Old & Modern Masters

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    THE PARK WEST

    OLD AND MODERN MASTERS COLLECTIONDurer Rembrandt Goya Picasso Chagall Miro Dali

    PabloPicasso

    Joan Mir Rembrandt van Rijn

    Salvador Dal

    Francisco Goya

    Albrecht Drer

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    32006 Park West Gallery

    ALBRECHTDURER 1471-1528 Son of a goldsmith

    Apprenticed to painter Michael Wolgemut (1434-1519) 1512 appointed as Court Painter to Emperor Maximilian (1459-1519) Holy Roman Empireand Germany

    Durer traveled extensively, wrote copiously, and reflected on Humanism, science and mathematics.He fully absorbed and expanded the sophisticated dialog between scientific theory and art of thetime and the Humanist movement. He produced his own treatise on human proportion in 1528.

    His genius was multi-faceted, but manifested art historically in the blend of Northern andSouthern cannons.

    Found more appreciation for his work outside of Germany, and to reach his market he created over2000 drawings, 70 paintings and an astonishing body of graphic works including 250 woodcuts,more than 100 engravings.

    How were his prints sold? Why did the blocks survive?

    SeriesinWoodcut The Large Passion (1498-1510) slide 2-151520 with text The Apocalypse (1498) slide 3-71221 with text The Small Passion (1509-1511) slide 4-62820 with test The Life of the Virgin (1502-1511) slide 5-145820 with text

    EngravingsandetchingsWalter Strauss, The Complete Engravings, Etchings and Drypoints of Albrecht Durer, (Dover, 1972)

    Durers Engravings Represent the quintessence of his efforts and thoughts and most succinctlydemonstrate the development of this profoundly intellectual artist. It is here that Durer demonstrates tothe world what can be achieved in Black and White.

    S.R. Kohler (catalog of the first American exhibition of Durers graphic works in the U.S.; Boston, 1888)

    The Park West Old and Modern Masters Collection

    Where we are?

    Why we are here?

    What are we accomplishing?

    How do we do this?

    Durer Rembrandt Goya Picasso Chagall Miro Dali

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    42006 Park West Gallery

    It is precisely their enigmatic character which proves to be their strength, and this enigmaticalcharacter which again is due to the curious mixture of allegory and realism, of vague idea and definiteform, which characterizes them and invests them with the charm of a vivid dream.

    Individualetchings

    The Small Passion

    FamousengravingsofDurerforresearch: Knight, Death and the Devil(1513) Melecholia(1514) Adam and Eve(1504) St. Gerome in his Study(1514)

    REMBRANDT

    1606-1669 (July 15th-400 year birthday) Leiden, Holland

    Son of miller Parents invested heavily in his education although of modest means Disillusioned with studies, left to study art Was a prodigy-moved to Amsterdam to study with Peter Lastman Returned to Leiden in 6 months, mastered his studies, began taking pupils at age 22 Moved to Amsterdam 1631, married Saskia (cousin of a dealer) 1634. Wealthy patrons commissioned his works, portraits and religious subjects Family tragedy occurred simultaneously to his success 1635-41 four children born all died except Titus; 1642 Saskia died at age 30. Hendrickje Stouffels became mistress and common law wife @ 1649.

    Declared bankruptcy in 1656, auctioned off his possessions. Hendrickje died in 1663; Titus died in 1668 (age 27), Rembrandt died 11 months later onOctober 4, 1669.

    Approximately 300 etchings created (differing opinions by catalogers)81 plates survived

    Why states?

    Thelaterstatesandreceuils:Pierre Mariette (1634-1716)

    Started to collect and print plates @ 1652 printed the first re-issues but did not rework them. Heprinted them as late as 1696.

    From 1669-1767 the whereabouts of the bulk of the surviving Rembrandt plates is shrouded inmystery. In 1767 an auction of the estate of Pieter de Hahn was held and 53 Rembrandt plates werepurchased by Charles Henri Watelet.

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    52006 Park West Gallery

    When Watelet died in 1785, he owned at least 78 plates, many which he re-worked. He startingprinting them as early as 1760. He reworked them beautifully and often succeeded in getting theimpressions pulled as close as possible to Rembrandts intention.

