Organizational Culture,Organisational Change,Organisational Devolopment

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    Unit 10

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    Definition:

    Organizational culture refers to apattern of learned

    behaviours that is shared and passed on among themembers ofan organisation.

    It comprises ofthe variousassumptions,values,beliefs,norms,rituals,

    languageetc.that people in an organisation share

    Edgar schein defines Org.culture as a pattern of

    shared basic assumptions that the group learned asit solved its problems ofexternal adaptation and

    internal integration.

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    1) Norms

    2) Attention to detail

    3) Outcome orientation

    4) People orientation

    5) Team orientation

    6) Observed Behavioural Regularities

    7) Dominant Values8) Rules

    9) Philosophy

    10) Organizational climate

    11) Uniformity ofculture

    12) Dominant culture

    13) Subculture

    14) Strong vs weak cultures15) Sharedness

    16) Intensity

    Read pages 162 163 164 165 166

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    1) Selection

    2) Top management

    3) Socialization

    4) Prearrival stage

    5) Encounter stage6) Metamorphosis stage

    7) Learning culture

    8) Stories

    9) Rituals and ceremonies

    10) Material symbols11) Language

    Read pages 166,167,168,169

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    The change process

    Assess existing culture

    Change agent

    Introduce alternatives Define a new paradigm

    Change must be top-down

    Employee participation

    Shed the old paradigm Quick transition

    Read pages 169,170,171

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    Definitions

    Change is concerned with making thinsg

    different

    Change intervention is aplanned action tomake things different

    Change agent is a person or a group of

    persons who act as catalysts for change andassumes responsibility to include changeprocess

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    Organisational devolopment is aterm used to

    describe a system oriented approach to

    change

    It is a term usedfor a variety ofchange-

    oriented activities

    Described as a complex network ofevents

    that enhances the ability ofthe organisation

    in adapting to theexternal environment

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    1) Work force

    2) Changes in technology

    3) Changes in economic,social,politicalandphysical environment

    4) Changes in competition

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    Causes ofresistance to change:

    1)Individual resistance

    a) Economic factors

    b) Habit

    c) Fear ofthe unknown

    d) Change affects emotions and sentiments

    e) Lack ofclarification

    f) Opposition onlyfor the sake ofopposition

    2)Organisational resistance

    a) Built in mechanism

    b) Group normsc) Threat to expertise

    d) Threat to established power relationships

    e) Threat to established resource allocation

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    1) Education and communication

    2) Participation

    3)

    Facilitation and support4) Use ofgroup force

    5) Leadership for change

    6) Negotiation

    7) Manipulation

    8) corecion

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    Kurt lewins three step model

    Unfreezing: unlearning the old things in order tolearn new things

    Movement:denotes a movemnet to a new state Refreezing: stabilising a change intervention by

    balancingdriving and restrainingforce

    Drivingforce: direct behaviour awayfrom the

    status quo Restrainingforce: hinder movemnet from the

    status quo

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    Any planned change needs chage

    agents.They are

    1) External change agent-consultants2) Internal change agent-personnel manager

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    Organisation devolopment is another set of

    activities which assist significantly the

    process ofemployees empowerment

    OD intervention serve thefollowing

    purposes:

    Improve performanceefficiency

    Increase innovation

    Assist empowerment

    Improve quality ofwork life

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    1) Limitations ofconventional training

    2) Lack of integration through interpersonal

    relationship3) Organisation culture

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    1) Humanism

    2) Problem-solving nature

    3) Systems approach

    4) Learning through participation(linkerts ODframework diagram pg.198)

    5) Top management support and involvement

    6) Multiple interventions7) Role ofconsultant or a change Agent

    8) Contingency plans

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    Brown and covey-attempts to identify OD

    values

    a) Norms and valuesb) The assumptions and beliefs ofOD

    On individuals

    On groups On organisation

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    OD intervention process-not an instant process

    It takes timefor data collection,analysis,implementation osaction plans,feed back,modified action plans andimplementation andfeedback

    Thefollowing six phases are identified as standard phases.

    Phase 1-problem identification anddiagnosis

    Phase 2- Data collection and analysis

    Phase 3-finalise recommendations and priorities

    Phase 4 Preparation ofAction plans

    Phase 5 OD intervention

    Phase 6 Evaluation andfollow up

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    1) Sensitivity training (Encounter/T-group

    training)

    2) Surveyfeedback3) Process consultation

    4) Team building

    5) Intergroup Devolopment