArtofGoya074AIC1941ArtofGoya075AIC1941ArtofGoya076AIC1941ArtofGoya077AIC1941ArtofGoya078AIC1941ArtofGoya079AIC1941ArtofGoya080AIC1941ArtofGoya081AIC1941ArtofGoya082AIC1941ArtofGoya083AIC1941ArtofGoya084AIC1941ArtofGoya085AIC1941ArtofGoya086AIC1941ArtofGoya087AIC1941ArtofGoya088AIC1941ArtofGoya089AIC1941ArtofGoya090AIC1941ArtofGoya091AIC1941ArtofGoya092AIC1941ArtofGoya093AIC1941ArtofGoya094AIC1941ArtofGoya095AIC1941ArtofGoya096AIC1941ArtofGoya097AIC1941ArtofGoya098AIC1941ArtofGoya099AIC1941ArtofGoya100AIC1941ArtofGoya101AIC1941ArtofGoya102

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