    Thereceuils(collections

    Pierre Francois Basan purchased the Watelet collection, and published the first receuil and continuedto do so from 1789-1797. The collection included 80 Rembrandts and other artists and sold for 96livres ($ 8.00, today)

    Henri Louis Basan released his receuils between 1807-1808. Auguste Jean issued the next receuil around 1810. Widow Jean in 1826. Michel Beranard acquired the plates from the widow (who died in 1846) and issued his receuils

    from 1846-1906. In 1906 Alvin Beaumont (in conjunction with Bernard) issued his receuil (missing two images) In London, in 1816 J.M. Creery issued his A collection of 200 Original Etchings which contained

    6 Rembrandts not in the Basan-Baumont receuils.

    TheposthumousRembrandtstatesandreceuils Watelet 1760 P.F. Basan 1789-1797 H.L Basan 1807-1808 Jean 1810-1826 Bernard 1846-1906 Beaumont 1906

    Creeryeditions(6plates 1816

    Dr. Robert Lee Humber acquired the plates in 1938 from Alvin Beaumont. He did little to advertisethis fact and they were placed on permanent loan in 1956 at the North Carolina Museum of Art inRaleigh until 1970 when Humber died and they were vaulted. In spring of 1993 they were sold on theLondon market.

    Catalogs raissone (B.) Adam Bartsch 1797 (H.) Arthur Hind 1912 (B.B.) Bjorklund and Barnard 1955 (N.U) G.W. Nowell Eusticke 1967

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    FRANCISCOGOYABorn 1746, Fuendetodos, SpainDied Bordeaux, France 1828

    His father was a gilder, and he was apprenticed at 14 to the painter, Jose Luzan. He further studied in

    Italy and later returned to Spain and painted frescos for his local cathedral.

    From 1775-1792, he painted designs for the Royal Tapestry factory in Madrid, and began to paintimages of everyday life. This had a profound effect on his art along with the influence of Velazquez. Hewas elected to the Royal Academy of San Fernando in 1780, named painter to the king in 1786, andmade a court painter in 1789.

    1792 he became ill and as a result permanently deaf. This profoundly influenced his art which becamedarker and more concerned with satirical views of society and with his own imaginations and inventions.He introduced an earthly realism to his religious works, painted his portraits as he saw the sitters, andcreated his masterpieces in etching.

    Goya served as director of painting at the Royal Academy from 1795 to 1797 and was appointed firstSpanish court painter in 1799. During the Napoleanic invasion and the Spanish War of Independence(1808-1814) he served as court painter to the French. Upon the restoration of the Spanish monarchy,he was pardoned but his work was not favored by the new king.

    In 1824, after the failure to restore the liberal government in Spain, he went into voluntary exile anddied in Bordeaux , France in 1828.

    Etchings:

    Catalog raissone: Tomas Harris, 1964 Innovative in his imagery and technique. The first great master of aquatint and a pioneerof lithography.

    Los Caprichos, 1799" capricious affairs which attempted to ridicule, to upbraid prejudice, imposture and hypocrisy andother evils which have been hallowed by time".---Goya on Los Caprichos

    80 etchings with drypoint and aquatint First edition (made for Goya) and first offered for sale in 1799 (approx 300 sets) Second edition 1855 (size unknown-apparently small)

    Third edition 1868 (size unknown-apparently small) Fourth edition 1878 (65 sets) Fifth edition 1881 and 1886 (210 sets) Sixth edition 1890-1900 (230 sets) Seventh edition 1903-1905 (110 sets) Eighth edition 1905 and 1907 (180 sets) Tenth edition 1918 and 1928 (170 sets + some single impressions) Eleventh edition 1929 (100 sets) Twelfth edition 1937 (5 on Old Japan, 15 on Imperial Japon, 120 on Arches)

    62006 Park West Gallery

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    72006 Park West Gallery

    Los Desastres de la Guerra, c.1809-1820In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte declared himself Emperor of France; in 1808 he invaded Spain. Sendingthe royal family into exile, he installed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne. This action incensedthe native populace and precipitated the Spanish War of Independence. Between 1808 and 1813,Spaniards fought a guerrilla war against the greatest army in Europe to free themselves of French

    domination.

    Rather than depicting heroic soldiers and scenes of glorious battle, Goya produced stark, soberingimages of brutality, slaughter and misery. His images exposed the horror of war, from the ferocity ofvillage fighting, to the terrible famine that ravaged Madrid in 1811-12, claiming 20,000 lives. In theseries the Goya comments on the war's political, religious, and ideological aspects and ramifications.With a stark intensity unprecedented in the history of art, these prints convey the barbarity and futilityof war.

    80 etchings with aquatint, burin, and drypoint First edition (March 1863) (total edition of 500)

    Second 1892 (100 sets) Third 1903 (100 sets) Fourth 1906 (275) Fifth 1923 (100 sets) Sixth 1930 (unknown size-apparently small) Seventh 1937 (during the Spanish Civil War)

    (5 on Old Japan, 15 on Imperial Japon, 120 on Arches)

    La Tauromaquia (1815-1816)The series is based upon the national pastime of Spain, the bullfight, and was less of a threat to the

    established institutions during goyas life.