Ocean Pollution Slide 2 Think about it. How could ocean pollution affect your life? Think of ways you contribute to ocean pollution in your daily life. Slide 3 Review Non-Point Source Pollution comes from many sources Point-Source Pollution one specific source Slide 4 Non-Point source pollution Most ocean pollution is non-point source Human activities on land pollute streams and rivers which flow to oceans Stormwater runoff and agricultural runoff are the most common sources. They increase nutrients too much and cause algal blooms. Dissolved oxygen levels drop and cause fish to die = EUTRIFICATION! Difficult to control and clean Slide 5 Plastics- the beginning Cheap and durable Alternative to glass and animal products such as ivory Could be used to replicate a variety of materials Slide 6 Plastics- the problem Most types created from the fossil fuel, petroleum, a non- renewable resource Used in a lot of packaging- a large part of the waste in our landfills Takes a long time to break down- we dont know how long! Slide 7 Plastics- the problem A lot of plastic never makes it to a landfill Ends up in habitats of many animals Pollutes the ocean Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 Albatrosses on Midway atoll. Photo Source: dailylife Slide 12 Haitian Coast. Photo Source: unknown http://www.wavesofchange.org/articles/view/204530/?topic=17098 Slide 13 Ways to reduce plastic waste Reduce- use less plastic by using reusable bags, containers, bottles. Reuse- plastic bags from the grocery store can be used multiple times Recycle- plastic is recyclable! And please dont litter Re-buy- buy goods made from recycled materials whenever possible! Slide 14 Recyclability of Common Materials Aluminum cans: infinitely, and aluminum is a valuable resource! Paper: 5-7 times to make new paper, after that must be mixed with something else or used to create something else. Cardboard: many times Glass: infinitely, doesnt lose quality, and cheaper to recycle than make new glass Plastics: once to make same item, then must be created into something else such as fabrics, furniture, and carpet Slide 15 Trash Patches Pacific Worlds worst example of pollution Twice the size of Texas Floating soup of plastic bags and other goods which has collected over many years because the clockwise, circular current and lack of wind drives floating debris into the center of the gyre. Slide 16 click on picture to see video Slide 17 Slide 18 So what? A turtle found dead in Hawaii had over a thousand pieces of plastic in its stomach and intestines. It has is estimated that over a million sea-birds and one hundred thousand marine mammals and sea turtles are killed each year by ingestion of plastics or entanglement. Animals can become entangled in discarded netting and line. Slide 19 CAUTION Not for those with weak stomachs! Slide 20 Slide 21 There is more than one gyre Slide 22 Slide 23 Point-source pollution Clean-up is still difficult but its easier than cleaning up non-point source pollution Trash dumping Sludge dumping Oil spills Slide 24 Trash Dumping 1980s scientists became alarmed at the kinds of trash in our oceans (bandages, vials of blood contained AIDS, syringes) Found that hospitals dumped 3 million tons of medical waste/year = 6,000,000,000 pounds of trash Stricter laws created and now it is buried in landfills Some trash dumping still occurring in deep ocean by some countries EFFECTS: trash (especially plastic) harmful to animals b/c they mistake it for food Slide 25 Sludge Dumping Sludge from raw sewage dumped into oceans Dumped offshore with hopes of it sinking to bottom, BUT due to currents, often it is moved closer to shore where it pollutes beaches and kills animals/plants Banned in most places but some countries still dump Slide 26 Oil Spills Oil is in high demand all over the world Transported in huge tankers across oceans Oil spills occur when oil is not handled properly EFFECTS: Countless animals and plants die. Even after clean up, environment will suffer for decades Slide 27 Slide 28 Only 5% of oil pollution is from oil spills Most of oil that pollutes oceans is non-point source from cities and towns BUT Slide 29 Saving our Ocean Resources Citizens of countries have acted by petitioning their government for stricter laws and starting events like beach clean-ups United States 1972 Clean Water Act put EPA in charge of issuing permits for ocean dumping United States 1972 US Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act prohibit dumping of any material that would affect human health or welfare, the marine environment or ecosystems, or businesses that depend on the ocean. 1989 Several nations joined together to pass a treaty that prohibits dumping of certain metals, plastics, oil and radioactive waste Dumping and oil spills still occur Enforcing laws is difficult b/c oceans take up 71 % of the Earth, hard to monitor Slide 30 Cleaning it up Imagine that you are in charge of the ocean plastics clean up design a way to clean up the plastics with minimal harm to the ocean biosystem. Slide 31 Now compare and contrast your solution with click on picture to see video Slide 32 Quick Quiz 1.List three types of ocean pollution. 2.Raw sewage dumping is which type of ocean pollution? 3.What would be an example of non-point source pollution? Point-source pollution? 4.How can trash dumping and sludge dumping affect food webs/chains in the ocean?