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  • Objectively measured sedentary

    behaviour and physical activity in

    relation to cardiorespiratory fitness in

    Portuguese adolescents

    Number of words: 16.172

    De Brabanter Jolien and Platteau Yasmine Student number: 01610040 & 01512661

    Promotor: Prof. dr. Benedicte Deforche

    Copromotor: Prof. José Ribeiro

    Tutor: dr. Dorien Simons

    Master’s Dissertation submitted for obtaining the degree of Master of Science in Health Education and

    Health Promotion

    Academic year: 2017-2018

  • 1

  • Objectively measured sedentary

    behaviour and physical activity in

    relation to cardiorespiratory fitness in

    Portuguese adolescents

    Number of words: 16.172

    De Brabanter and Platteau Yasmine Student number: 01610040 & 01512661

    Promotor: Prof. dr. Benedicte Deforche

    Copromotor: Prof. dr. José Ribeiro

    Tutor: dr. Dorien Simons

    Master’s Dissertation submitted for obtaining the degree of Master of Science in Health Education and

    Health Promotion

    Academic year: 2017-2018

  • Abstract

    Background: A significant part of adolescents do not meet the current guidelines for

    sedentary behaviour and physical activity. Additionally, a continuous decrease in

    cardiorespiratory fitness levels is observed. Since both sedentary behaviour and

    physical activity are acknowledged as independent behaviours, more research is

    necessary to fully understand their relationship with cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Purpose: The main purpose of this master thesis was to explore the relationship

    between the objectively measured combined variable of sedentary behaviour/ physical

    activity with cardiorespiratory fitness in Portuguese adolescents.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study, using data from the AFINA-te project, included

    695 Portuguese adolescents (10-18 years). Both physical activity and sedentary

    behaviour were assessed using accelerometers and dichotomized based on

    respectively the guidelines for physical activity and the median. Afterwards, they were

    grouped into the combined variable with the following categories: high

    sedentary/inactive, low sedentary/inactive, high sedentary/active, low

    sedentary/active. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using the 20 m shuttle-run

    test and dichotomized based on the FITNESSGRAM cutoff points. Binary logistic

    regression models and a one-way ANOVA test were conducted.

    Results: Adolescents who were high sedentary/active or low sedentary/active were

    more likely to have a healthy cardiorespiratory fitness level in comparison to those who

    were high sedentary/inactive.

    Conclusion: Being active (i.e. MVPA) seems to be more important to increase

    cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents than being low sedentary. Low sedentary

    levels may not be able to overcome the detrimental influence of low MVPA levels on

    cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Number of words master thesis: 16.172 (table of content, bibliography, figures and

    attachments excluded)

  • Abstract

    Achtergrond: Tegenwoordig halen heel wat adolescenten de aanbevelingen voor

    sedentair gedrag en fysieke activiteit niet. Daarnaast werd er wereldwijd een continue

    daling in cardiorespiratoire fitheid vastgesteld. Gezien sedentair gedrag en fysieke

    activiteit erkend zijn als twee onafhankelijke gedragingen zijn, is meer onderzoek nodig

    om hun relatie met cardiorespiratoire fitheid te begrijpen.

    Doelstellingen: Het hoofddoel van deze thesis was om de relatie tussen de objectief

    gemeten gecombineerde variabele van sedentair gedrag/fysieke activiteit

    met cardiorespiratoire fitheid in Portugese adolescenten te onderzoeken.

    Methode: Deze cross-sectionele studie, die gebruik maakt van data verzameld voor

    het AFINA-te project, includeerde 695 Portugese adolescenten (10-18 jaar). Zowel

    sedentair gedrag als fysieke activiteit werden gemeten door accelerometers en

    gedichotomiseerd op basis van respectievelijk de aanbevelingen voor fysieke activiteit

    en de mediaan. Nadien werden deze variabelen samengevoegd tot een

    gecombineerde variabele met vier categorieën: hoog sedentair/inactief, laag

    sedentair/inactief, hoog sedentair/actief en laag sedentair/actief. Cardiorespiratoire

    fitheid werd geschat op basis van de resultaten van de 20 m shuttle-run test en

    gedichotomiseerd via de FITNESSGRAM afkapwaarden. Binaire logistische

    regressiemodellen en een one-way ANOVA test werden uitgevoerd.

    Resultaten: Adolescenten die hoog sedentair/actief of laag sedentair/actief waren

    hadden meer kans op een gezonde cardiorespiratoire fitheid, in vergelijking met

    adolescenten die hoog sedentaire/inactief waren.

    Conclusie: Fysiek actief zijn blijkt belangrijker in het verhogen van de

    cardiorespiratoire fitheid dan weinig sedentair zijn. Lage niveaus van sedentair gedrag

    zijn mogelijks niet in staat om de nadelige invloed van fysieke inactiviteit op

    cardiorespiratoire fitheid te overwinnen bij adolescenten.

    Aantal woorden: 16.172 (exclusief inhoudstafel, literatuurlijst, cijfermateriaal en bijlagen)

  • Table of contents

    1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Problem analyses .................................................................................................... 1

    1.2 Already existing knowledge ..................................................................................... 2

    1.3 Selected approach .................................................................................................. 2

    1.4 Construction of master thesis and division of task ................................................... 3

    2 Literature review................................................................................................... 5

    2.1 Adolescence............................................................................................................ 5

    2.2 Physical activity ....................................................................................................... 6

    2.2.1 Definition and guidelines of physical activity ..................................................... 6

    2.2.2 Measurements ................................................................................................. 7

    2.2.3 Physical activity and health .............................................................................. 9

    2.2.4 Physical activity during adolescence ...............................................................10

    2.3 Sedentary behaviour ..............................................................................................11

    2.3.1 Definition and guidelines of sedentary behaviour ............................................11

    2.3.2 Measurements ................................................................................................13

    2.3.3 Sedentary behaviour and health ......................................................................14

    2.3.4 Sedentary behaviour during adolescence ........................................................15

    2.4 Cardiorespiratory fitness ........................................................................................17

    2.4.1 Definition of cardiorespiratory fitness ...............................................................17

    2.4.2 Measurements ................................................................................................17

    2.4.3 Cardiorespiratory fitness and health ................................................................18

    2.4.4 Cardiorespiratory fitness during adolescence ..................................................19

    2.5 Relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and cardiorespiratory

    fitness….. ..........................................................................................................................20

    2.5.1 Sedentary behaviour and cardiorespiratory fitness ..........................................20

    2.5.2 Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness..................................................21

    2.5.3 Combined relationship of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and

    cardiorespiratory fitness ................................................................................................22

    2.6 Problem analyses ...................................................................................................23

    3 Research method ............................................................................................... 27

    3.1 Design ....................................................................................................................27

    3.2 The AFINA-te project ..............................................................................................27

    3.3 Sampling ................................................................................................................28

    3.4 Measurements .................................................