Text of P OPULATION M ANAGEMENT Large Wildlife Mammal Management
P OPULATION M ANAGEMENT Large Wildlife Mammal Management
What is a definition of ecology and a food chain as they relate to large mammals? Ecology Study of structure and function Study of inter-relationships of living organisms and their environment Understanding of how earth sustains life Conservation policies and programs are based on ecological principles Basic ecological units: HabitatNichePopulation CommunityEcosystemBiosphere
Habitat The environment in which an organisms needs are met
Niche the role a species plays within its habitat
Population Groups of same species living in an area.
Community All plants and animals living together in one specific area
Ecosystem Plant and animal communities living with the non- living environment it depends on
Biosphere All of the earths ecosystems functioning together in a global system
Food Chain A series in which food energy transfers from one organism to another Energy is lost as it travels up the food chain The top of the chain has fewer and larger in size of animals
What are basic habitat requirements for wildlife? Food - nutritional source Water - quality & quantity important Cover - bedding, protection Space - Two types 1. territory 2. home range Arrangement - interspersion of food, water, cover and space
What are the basic requirements for wildlife? Food - a nutritional source for all living organisms Water - quality and quantity are important and directly affects the habitat and thus the kind of animal species that lives there. Cover - vegetation or other material used by wildlife for nesting, rearing young, resting and protection from predators and weather. Space - a specific amount of space is needed for each individual species. Space will vary seasonally. There are two types of space. Territory: a smaller area within the range that an animal will defend usually against members of the same species. Home Range: an area over which an animal repeatedly travels. This area is generally used to locate feed, water and cover. An individual animals range may overlap with another, but their territory never will. Arrangement - food, water, and cover must be interspersed or arranged throughout the habitat for animals to thrive.
Minnesotas Ecological Sections
What are the features of the Laurentian Mixed Forest Area? Covers a little more than 23 million acres in Northeastern Minnesota Characterized by broad area of conifer forests and mixed conifer and hardwood forests Minnesotas primary range for white-tailed deer. Mining and lumbering are the major industries in this area
Of Eastern Broadleaf Forest Covers nearly 12 million acres of the central and southeastern parts of the state and serves as a transition between prairie and mixed conifer-deciduous forests to the northeast. The western boundary has an abrupt transition from forest and woodland to open grassland. The northeastern boundary is a gradual transition between eastern deciduous forests and the mixed conifer-hardwood forests of northern Minnesota. White-tailed deer population is good, however deer are more vulnerable due to lack of refuge during hunting season.
Of Prairie Parkland Area Covers just over 16 million acres coinciding with the part of the state historically dominated by tallgrass prairie Consists of some mixed hardwoods but mostly farmland (86-99%). Crop damage in this area can be serious when population of white-tailed deer is high. Deer have limited cover, mainly woodlots, marshes and wooded river bottoms. They are more exposed to hunters.
Of Tall Grass Aspen Parklands Covers a small part (about 3 million acres of northwestern Minnesota In Minnesota, the province forms a transition between semi-arid landscapes historically covered by prairie and semi-humid mixed conifer-deciduous forests to the east Mixed woodlands areas give good cover for deer
Of Tall Grass Aspen Parklands The area was originally prairie New biome classification Succession is ongoing without management Area with elk is on the western edge and needs consistent mowing and or burning to maintain elk habitat
What habitat is favored by white tailed deer? Variety of openings & covers Prefer areas with many edges Edge is the transitional zone between vegetation cover types Deer do not remain deep in forest
Habitat for deer is seasonal Spring open areas Summer open areas and edges Fall open areas and edges Winter forested areas for protection and woody browse High quality habitat critical for pregnant does Home range for deer Bucks 500 to 1000 acres Does 300 to 600 acres
What habitat is favored for the black bear? North central & Northeast forest Extensive forest with small clearings Prefer isolation from humans Lakes provide bear with variety of foods Forest provides denning sites Solitary animals but will share common feeding, breeding and hibernating space Bear benefit from managed deer habitat Bear habitat provides green vegetation, berries, nuts, leaves, grasses, fruits, insects
What habitat is favored by Moose Two distinct areas a. Forest b. Transitional Prefer isolation from humans Do not co-exist well with white tailed deer Lakes and marshes provide for summer dietary needs Moose prefer mixture of trees, second growth shrubs and saplings
What habitat is favored by wolves? Forested lands with remote areas and inaccessible by humans Prey availability important Northeast and north central forested areas Dennings site availability important High bedding sites Very territorial, ranges may overlap but territories never will
What are the feeding habits of the white-tailed deer? Ruminants Plant foods: Mast, forbs, agronomic crops, browse Browsers consume woody plant materials, trees, Shrubs Prefer to feed early mornings and early evenings Approximately consume 5 pounds per 100 weight and 1-1 1/2 quarts water per day Summer and fall deer food abundant winter and spring Food intake is physiologically regulated
What are the ways the white-tailed deer adapts to the environment in which they live? Over-browsing reduces carrying capacity Food intake adjusted to time of year and physical activity Usually limit feeding range to 40 acres Fall feed heavily in preparation for breeding and winter Winter hardship period, semi-fasting, death from starvation high. Yard-up to conserve energy Spring Consume protein rich green vegetation Summer time of plenty Usually avoid feeding near humans Adjust diet to available food Forest woody browse, forbs, mast Transitional vegetation, browse Agricultural crops, fruits